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Letters, statements, etc., submitted-Continued
Tompkins, Dr. Paul C., Scientific Director, United States Naval Radio-
Slide No. 1–Entrance ramp, showing tunnel opening-----
vey, Shot Diablo -
Information re 1955 and 1957 cost for shelters.-
ment on Operation Plumbbob 1957 and 1955.-
White, Dr. Clayton S., Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education
and Research: Bibliography—blast biology, CETG Project 33.--
Excerpt from the Reorganization Act of 1949 (sec. 9 (b)).
Excerpt from message of the President in transmitting Reorgani-
Roback, Herbert, staff administrator, Military Operations Subcom-
Part 1-Atomic Shelter Tests
WEDNESDAY, APRIL 30, 1958
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
Washington, D.C. The subcommittee met in room 1501-B, House Office Building, pursuant to adjournment, at 10:05 a. m., Hon. Chet Holifield (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.
Present: Representatives Holifield, Riehlman, Lipscomb, and Minshall.
Also present: Herbert Roback, staff administrator; Carey Brewer, senior defense specialist; Paul Ridgely, and Robert McElroy, investigators. Mr. HOLIFIELD The hearing will be in order.
For the past several years this subcommittee has been engaged in studies and investigations concerning the civil defense needs of the United States. In July 1956 this subcommittee issued a report entitled “Civil Defense for National Survival.”
In July 1957 we issued a report entitled “Status of Civil Defense Legislation.”
Our 1956 report was based on exhaustive testimony received from distinguished scientists, doctors, engineers, and other professional persons; responsible public officials in Federal, State, and local government; the Chairman and members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and other military spokesmen; and informed private citizens, civic leaders industrialists, and representatives of national organizations.
Our 1957 report was based on hearings held in connection with civil defense legislation introduced by members of this subcommittee and other Members of Congress.
An important feature of the legislation introduced last year is a provision calling for a nationwide system of civil defense shelters for protection against the multiple effects of nuclear weapons.
The hearings beginning today will examine the technical data developed in the atomic shelter tests conducted in Nevada during the past year. Today, tomorrow, and Friday, testimony will be received from scientific and technical experts associated with the Atomic Energy Commission and the Federal Civil Defense Administration in the shelter-testing program. Subjects to be discussed include the radiological, biological, and physical blast aspects of the shelter tests, as well as the costs of the different shelter designs tested.
Some of the members of the subcommittee have a firsthand knowledge of the matters to be discussed, having observed the explosion effects on the shelters tested during the past year.
Besides bringing together the latest authoritative technical information concerning atomic shelter designs and structures, we plan in these hearings to review the basic policy considerations in a nationwide shelter system.
On Monday, May 5, Dr. Ellis Johnson, director of the Operations Research Office of Johns Hopkins University, will present his views on the role of atomic shelters in the national defense program. The operations research office, under Dr. Johnson's direction, recently concluded a comprehensive study for the Army on defense against nuclear attack.
After our hearings were scheduled, the President submitted Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958, which would create a new Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization, merging the functions of the Federal Civil Defense Administration and the Office of Defense Mobilization. This reorganization plan bears directly on a phase of the legislation before the subcommittee.
Two years ago, in our basic civil-defense report, we criticized the overlapping functions and diffused authority of these agencies and proposed that their civil-defense functions be merged. This provision is contained in section 302 of H. R. 2125, which is before the subcommittee.
In considering that legislation, of course, the subcommittee will have to take account of the President's plan and to determine how it relates to our legislation. Accordingly, we will ask representatives of the Bureau of the Budget, which drew up the plan, as well as the Federal Civil Defense Administrator and the Defense Mobilization Director, who are the parties affected by the plan, to explain it and justify it before the subcommittee.
Representatives of the Budget Bureau will appear before the subcommittee on Tuesday, May 6. ODM Director Gordon Gray and FCDA Administrator Leo Hoegh will appear on Wednesday, May 7. These officials will also be asked to testify on administration policy with respect to broader civil-defense matters, including a possible shelter construction program.
On Thursday, May 8, the subcommittee will receive testimony from representatives of the Department of Defense and the three military departments concerning shelter studies and other personnel protection programs sponsored or undertaken by those agencies.
This morning we are pleased to receive testimony from representatives of the Atomic Energy Commission. Mr. Robert Corsbie, Diector of the Civil Effects Test Group, will discuss the joint AECFCDA test program in general terms, after which he will introduce the other witnesses associated with the Atomic Energy Commission.
Mr. Corsbie, you may proceed.
STATEMENT OF ROBERT CORSBIE, DIRECTOR, CIVIL EFFECTS TEST
GROUP, ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION
Mr. CORSBIE. Mr. Chairman, I have a statement which has been handed to you.
From its inception every phase of atomic energy development, from mining of ore to weapons tests or operation of reactors and