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EXERCISE 16

Write two sentences each containing an infinitive used as a noun.
Write two sentences each containing a participle used as a noun.
Write two sentences each containing an infinitize used as an adjective.
Write two sentences each containing a participle used as an adjective.
Write two sentences each containing an infinitive used as an adverb.
Write two sentences each containing a participle used as an adverb.
Write two sentences each containing a participial noun.
Write two sentences each containing a participial adjective.

(Deduct six per cent for each error.)

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LESSON X

MISUSED VERBS

Accept, except.-To accept is to take something offered. Except is to leave out, to exclude. I shall accept the position. Only a few were excepted from service.

Affect, effect.-Affcct means to pretend or to influence. Effect means to accomplish, to bring about; as a noun it signifies the result. He affected illness. The wind affects the climate. He effected an entrance to the building. The effect ceases with the cause.

Aggravate, irritate.- Aggravate in the sense of offend or irritate is colloquial. It literally means to make heavier, and is applicable only to eviis or offences. Irritate signifies to excite anger, and is not so strong as provoke or exasperate. Irritate is also employed in a physical sense; as, “to irritate the skin.” The prisoner only aggravated his case by his deeds of violence. The remarks of the men were very irritating to those who heard them.

Allude, refer.—To allude to a subject is to refer to it indirectly, to hint at it by remote suggestions. In the sentence, “Every man must have his pound of flesh,” the writer alludes to the story in Shakespeare's "Merchant of Venice.” A speaker sometimes alludes to a name that he does not mention; he refers to it when he mentions it. The same distinction should be observed between allusion and reference.

Bound, determined, certain.-Do not say “I am bound to win;" “There is bound to be a wreck.” Say "I am determined to win;" “There is certain to be a wreck.” The use of bound in the sense of determined or certain is colloquial and should be avoided. It is correct, however, to say, “He is bound to do his duty," where obligation is expressed.

Buy, purchase.- We buy necessities; we purchase luxuries. To buy usually signifies the giving of money, while we may purchase by giving anything in exchange for something else; as in the sentence, "Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery ?"

Carry, bring, fetch.-Carry signifies motion from; bring, motion toward; and fetch, motion first from and then toward. The robbers carried the money away with them. The postman will bring me a letter. I send my errand boy to fetch a pail of water.

Commence, begin, inaugurate.— Inaugurate means to invest formally with an office or to make a formal beginning of some important movement. Commence and begin have the same meaning, but as begin is an Anglo-Saxon word and less formal, most writers prefer it to commence. The president is inaugurated on the fourth of March. A movement was inaugurated to guarantee bank deposits. A crusade against saloons has been commenced (or begun). I begin my daily work at nine o'clock.

Confirm, corroborate.— To confirm signifies to make sure; to corroborate, to make stronger. A story is confirmed when all doubt has been removed. When one witness testifies to the same facts as another, the testimony is corroborated, or made stronger.

Convoke, convene.-Contoke signifies to call together; to convene, to come together. It is the prerogative of the president of the United States to convoke the Senate. The citizens convened in the State House.

Distinguish, discriminate.- To discriminate is to make fine or nice distinctions. "We distinguish best when we show great differences. We discriminate best when we show slight differences.”—Smith. "We distinguish by means of the senses as well as the understanding; we discriminate by the understanding only."-Crabb.

Hope, expect, anticipate. — We hope for that which is welcome. There may or may not be ground for hope. We expect that which is probable or reasonably certain. We may expect the good or the bad according to circumstances. Anticipate signifies, literally, "to take before," and should not be used for crpect. We hope to live long and be happy. The general anticipated the enemy's movement and removed his stores. His death was hourly expected (not anticipated).

Locate, settle.-Don't say "I shall locate in Dakota." Say "I shall scttle in Dakota.” Locate should be used only in a transitive sense; as, “We succeeded in locating the church.”

Migrate, emigrate, immigrate.- Migrate signifies to change one's dwelling-place, usually for short periods only, and applies to people, birds, and animals. Emigrate and immigrate apply only to persons, and signify a permanent change of residence. People emigrate from the country they leave anil immigrate to the country where they take up their abode. Many birds migrate in autumn to a warmer climate.

Prescribe, proscribe.- Prescribe signifies to set or lay down authoritatively for direction; to give as a rule of conduct. Proscribe means to denounce

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