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Strike out the incorrect forms of the infinitives in the following sentences:
(Deduct six per cent for each error.)
1. I am sorry you were not at home yesterday, for I should have liked to have seen-to
2. I should have been pleased to have talked to talk to you.
3. I expected to have seen-to see you at the meeting.
4. I had intended to consult to have consulted my physician.
5. He expected to see—to have seen his brother.
6. I hoped to have seen—to see you do better.
7. They believed him to be-to have been insane.
8. I meant to see-to have seen you yesterday.
9. I intended to call-to have called for you.
10. It would have been wrong to go-to have gone on with the ceremony.
11. He did not seem to know-to have known how to do-to have done the work.
12. It was his duty to assist-to have assisted our friend.
13. It was not my intention to insist-to have insisted upon your complying with the
14. There was nothing left but to obey to have obeyed.
15. I should not have believed it, unless I had happened to have been to be there.
16. They believed him to be-to have been guilty.
17. We expected to have received to receive the goods sometime this week.
18. We should have been just as glad to fill to have filled your order with the lighter
19. It is a pleasure to be able-to have been able to have done-to do the work for him.
USES OF THE AUXILIARIES
SHALL AND WILL
Shall and will are both signs of the future tense. “Shall” is the natural future form, while "will" always expresses volition on the part of the person represented by the subject of the verb. As a matter of courtesy, however, "shall” often gives way to "will." Study the following examples carefully.
“Shall” in a declarative sentence in the first person, and "will" in the second and third persons, merely announce future action or state; as,
1. I shall go to Europe next year.
1. You will be pleased to see him.
1. He will spend the winter with us.
PROMISE OR DETERMINATION
“Will” in a declarative sentence in the first person, and "shall” in the second and third persons, announce the speaker's intention to control, by promise or by proclaiming a determination; as,
1. I will pay you the money to-morrow. (Promise.)
tion.) Promise or
1. You shall have your pay to-morrow. (Promise.) determination
2. You shall go, sick or well. (Determination.)
CONDITION BEYOND THE CONTROL OF THE WILL
As a person should not promise anything that he cannot control, it follows that “shall” in the first person, and “will” in the second and third persons, should be used to express a condition beyond the control of the will; as,
Condition beyond the control of the will
1. I shall be pleased to grant your request.
In indirect quotations “shall” should be used in all three persons to express futurity, and "will" should be used in all three persons to express a promise or determination, when the subjects both refer to the same person; as,
You say that you shall begin work Monday. (Futurity.)
In interrogative sentences courtesy requires “shall” in the first and second persons, and "will" in the third person, when simple futurity is to be expressed.
Since no one is supposed to know more about your own will than you do yourself, “Will I” is seldom used. The question “Will you” asks concerning the wish of the person addressed, while "Will he" may express either simple futurity or volition on the part of the person represented by “he,” the meaning intended to be determined by the tone of the voice.
In the second and third persons the auxiliary that is expected in the answer should be used in the question. The answer to "Shall I” may be either "You will" or "You shall," according to the meaning; as,
1. How long shall I have to wait? All day.
2. Shall I assist you? You may. Simple futurity
3. Shall you be at school to-morrow? I shall.
Consults the wish or pleasure of the person addressed
Will you go with me, if I call for you? I will. (Promise.)
Consults the pleasure of the person represented by "he"
Will he give his consent? He will.
SHOULD AND WOULD
With the exception of a few special uses, “should" and "would" follow the regimen of “shall" and "will;" that is, the uses of "should” correspond to those of "shall," and those of "would" correspond to those of "will." Remember that “should” must be used in the first person, when a condition beyond the control of the will is expressed. "Would" is sometimes used to express a wish, and is usually used in all three persons to express willingness, habit, or custom. “Should,” as distinguished from “ought,” expresses propriety, while “ought” implies moral obligation.
If he were to offer me the position, I should not accept it. Contingent future If he were to offer you the position, you would not accept it.
If he were to offer the position to him, he would not accept it.
We should be glad to see you, if you decide to come. Condition beyond the
I should prefer to see it before I buy it. control of the will
I should have been ill if I had gone.