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EXERCISE 32

Insert the proper preposition in each blank space in the following sentences:

(Deduct two per cent for each error.)

1. The father is reconciled

his son. 2. The valiant never taste

death but once. 3. They will acquit him .... stealing. 4. The teacher had an abhorrence

cheating. 5. This composition was adapted

this purpose. 6. He was adapted

his position. 7. The machine was adapted

this purpose. 8. He will be absolved .....

this crime. 9. The boy was ......

accord

.... his instructor. 10. We will appropriate

ourselves

this money. 11. The Mayor appropriated a large sum

the small park. 12. Mr. Carnegie will bestow millions

worthy boys who desire an education. 13. He has bestowed large sums

Pittsburg 14. I will attend carefully ..... the lecture. 15. I will attend ........ the king. 16. This date corresponds

the previous one. 17. I correspond

her. 18. The committee will confer

him a gold medal. 19. The general will confer

the emperor. 20. The child will confide

her mother. 21. I will confide the purse

.. you. 22. He entered ..... business

any capital. 23. The attorney will take an exception

the ruling

the court. 24. You should familiarize yourself ...

the business. 25. He died a martyr ........ his country. 26. I have great need

the money. 27. He would rather part

his friends than 28. We should profit ....

the mistakes of others. 29. The mother is dependent ........ her son

support. 30. The report was derogatory

his advancement. 31. This apple differs ..

that one. 32. I differ

you on these questions. 33. We were disappointed ..... the play. 34. I am employed

a large salary. 35. I shall enter

my duties next Monday. 36. There is close affinity

the substances. 37. I cannot agree

you

... the subject. 38. Did you agree

a plan of action ?

his money.

39. A person should bathe

water daily. 40. Please comply ...

our request. 41. If you wish to conform ... our custom, we will ship you the goods. 42. He is conversant

the law. 43. The butter tastes 44. I am studying shorthand with a view teaching it.

brass.

LESSON XVII

MODIFICATIONS OF NOUNS AND PRONOUNS-NUMBER

Modifications of the parts of speech are changes in their form, meaning, and use. Nouns and pronouns are modified for number, person, gender and case.

NUMBER Number is that modification of the noun or pronoun that denotes whether one or more than one object is meant; as, boy, boys; man, men; 1, we; he or she, they.

RULES FOR FORMING PLURAL OF NOUNS 1. Most nouns form their plurals by adding s or es to the singular form; as, book, books; table, tables; for, fores; church, churches.

2. Nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant form their plurals by dropping y and adding ics; as, lady, ladics; city, cities.

3. Nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel add s only; as, boy, boys; monkey, monkeys.

4. Nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel add s only; as, folio, folios; caico, cameos.

5. Nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant usually add s, but sometimes cs; as, piano, pianos; potato, potatoes.

6. Some nouns ending in f or fe drop the f and add ves; others are regular; as, self, sclics; knife, knitcs; gulf, gulfs.

7. Letters, marks, and signs form their plurals by adding an apostrophe and s; as, 2's; r's; t's.

8. Compound nouns pluralize the base; as, step-son, step-sons; brotherin-law', brothers-in-law.

9. Compounds of “man” form their plurals by changing "man” to “men." This rule does not include "Mussulman," "German," "cayman,” and “talisman," as they are not compounds of "man."

10. The nouns "spoonful," "cupful,” etc., form their plurals by adding s, as in the case of "pint," "quart," etc. Note that to add s to "spoon" and “cup" would give to the words different meanings.

11. Complex nouns sometimes pluralize the title and sometimes the name. The following forms are correct:

PLURAL

SINGULAR
Mr. Foote
Dr. Green
Miss White

Messrs. Foote, or The two Mr. Footes
Drs. Green, or The two Dr. Greens
Misses White, or The two Miss Whites

12. A great many nouns form their plurals irregularly; as mouse, mice;

тап, теп.

13. Some nouns have double plurals; as:

bricks (individuals) brick

brother brick (collective)

brothers (by blood) brethren (of some society)

14. Some nouns and pronouns have the same form in both numbers; as,
who
corps

perch
which
gross

species
what
grouse

swine
that

vermin
deer
series

pains (care-usually singular)
amends
sheep

politics (usually singular)
links (in golf) salmon

odds

moose

15. When used with numerals, the following nouns have the same form in both numbers; otherwise they add s: couple

yoke dozen

hundred
pair

thousand
cannon

score

news

16. The following nouns are always singular : milk

measles (disease) means (instrument) acoustics
molasses
civics

mathematics
goodness
grammar
economics

statistics (science) gallows music phonetics

ethics Observation.—The names of other sciences ending in ics also come under this ruling.

Note.—“Athletics," "calisthenics," "gymnastics," are more frequently plural than singular, because each is commonly understood to include several sports or exercises.-Hill.

proceeds

17. The following nouns are always plural :
ashes

suds
tidings
pincers

riches
billiards
tweezers

nuptials
wages
tongs

paraphernalia
assets
bellows

victuals
bitters
scissors

greens
vitals
shears

oats
cattle
hose

matins
trousers

statistics (facts)
thanks
clothes

means (income)
mumps
breeches

goods (property)
draughts

alms (originally singular)
archives
dregs

eaves

measles (larvae)

manners

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