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EXERCISE 19

Strike out the incorrect italicized words in the following sentences:

(Deduct four per cent for each error.)

1. I thought-allowed he would come to-day.
2. I am going-intend to finish my lesson to-day.
3. This stock is certain to appreciate-rise in value before fall.
4. I shall be back-come back to-morrow.

5. I would saybeg to say that this is more than we wish to pay.

6. Will you please backdirect this letter for me?

7. I intend-calculate to begin work to-morrow.

8. I shall use no more money than I can help-is necessary.

9. We carrykeep a large stock of these goods.
10. I hope this arrangement will not discommode-incommode you.

11. I do not remember-disremember having seen you before.

12. I shall come as soon as I get through withfinish my work.
13. I went home and got-prepared dinner.
14. I was graduated at-graduated from high school last June.

15. I could not avoid-help laughing.

16. We lend-loan money at four per cent interest.

17. I might of-might have known better.

18. The criminal owned-confessed his guilt.
19. He is well-postedinformed on the law.
20. These prices, as you state-say, are too high.

21. We could not stand-bear to have him go.
22. We never suspicioned-suspected that there was anything wrong.

23. I shall try to-try and see you to-morrow.

24. Come in and take a seat-be seated.

25. It would seem-seems to me that this is an incorrect statement of the case.

LESSON XII

CLASSIFICATION OF ADJECTIVES

1. The rocky ledge runs far into the sea. 2. I'll read you a matter deep and dangerous. 3. Against thee, against thee only, have I sinned. 4. The soul never grows old. 5. I alone am to blame. 6. The fifteen decisite battles of the world mark the greatest epochs of history. 7. American cotton has the longest staple. 8. Few of the older inhabitants have much education. 9. Every seventh year was held sacred by the Hebrew nation. 10. This particular man is honest, sincere, discreet.

QUESTIONS

1. What adjectives in the foregoing sentences denote quality of the objects expressed by the nouns or pronouns?

2. What adjectives simply point out the objects expressed by the nouns or pronouns, without denoting any quality belonging to them?

Observation.-From the foregoing exercise you will observe that some of the adjectives are used in the subject, others in the predicate, but that they all either describe or define some noun or pronoun.

CLASSES

You have observed that adjectives limit nouns and pronouns in two ways, which gives rise to two general classes of adjectives :

Descriptive or qualifying adjectives describe or name some quality of the object expressed by the noun or pronoun.

Definitive or limiting adjectives point out or denote the number or quantity of objects expressed by the noun or pronoun.

SUBCLASSES OF DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVES

Descriptive adjectives are subdivided into three classes, according to their derivation: common, proper, and participial.

Common adjectives are those denoting any ordinary or common quality not derived from proper nouns; as, good, bad, small, etc.

Proper adjectives are those derived from proper nouns; as, English, American, Roman, etc.

Participial adjectives are those derived from a verb or a participle; as, Running water.Defeated candidates," "Dancing child," etc.

CAPITALIZATION OF PROPER ADJECTIVES

Proper adjectives should begin with a capital letter, except when they have lost their proper significance and are used to denote a common quality; as, "English law," "American people," "puritanical Sabbath," "damask dress."

SUBCLASSES OF DEFINITIVE ADJECTIVES

Definitive adjectives are also divided into three subclasses: numerals, pronominals, and articles.

Numeral adjectives point out by denoting the number of objects represented by the nouns, either definitely or indefinitely, as, two, second, twofold, few, many, etc.

Pronominal adjectives are those that may be used as pronouns; as, this, that, these, those, cach, czery, all, any, which, what, etc.

The words a, an, and the are articles. The points out definitely, and a and an point out indefinitely.

USE OF A AND AN

A should be used before words beginning with a consonant sound, and an before words beginning with a vowel sound; as, "A boy," "A hat," "An apple," "An eye."

A great deal has been written about the use of an before words beginning with the aspirate h when the accent is on the second syllable, but the weight of authority tends to the use of a in such words, unless the h is silent; as, "A historical event,” “A heroic deed,” An honorable man," "An honest man."

A is sometimes used before a word beginning with a vowel; as, "A universal truth," "A one-sided question." Note that these words begin with the same sound as occurs in youth and wonder.

OMISSION OF THE ARTICLE

Sentences are frequently incorrectly interpreted owing to the omission of the article after the conjunction. Note the difference in the following sentences: A black and white horse. A black and a white horse. A Gregg and Pitman writer. A Gregg and a Pitman writer.

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES

When two different parts of speech are used to express one adjectival idea, they should be joined with a hyphen; as, “Sixty-day settlement,” “Longdistance telephone,” “First-class teachers.”

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EXERCISE 20

Classify the adjectives in the following sentences:

(Deduct three per cent for each error.) 1. This long march through the primeval forest and over the rugged and tractless

mountains was one of the most remarkable exploits of the war. 2. The thirteen colonies were now free and independent states. 3. The coyote is a long, slim, sick, and sorry-looking skeleton, with a gray wolfskin

stretched over it, a tolerably bushy tail that forever sags down with a despairing expression of forsakenness and misery, a furtive and evil eye, and a long sharp

face, with slightly lifted lip and exposed teeth.- Mark Twain. 4. Dutch cheeses are the favorite relish of English epicures. 5. Will you go to yonder house and ask that man to bring those horses? 6. Edith is the better girl of the two. 7. The first Christian missionary in Alaska began her work as the only white woman in

that immense territory. 8. This ploughed field will bloom with many varieties of exquisite roses. 9. This is a three-fold punishment. 10. Few of the older inhabitants have much education. 11. The defeated candidate will retire to private life.

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