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Strike out the incorrect forms of the infinitives in the following sentences:

(Deduct six per cent for each error.)

1. I am sorry you were not at home yesterday, for I should have liked to have seen-to

see you.

2. I should have been pleased to have talked to talk to you.

3. I expected to have seen-to see you at the meeting.

4. I had intended to consult to have consulted my physician.

5. He expected to seeto have seen his brother.

6. I hoped to have seento see you do better.

7. They believed him to be-to have been insane.

8. I meant to see-to have seen you yesterday.

9. I intended to call-to have called for you.

10. It would have been wrong to go-to have gone on with the ceremony.

11. He did not seem to know-to have known how to do-to have done the work.

12. It was his duty to assist-to have assisted our friend.

13. It was not my intention to insist-to have insisted upon your complying with the


14. There was nothing left but to obey to have obeyed.

15. I should not have believed it, unless I had happened to have been to be there.

16. They believed him to be-to have been guilty.

17. We expected to have received to receive the goods sometime this week.

18. We should have been just as glad to fill to have filled your order with the lighter


19. It is a pleasure to be able-to have been able to have done-to do the work for him.




Shall and will are both signs of the future tense. “Shall” is the natural future form, while "will" always expresses volition on the part of the person represented by the subject of the verb. As a matter of courtesy, however, "shall” often gives way to "will." Study the following examples carefully.


“Shall” in a declarative sentence in the first person, and "will" in the second and third persons, merely announce future action or state; as,

1. I shall go to Europe next year.
2. I shall wait for the next train.
3. I shall be glad to see you.
4. I shall soon be twenty.

Simple futurity

1. You will be pleased to see him.
2. You will find the goods satisfactory.
3. You will soon be twenty.

1. He will spend the winter with us.
2. He will go with us.
3. He will be pleased with his position.


“Will” in a declarative sentence in the first person, and "shall” in the second and third persons, announce the speaker's intention to control, by promise or by proclaiming a determination; as,

1. I will pay you the money to-morrow. (Promise.)
2. I will have my way, regardless of results. (Determina-

tion.) Promise or

1. You shall have your pay to-morrow. (Promise.) determination

2. You shall go, sick or well. (Determination.)
1. He shall have my part. (Promise.)
2. He shall do as I direct. (Determination.)


As a person should not promise anything that he cannot control, it follows that “shall” in the first person, and “will” in the second and third persons, should be used to express a condition beyond the control of the will; as,

Condition beyond the control of the will

1. I shall be pleased to grant your request.
2. I shall be glad to hear from you.
3. I shall be obliged to you for the favor.
4. I shall be disappointed if you do not come.
5. I shall be ill, if I get wet.
6. I know that we shall enjoy the play.
7. I fear that I shall be ill.
8. I fear that we shall have bad weather.
9. I hope I shall not have a headache.
10. We shall be delighted to have you with us.
11. You will be ill, if you get wet.
12. He will be ill, if he gets wet.


In indirect quotations “shall” should be used in all three persons to express futurity, and "will" should be used in all three persons to express a promise or determination, when the subjects both refer to the same person; as,

You say that you shall begin work Monday. (Futurity.)
You say that you will be good. (Promise.)
He says that he shall begin his work Monday. (Futurity.)
He says that he will give each employee a Christmas present. (Promise.)


In interrogative sentences courtesy requires “shall” in the first and second persons, and "will" in the third person, when simple futurity is to be expressed.

Since no one is supposed to know more about your own will than you do yourself, “Will I” is seldom used. The question “Will you” asks concerning the wish of the person addressed, while "Will he" may express either simple futurity or volition on the part of the person represented by “he,” the meaning intended to be determined by the tone of the voice.

In the second and third persons the auxiliary that is expected in the answer should be used in the question. The answer to "Shall I” may be either "You will" or "You shall," according to the meaning; as,

1. How long shall I have to wait? All day.

2. Shall I assist you? You may. Simple futurity

3. Shall you be at school to-morrow? I shall.
4. Will he be at school to-morrow? He will.

Consults the wish or pleasure of the person addressed

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Will you go with me, if I call for you? I will. (Promise.)
Shall he be allowed to go free? He shall not.

Consults the pleasure of the person represented by "he"

Will he give his consent? He will.


With the exception of a few special uses, “should" and "would" follow the regimen of “shall" and "will;" that is, the uses of "should” correspond to those of "shall," and those of "would" correspond to those of "will." Remember that “should” must be used in the first person, when a condition beyond the control of the will is expressed. "Would" is sometimes used to express a wish, and is usually used in all three persons to express willingness, habit, or custom. “Should,” as distinguished from “ought,” expresses propriety, while “ought” implies moral obligation.

If he were to offer me the position, I should not accept it. Contingent future If he were to offer you the position, you would not accept it.

If he were to offer the position to him, he would not accept it.

We should be glad to see you, if you decide to come. Condition beyond the

I should prefer to see it before I buy it. control of the will

I should have been ill if I had gone.

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