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EXERCISE 47

Rewrite the following sentences, changing the active verbs to the passive form:

(Deduct ten per cent for each error.)

1. Columbus discovered America.
2. Elias Howe invented the sewing machine.
3. Robert Fulton built the first steamboat.
4. The Dutch harness the wind.
5. The French peasants till the land.
6. Brutus killed Cæsar.
7. John opened the window.
8. The farmer cultivated his corn.
9. I seized the opportunity.
10. Franklin discovered electricity.

1.

2.

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Name....

Grade .....

EXERCISE 48

Indicate the mode of the italicized verbs in the following sentences by writing them in the form below:

(Deduct five per cent for each error.)

1. I watched the little circles die.

2. I dare do all that may become a man.
3. Who dares do more is none.
4. Truth from his lips prevailed with double sway.
5. And fools who came to scoff remained to pray.

6. Let me serve you.

7. Lift up your heads, O ye gates! 8. Let us not, I beseech you, deceive ourselves longer. 9. Were it the wish of the Czar to promulgate peace, he would disarm his large army. 10. Planting perennials is the work of the gardener. 11. If it were necessary, we could liave sent him some of the oil.

Indicative

Subjunctive

Potential

Imperative

Infinitive Participial

LESSON XXIV

TENSE

Tense is that modification of the verb that indicates the time of the action or being; as, "I sec." "I saw." "I shall scc." There are three primary tenses corresponding to the three divisions of time: present, past, and future. Each of these primary tenses has a perfect tense: present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect. The present tense indicates present action or being; as,

I write
I am writing

I do write
The past tense indicates action or being as past; as,

I wrote
I was writing

I did write
The future tense indicates futurity of action or being; as,

I shall write

I shall be writing The present perfect tense indicates action or being as completed at or before some stated past time; as,

I have written

I have been writing The past perfect tense indicates action or being as completed at or before some stated past time; as,

I had written

I had been writing The future perfect tense indicates action or being to be completed at or before some stated future time; as,

I shall have written
I shall have been writing

TENSE FORMS

Although there are only six tenses, there are more than six tense forms. It will be seen from the following diagram that the present tense has three forms; the present perfect two forms; the future tense two forms, and the future perfect tense two forms. Note also that the past indefinite form is the only one formed by inflection, the rest being formed by the aid of auxiliaries, called the signs of the tenses.

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