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EXERCISE 45

Supply all necessary words and strike out all superfluous words in the following sentences :

(Deduct ten per cent for each error.)

1. He recited better than any boy in the class.
2. What kind of a city would Rome be, all rulers and no one to be ruled ?
3. He does not deserve the name of a gentleman.
4. The Tribune has the largest circulation of any other paper in the city.
5. Of all other cities London is the largest.
6. What sort of a door do you want?
7. The vote was not unanimous enough, so another vote was taken.
8. This typewriter is more preferable than that one.
9. I have never seen a man of more cheerfuller disposition.
10. The use of this system is becoming more universal.

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EXERCISE 46

Indicate by a caret (1) the proper position of the italicized adverbs in the following sentences:

(Deduct six per cent for each error.) 1. All your neighbors were not invited. 2. There can not be found one man that is willing to undertake it. 3. The girls were nearly dressed alike. 4. If you have only learned to spend money, you may stay at home. 5. I told him to not go. 6. I take this opportunity to publicly apologize. 7. He moved to indefinitely postpone the subject. 8. He promises to earnestly try to do better. 10. One must understand the forms of a language in order to properly speak it. 11. Do you expect to always have your way in everything? 12. His experience enables him to quickly discern and fulfill the most exacting require

ments of the trade. 13. The conductor failed to properly protect them. 14. We would thank you to promptly procure for us the original expense-bill. 15. If thou art blessed naturally with a good memory, continually exercise it. 16. You must not expect to find study agreeable always.

LESSON XXIII

MODIFICATIONS OF VERBS_VOICE AND MODE Verbs are inflected or modified in form to indicate voice, mode, tense, person, and number.

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Voice is that modification of the verb that shows whether the subject acts or is acted upon. There are two voices, active and passive.

ACTIVE VOICE

The active voice is that form of the verb that represents the subject as acting; as, "Whittier wrote 'Snowbound.'” “He accomplished his task.”

PASSIVE VOICE

The passive voice is that form of the verb that represents the subject as being acted upon; as, “ 'Snowbound' was written by Whittier." "The task was accomplished by him."

Observation.-Only transitive verbs are modified to indicate voice. Intransitive verbs are always active; as: “Birds fly."

Caution.-Do not confuse the passive form of the verb with a participle used as a predicate complement; as, “The page was written(not printed). "The man was accomplished.

Note that "written" and "accomplished” in the foregoing sentences are adjectives belonging to their subjects.

MODE

Mode is that modification of the verb that indicates the manner of expression. Verbs have six modes : indicative, subjunctive, potential, imperative, infinitive, and participial.

INDICATIVE MODE

The indicative mode asserts a thing as a fact; as, “He writes." "She died." "Water is a liquid."

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE The subjunctive mode expresses a thought as doubtful, as conditional, as a mere wish, or as a supposition that is contrary to fact; as, “If he be guilty he will be hanged." "If he pay me I will work." "I wish I were rich." "If the ocean were fresh, sailors need never suffer from thirst."

SIGNS OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE

The subjunctive mode may usually be known by one of the following signs: "if," "though," "except," "unless," "lest.” The sign, however, is often omitted.

Observation.—Note particularly the form of the verb in the subjunctive. This form is not observed by many good writers of the present day. The signs very frequently precede a verb in the indicative mode, where an admission instead of a supposition is made; as, “If the man is honest, he did not pay me.” “If the ocean is ten thousand feet deep the soundings will show it.”

Note.—The distinctive forms that characterize the subjunctive mode are giving way to ndicative forms, and are little used nowadays in spoken language. They abound, however, in literature, and are still carefully used by discriminating writers. It is well to insist upon the use of some of them.-Southworth's English Grammar and Composition.

POTENTIAL MODE

The potential mode expresses the power, necessity, liberty or permission, duty, or possibility of acting or being; as, “He can write." "He must write." "He may write." "He should write." "He might write.

SIGNS OF THE POTENTIAL MODE

The signs of the potential mode are “may," "can,” “must,” "might," “could," "would," and "should."

IMPERATIVE MODE

The imperative mode expresses a command, an entreaty, or a supplication; as, “Close the door.” Do not do that.” “Giz'e us this day our daily bread."

INFINITIVE AND PARTICIPIAL MODES

The infinitive and participial modes merely assume action or being without asserting it of anything; as, “I wish to go.“I wish him to go.“I wish them to go.” “I saw him reading.“I saw them reading."

Observation.-Note that the form of the verb in the infinitive and participial modes remains the same, regardless of the person and number of the subject.

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