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EXERCISE 71

Insert the periods, interrogation points, exclamation points, semicolons, and colons in the following:

(Deduct two per cent for each error.)

1 No iron chain, nor outward force of any kind, could ever compel the soul of man to

believe or disbelieve it is his own indefeasible right, that judgment of his he will

reign and believe by the grace of God alone-Carlyle 2 Wise men say that there are three sorts of persons who are wholly deprived of judg

ment-they who are ambitious of preferment in the courts of princes they who make use of poison to show their skill in curing it and they who intrust women

with their secrets 3 Wherever literature consoles sorrow or assuages pain wherever it brings gladness to

the eyes which fail with wakefulness and tears, and ache for the dark house and the long sleep,—there is exhibited in its noblest form the immortal influence of

Athens-Macaulay 4 He said that in his whole life he most repented of three things one was that he had

trusted a secret to a woman another, that he went by water when he might have gone by land the third, that he remained one whole day without doing any busi

ness of moment-Plutarch 5 The poorest man may in his cottage bid defiance to all the force of the crown It may

be frail its roof may shake the wind may blow through it the storms may enter

the rain may enter,—but the king of England cannot enter-Pitt 6 A man ought to read just as inclination leads him for what he reads as a task will do

him little good-Johnson 7 Sherry is dull, naturally dull but it must have taken him a great deal of pains to

become what we now see him-Jolunson 8 I am a great friend to public amusements for they keep people from vice-Johnson 9 A cow is a very good animal in the field but we turn her out of the garden-Jolinson 10 Mr Kremlin was distinguished for ignorance for he had only one idea, and that was

wrong-Disraeli 11 Knowledge is of two kinds we know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can

find information upon it-Johnson 12 After dinner, he went to the office later, to the theater 13 My persistent, though deferential inquiries elicited from her, in a wavering voice,

that she had not previously possessed the governor's acquaintance that her entreaties had evoked only the governor's wrathful orders to depart from the province on pain of sharing her father's fate and that La Chatre had refused to

allow her even to see her father in his dirgeon in the Chateau of Fleurier 14 All of the executive committee were there Mr James of Philadelphia, Mr Williams

of Newark, and Mr Wright of Trenton 15 Discontent is the want of self-reliance it is infirmity of will-Emerson 16 I was born an American I will live an American I shall die an American-Webster

17 When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life for there is in London all that lifc

can afford Jolinson 18 Talent is that which is in a man's power genius is that in whose power a man is-Lowell 19 There is no mistake there has been no mistake and there shall be no mistake-Welling

ton 20 Sentimentally, I am disposed to harmony but organically, I am incapable of a tune

Lamb

LESSON XXXIV

THE COMMA

1. Elements in a Series

The comma should take the place of the conjunction between words or phrases used in the same construction; as,

1. It is all good land, fenced with stone, rails, hedge, and wire.
2. It is all good land, fenced with stone, rails, hedge and wire.
3. It is all good land fenced with rails, hedge, post and wire.
4. It is all good land, fenced with hedge, and post and wire.
5. Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish, I give my hand and my heart to this

vote.-Webster.
6. With malice towards none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God

gives us to see the right.Lincoln. Observation.-Careful writers use the comma before the conjunction, unless the last two members of the series have only the force of any one of the other members.

Observation.—When adjectives that precede the object modify other words as well as the object, commas should not be used; as,

That beautiful young lady is the president's daughter. In this example "young" modifies "lady." "beautiful" modifies "young lady," and "that" modifies "beautiful young lady."

2. Intermediate Expressions

Intermediate, explanatory, or parenthetical expressions should usually be separated from the rest of the sentence by commas; as,

1. We take pleasure in sending you to-day, by your order, inclosed invoice of goods. 2. The goods, which were extremely unsatisfactory, were returned. 3. I had, on the contrary, decided to employ him. 4. Your attention is called to a claim of $100.00, besides interest, against you, in

favor of John A. Carter, placed with me for collection. 5. J. W. Mathers, being duly sworn and examined, testified as follows: etc. 6. Free trade, one of the greatest blessings which a government can confer on a

people, is in almost every country unpopular.—Macaulay.

3. Introductory Expressions

A comma is usually placed after words or expressions used by way of introduction; as,

1. Answering your letter of the 4th inst., the terms you quote are satisfactory. 2. Please Take Notice, that H. C. Bell of Marshall, Ill., is the attorney for the

defendant in this action. 3. In response to your inquiry in regard to the action taken under the clause of the

fortifications act of March 1, 1901, regarding the Isham high-explosive shell,

I have to say, etc. 4. Sir, I would rather be right than be president.-Clay.

4. Elements Out of Their Natural Order

A word, phrase, or clause that occupies any other than its natural place in a sentence is out of its natural order and should be separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma; as, 1. If your order reaches us by to-morrow, the 15th inst., we can mail you the goods

without delay. 2. As evidence of our low prices and square dealing, we submit to you the following

facts and figures, etc. 3. When a man assumes a public trust, he should consider himself as public property.

-Jefferson. 4. Where law ends, tyranny begins.Pitt.

5. Contrasted Expressions

Contrasted expressions should be separated from each other by a comma;

as,

1. It is a condition which confronts us, not a theory. 2. You may go, I shall remain here. 3. It appears to me that in some of these published claims they have misrepresented,

or that they are fools in not accepting a present of one hundred dollars.

6. Short Quotations

The comma is used after informal introductions to short quotations; as, 1. We sent you telegram, “Buy 1000 bu. No. 2 wheat,” which we now confirm. 2. The position of the defendant is simply, “I admit everything that is in the

complaint.” 3. He heard a voice from the distance hallooing, “Rip Van Winkle, Rip Van

Winkle.”Irving.

7. Appositive Terms

Expressions in apposition should be separated from the rest of the sentence by commas; as, 1. Your orator, Hiram Harper, respectfully shows unto your Honor that on or

about, etc. 2. I, William A. Cummings, to whom it was referred by an order of this Court to

hear, etc. 3. We, the people of the United States, are lovers of republicanism.

Observation. This rule is really covered by the rule for intermediate and explanatory expressions.

8. Correlative Clauses

The comma should separate two correlative clauses when the conjunction is omitted; as,

1. The sooner you get to work on the building, the sooner you will get your money. 2. The deeper the well, the cooler the water.

9. Restrictive and Non-Restrictive Clauses

A comma should be used before an explanatory clause, or before one that presents an additional thought; when, however, the clause is restrictive in sense the comma should not be used; as,

1. All orders that reach us before the first of the month will be filled immediately.
2. We find that Alexander Boss, who is under bond by you, has failed to account for

a large sum of money received by him and belonging to us.
3. I desire to get a position where there is a good opportunity for advancement.
4. I have had four years' experience in the general office of the Burlington railroad,

where I handled a large amount of correspondence. 5. A man that is good for making excuses is good for nothing else. 6. The copy of Longfellow's poems, which I bought several years ago, has not yet

been read. Observation.- Where there are several antecedents, however, before the restrictive relative clause, or where other words intervene between the antecederit and the clause, the comma should be used; as, 1. I have apples, peaches, and plums, that are superior to any to be found on the

market.
No one could have been chosen, that would have been more suitable.

2.

10. Omissions

Commas should be used to indicate important omissions; as,
1. Chicago, Ill., May 18, 1909.
2. Enclosed find check for $100, amount of our account in full. .
3. We will sell you these goods at 91/2 cents, one per cent off, thirty days.
4. After dinner, he went to the office; later, to the theater.

11. Compound Sentences

The members of short compound sentences, when closely connected in thought, are often separated by commas if the conjunction is omitted. Where the conjunction is used the comma is usually not necessary, except in very long sentences or where the members are contrasted; as, 1. The wheat market is on the decline to-day and we look for still lower prices

to-morrow. 2. It is not only good, it is the very best. 3. Yes, it is true, I shall go. 4. Perhaps it is just as well that the public should be shut off from a complete

understanding of the points at issue, and a standing settlement by the commission ought to prove more nearly final than a compromise between the disputants.

12. Subject and Predicate

The subject is often separated from the predicate by a comma; as,
1. Whatever he says, goes.
2. The air, the earth, the water, teem with life.
3. The country that Hudson had discovered, possessed a good harbor.

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