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EXERCISE 39

Use appropriate pronouns in each of the following blank spaces:

(Deduct four per cent for each error.)

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6. To him who in the love of nature holds communion with

visible forms,

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12. The committee submitted

report to-day. 13. The company has declared ...... first annual dividend. 14. Congress redeemed .... by passing the measure. 15. The army swept everything before

16. Each one sees

own heart.

17. Every one has .

day from which ..

..... dates.

18. You can commit no greater folly than to sit by the roadside until some one comes along and invites you to ride with

to wealth or influence. 19. I like to see a person who knows

own mind and sticks to it.

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24. Everybody presented .... ticket at the gate. 25. In case you return the goods you will oblige us by sending the original paper

along with

LESSON XX

CASE

Case is that modification of a noun or pronoun that denotes its relation in sense to other words in the sentence.

There are three cases: the nominative, the objective, and the possessive.

NOMINATIVE DEPENDENT CASE

A noun or pronoun used as the subject or complement of a finite verb is the nominative dependent case; as, “Roosevelt is president." "It is l." "Who was she?

NOMINATIVE INDEPENDENT CASE

A noun or pronoun used independently is in the nominative independent case; as, "An American! and disloyal to the human race!" "Gad, a troop shall overcome him.” The Daily News.

OBJECTIVE CASE

A noun or pronoun used as the object of a transitive verb or of a preposition is in the objective case; as, “DeSoto discovered the Mississippi river.“Florida was ceded to the United States by Spain.” “We saw him give the book to her." "IV hom do you see?"

POSSESSIVE CASE

A noun or pronoun used as a possessive modifier is in the possessive case; as, “A boy's best friend is his mother.” “I read Cullum, the senator's, speech.” “My country 'tis of thee.” “The ship is ours.

COMPLEMENT

A complement is any word that completes the meaning of an incomplete verb. A noun, pronoun, or adjective that completes the meaning of a copulative verb is called the predicate complement. A noun or pronoun that completes the meaning of a transitive verb is called the objective complement. A noun or adjective that denotes the result of the verb's action upon the direct object of the verb is called the resultant or factitive complement.

ILLUSTRATIONS

Predicate or Attributive Complements

Roosevelt is president (noun).
It is I (pronoun).
Il'ho is it (interrogative pronoun)?
The wind is cold (adjective).

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Resultant or Factitive They made Victoria queen (noun).
Complements

They painted the fence green (adjective). Observation. In the sentence, “They made Victoria queen," "Victoria” is not the object of "made," but of the whole verb-notion “made queen" (crowned); or, in other words, “They crowned Victoria.” Both “Victoria” and “queen” are in the objective case.

INDIRECT OBJECT

The verbs “ask,” “give," "teach," and a few others, are sometimes followed by two objects; as, “I asked (of) him his name.” “I gave (to) him a book.” “I teach (to) him shorthand.” “Him” in the foregoing sentences is sometimes termed the indirect object, but it is better to parse such words as the object of the preposition understood.

SUBJECT OF INFINITIVE

The subject of an infinitive is in the objective case when it is not also the subject of the finite verb on which the infinitive depends; as, “She wants to learn." "She wants me to learn.” In the first sentence “she” is the subject of both the finite verb "wants" and the infinitive "to learn;" hence it is in the nominative case. In the second sentence "she" is the subject of the finite verb "wants” and is in the nominative case. “Me” is the subject of the infinitive, and is in the objective case.

CASE OF COMPLEMFNT

The complement of a copulative verb is always in the same case as the subject, except when the subject of a copulative participle is possessive; in that case the complement is nominatico.

Observation.—The nominative and the objective case of nouns and of the pronouns "it,” "you,” “that," "which," and "what,” are indicated by their use in the sentence and not by their form, as will be seen by the following declension.

DECLENSION

Declension is the arrangement of nouns and pronouns to show their various modifications.

Most nouns are inflected to show difference of number and case, and those of the third person to show difference of gender.

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