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LESSON VIII

CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS 1. A bloody battle was fought in July, 1861. 2. Many bloody battles were fought in 1861. 3. I desire to rest and to regain my strength. 4. He desires to rest and to regain his strength. 5. He came walking and leaping and praising God. 6. They came walking and leaping and praising God. 7. Luther translated the Bible into German, 8. The birds sang sweetly. 9. I eat my dinner each day. 10. I ate my dinner yesterday. 11. I have eaten my dinner to-day. 12. I study my lesson each day. 13. I studied my lesson yesterday. 14. I had studied my lesson yesterday. 15. Milton was a great epic poet. 16. Whittier wrote many poems. 17. The Bengal tiger is very ferocious. 18. Of all sad words of tongue or pen,

The saddest are these · "It might have been."

QUESTIONS 1. What verbs in the foregoing sentences change their forms to agree with the person or number of their subjects?

2. What verbs do not change their forms to agree with the person or number of their subjects?

3. What verbs represent action as passing from the subject to some object?

4. What verbs represent action or being as pertaining wholly to their subjects?

5. What verbs assert relation merely between their subjects and the attributes of their subjects ?

What verbs express attributes of action, and also assert relation between these attributes and their subjects ?

7. What verbs form their past tense and perfect participle by adding d or ed to the present tense form?

8. What verbs do not form their past tense and perfect participle by adding d or ed to the present tense form?

9. What verbs may be used either by themselves or in connection with other verbs ?

What verbs can be used only in connection with other verbs?

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BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION

Verbs are classified upon five different bases: (1) With respect to their relation to subjects, verbs are either finite or infinite. (2) With respect to their relation to objects, verbs are either transitive or intransitive. (3) With respect to form, verbs are either regular or irregular. (4) With respect to their completeness of predication, verbs are either copulative or attributive. (5) With respect to their rank, verbs are either principal or auxiliary.

Finite verbs change their form to agree with the person or number of their subjects; as, “I sing." "He sings.”

Infinite verbs do not change their form to agree with the person or number of their subjects; as, “I like to sing." He likes to sing." "I enjoy singing." He enjoys singing."

A transitive verb represents action as passing from its subject to an object; as, “David struck Goliath."

An intransitive verb represents action or being as pertaining wholly to its subject; as, “Birds fly." "He is a man.”

A regular verb forms its past tense and perfect participle by adding d or ed to the present tense form; as, love, loved, loved; plow, plowed, plowed.

An irregular verb forms its past tense and perfect participle irregularly; as, see, saw, seen; know, know, known.

A copulative verb merely asserts relation between its subject and an attribute of its subject; as, “Snow is white.” “Roosevelt is president.”

An attributive verb both expresses an attribute of action of its subject, and asserts the relation between this attribute and its subject; as, "Birds sing.“Fish swim.'

Observation.-All verbs of action are attributive. All verbs of inaction are copulative.

A principal verb may be used either by itself or in connection with other verbs; as, “I sce." "I can sec."

An auxiliary verb is used only in connection with other verbs; as, “I may go." "I should go."

PURE AND IMPURE COPULATIVE VERBS

The verb "be" with its various forms is the only pure copulative verb. The verbs of sense when they do not express action are copulative, but when they express action they are attributive; hence, they are called impure copulative verbs; as, “He tastes the apple.” (Attributive.) "Sugar tastes sweet." (Copulative.)

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EXERCISE 15

Classify the verbs in the following sentences:

(Deduct one per cent for each error.) 1. God helps them that help themselves. 2. Nature does nothing in vain.-Addison. 3. The wages of sin is death. 4. He is a clergyman. 5. He seems a clergyman. 6. I shall meet you soon. 7. It would have been flat heresy to do so.Dickens. 8. Quoth the raven, “Nevermore."Poe. 9. Learn to labor and to wait. 10. Beware of the flatterer.-Franklin. 11. Bees are skillful in building their nests. 12. His having failed is not surprising. 13. 'Tis better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all. -Tennyson. 14. If ever I did dream of such a matter, abhor me.-Shakespeare. 15. The fire was lighted. 16. Shall I, wasting in despair,

Die because a woman's fair? If she love me, then believe

I will die ere she shall grieve. 17. To be, or not to be; that is the question.-Shakespeare. 18. Blow, winds, and crack your cheeks! rage! blow !-Shakespeare. 19. The fire burns brightly. 20. Come, we burn daylight.--Shakespeare. 21. Sugar tastes sweet. 22. The sun gives light and heat.

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LESSON IX

INFINITIVES and PARTICIPLES

Infinite verbs are divided into infinitives and participles. They differ from finite verbs in that they assume instead of asserting action, being or state. The infinitive may usually be known by the sign "to." The infinitive is always a verb, although it may perform the office of a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The participle may perform the office of a noun, an adjective, or an adverb, or it may become a noun or an adjective; as,

Infinitives and participles used as nouns
To err is human.
Erring is human.
To live is to die.
Living is dying.
She likes to read.

Infinitives and participles used as adjectives
Every effort to save him failed.
The ring being formed, two or three rode toward the horses.
He seems well informed.
School is to be closed during the holidays.

Infinitives and participles used as adverbs
He works to live.
He went to work.
The waves came dashing onward.
The boys came marching home.

PARTICIPIAL NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES

When participles do not express any idea of time, they lose their verbal nature and become nouns or adjectives; as, "Reading, writing, and grammar are taught in the public schools.” “The sparkling, dancing, purling rivulet is a tireless, incessant worker."

Participles may be: Present; as, writing, singing. Past; as written, sung. Perfect; as, having written, having been written.

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