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EXERCISE 4

Indicate the use of each italicized word in the following sentences by writing the name of the part of speech at the end of each sentence.

(Deduct three per cent for each error.) 1. Bear ye one another's burdens. 2. The bear hibernates in the winter.

3. The bear skin lay on the floor. 4. The flag waved over the fort. 5. They flagged the train. 6. This is pungent flag root. 7. A little child shall lead them. 8. Little was expected of the delicate child. 9. The unwise student sleeps little. 10. He belittled the action.

11. The blue sky was gemmed with stars.
12. Blue was a favorite color.

13. The laundress blued the clothes.
14. The prisoner paid his fine.
15. Fine feathers do not make fine birds.
16. The man was fined two hundred dollars.
17. The boy did finely.
18. John is head of the firm.
19. Who heads the expedition?
20. The Atlantic liner weathered the gale.
21. The weather was cold for June.
22. The sailor must keep his weather eye open.
23. She was light-hearted.
24. The town was well lighted.
25. The electric lights illumine the streets.
26. He spoke too lightly of the solemn subject.
27. Bishop Spalding is an eminent divine.
28. The hand that made us is divine.
29. They divined the meaning instantly.
30. She was divinely fair.
31. Like produces like.

32. I like grammar.

33. We have like opportunities.

34. He ran like a wolf.

LESSON III

CLASSIFICATION OF NOUNS

1. The largest cities of the United States are New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia. 2. After the adjournment of the society there was singing, playing, and dancing. 3. Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation ?-Patrick

Henry. 4. Bad behavior the laws cannot reach.-Emerson. 5. The word of ambition at the present day is Culture. Whilst all the world is in

pursuit of power, and of wealth as a means of power, culture corrects the theory of success.-Emerson.

QUESTIONS

1. What nouns in the foregoing sentences represent objects of thought, but do not distinguish their objects from others of the same class?

2. What nouns distinguish their objects from others of the same class? 3. What nouns name groups of objects ? 4. What nouns name qualities or attributes of objects? 5. What nouns are names of actions ?

DEFINITIONS

A common noun is any name given to an object to denote the class to which it belongs; as, boy, town, year.

A proper noun is any name that distinguishes its object from others of the same class; as, Jolin, Alaska, June.

A collective noun is a name that in the singular form denotes an aggregation or collection; as, swarm, army, committee.

An abstract noun is the name of any quality or attribute of an object; as, strength, goodness, poverty.

A verbal noun is the name of an action; as, singing, skating, secing.
All nouns not belonging to any of the other classes are called class nouns.

Observation.—Two or more words are often used to form one name and should be considered as one noun; as, New York City, Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, The Chambered Nautilus.

CAPITALIZATION OF NOUNS

A proper noun should always begin with a capital letter. A noun usually proper becomes common when it ceases to distinguish its object from others of the same class; as, “John Milton was an English poet." "He is the Milton of his age.”

The word “Milton” in the second sentence is a common noun, as it may be applied to any one having the characteristics of Milton. Personal names, however, even when used as common nouns, still retain their capital letters.

A noun usually common becomes proper when it distinguishes its object from others of the same class, and when so used should begin with a capital letter; as, "He made many good resolutions at the beginning of the new year.” "He usually made good resolutions on New Year's Day."

Common nouns are sometimes capitalized when they are personified; as, "When Spring smiles, we forget Winter's frown."

NEWSPAPER STYLE

It is very difficult to give any definite rules for capitalization, when there is so much difference in the use of capitals in the various newspaper and other publishing houses. The tendency is, however, toward the use of fewer capital letters. Fewer capitals are used in business correspondence, newspapers and magazines than in book work. Study the following examples selected from daily newspapers.

NEW YORK TIMES

CHICAGO TRIBUNE

1. The President of the United States.
2. Wm. F. King, President of the Mer-

chants' Association.
3. The President of the National Asso-

ciation. 4. The Governor of New York. 5. New York State Legislature. 6. The Senate and the House. 7. The Democrats and Republicans of

Congress. 8. Civil Service Commission. 9. Young Republican Club. 10. County Court; Grand Jury. 11. Metropolitan Railway Company. 12. Grand Central Station. 13. East Thirteenth Street and Westervelt

Avenue. 14. St. Michael's Protestant Episcopal

Church. 15. Spanish-American war.

1. The president of the United States.
2. Dr. James B. Angell, president of the

University of Michigan.
3. The senate and the house.
4. The governor and legislature of Illi-

nois. 5. Circuit and Superior courts. 6. The Republicans and Democrats of

congress. 7. International Harvester company. 8. The Masonic club of Yale university. 9. New York Avenue Presbyterian

church. 10. Continental National bank. 11. Cook County board. 12. Seventy-ninth street and Lowe avenue. 13. Russian-Japanese war. 14. The Eighth ward. 15. Wheeling and Lake Erie railroad.

Name..

Grade .....

EXERCISE 5

Classify the italicized nouns in the following sentences :

(Deduct three per cent for each error.) 1. After many hours' deliberation the jury returned its verdict. 2. A committee is a miniature assembly that meets for the purpose of transacting busi

ness.

3. The fruit is the spirit of love, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, meekness,

faith, and self-control. 4. The course consists of the study of music, painting, grammar, chemistry, and

astronomy. 5. The army was delayed owing to the burning of the bridges. 6. We read about the landing of the Pilgrims. 7. Vany difficulties were encountered in the laying of the Atlantic cable. 8. Mercury, Venus, and Earth are planets. 9. The synod voted for a revision of the creed. 10. It is the duty of the United States to establish and maintain a just and lawful

government in Cuba, of some sort, as much as it is her duty to maintain a similar government in Alaska or Missouri or the District of Columbia.

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