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If you had a domestic satellite to jump, then, on the overseas link, if it was an overseas call, this would be a higher speed facility.
Mr. ROBACK. Does that bespeak an integrated switching operation ? Mr. DUNCAN. Certainly, it has to be coordinated.
Mr. ROBACK. That is the kind of service that a carrier like yourself would be experienced in providing.
Mr. Duncan. Yes. Our plans definitely contemplate that.
Mr. ROBACK. Do you think that Comsat is handicapped in not having that experience!
Mr. DUNCAN. Comsat, of course, is not in the business of providing such overall service. They provide facilities, and this thing I am speaking of
Mr. ROBACK. They provide overall service to the Government, they are proposing to.
Mr. Duncan. They are providing a facility between two ends, and the field I am talking about is the field you get into in providing an overall circuit, and, for example, in this particular item I was speaking of, it would involve switched services, such as ordinary telephone message service.
NATURE OF SERVICES FURNISHED BY A.T. & T.
Mr. Dahlin. You have a long list of services in exhibit A. Are those, as you understand it, unique, vital and national security-type services?
There is the Joint Chiefs alerting network, BMEWS, Autovon, SAC primary alerting system?
Mr. Duncan. This list of services are examples of all the types of services that we furnish to the Federal Government. They are not intended to be a comprehensive list covering everything, but they are some of the special services.
Mr. DAHLIN. And also item 6 is the NASA services.
Are you to be going from the Brewster Flats to Hawaii on that Hawaii link in your application for Pacific satellite circuits?
Mr. DUNCAN. That is correct. Mr. Dahlin. Was there any question raised with NASA as to whether A.T. & T. was going to offer to provide those services on the Apollo System? Mr. DUNCAN. I do not know of any question on that. Mr. DAHLIN. You never raised that question? Mr. DUNCAN. I have not. Do you know, George? Mr. ASHLEY. I do not think there has been.
Mr. Dahlin. When you talk about “approximate balance” in satellite and cable circuits, are you talking about 50–50 division of backup or alternate links between satellite and cable circuits? That is, when you say you are going to have approximate balance in this kind of service, does that mean you will expect to buy as many satellite circuits as you will have able circuits?
Mr. DUNCAN. You are referring to my exhibit, “C” I believe.
Mr. DUNCAN. We discussed here in some detail in exhibit C the requirements for satellite circuits, and other types of facilities will vary, the use of them will vary, depending on many factors, and I think you are referring to the transatlantic item there.
Mr. DAHLIN. Yes.
Mr. DUNCAN. Where we use the term, our plan is to diversify transatlantic facilities, to intermix cable and satellite channels, to obtain a reasonable balance.
Mr. DAHLIN. The same in the Pacific!
Mr. DUNCAN. Approximate balance is the term I used in the Pacific. In general, we think that in those areas, particularly in the transatlantic, it will be about 50–50. But these are composites of what we believe will happen country by country, and there are many factors involved in this. We have attempted to outline some of those factors in this exhibit.
Mr. Dahlin. With respect to the last page of your exhibits, the forecast, you have a large jump in demand predicted between 1975 and 1986. Is that mainly on the basis that you will have availability of both cable and satellite circuits in numbers never heard of before; 1975 is the breakthrough?
Mr. DUNCAN. Actually, the percentage jump is smaller. We anticipate that with increased, better facilities, and increased availability of internal facilities in various countries throughout the world, that we will continue to have a rapid growth in our overall overseas requirements, and, of course, these figures, if you will notice, the increase in satellite circuits between 1970 and 1975 go up at a higher percentage rate than they do between 1975 and 1980, and that merely reflects possibly a little bit of conservativeness on my part in the growth rate that we may get as we reach saturation points at various places in the world.
We think that there is a tremendous field for expansion and that this field will develop as the business in the countries, and the internal communications facilities in the countries improve and as rates come down.
Mr. DAHLIN. That is all.
Mr. HOLIFIELD. Thank you, Mr. Duncan and Mr. Ashley, for your testimony this morning.
Mr. DUNCAN. Thank you.
The next witness will be Mr. Howard Hawkins, president of RCA Communications, Inc.
Mr. Hawkins, will you please introduce your associates for the record ?
Mr. HAWKINS. Mr. Chairman, on my left is Edwin W. Peterson, who is our vice president and controller, and on my right is Leonard W.Tuft, vice president and general attorney.
Mr. HOLIFIELD. You may proceed with your statement, Mr. Hawkins.
Mr. HAWKINS. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
STATEMENT OF HOWARD R. HAWKINS, PRESIDENT, RCA COMMU
NICATIONS, INC.; ACCOMPANIED BY EDWIN W. PETERSON, VICE PRESIDENT AND CONTROLLER; AND LEONARD W. TUFT, VICE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL ATTORNEY
Mr. HAWKINS. Mr. Chairman and members of the subcommittee, my name is Howard R. Hawkins. I am president of RCA Communications, Inc. I appreciate this opportunity to appear before your committee and to discuss with you the question of providing communications satellite services for the Department of Defense and the national communications system.
I shall endeavor to cover the matters requested in the chairman's letter to me of August 19, 1966.
RCA Communications, Inc., is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Radio Corporation of America. It is an international carrier operating a global communications network consisting of a complex of radio, coaxial cable, and satellite channels.
RCA Communications, which, in the interest of brevity, I shall refer to as “RCA," provides international telegram service between the United States and more than 200 overseas points; Telex service to and from 117 points; and leased channel; that is, private line, services with all parts of the world.
RCA also provides facsimile transmission service with 60 overseas points and operates a network of telephone circuits in the Pacific area radiating from Guam and the Philippines. The company provides two-way broadcast program transmission service with most points on the globe. In September 1965, RCA began handling the transmission of live commercial and closed-circuit television programs via satellite between the United States and Europe.
RCA has pioneered many global communications services, including internationa) leased channel service, which was introduced in 1948; overseas Telex service in 1950; and international data Telex transmission service in 1962.
submit a brochure entitled "RCA Global Communications" containing a network circuit map, so that the committee can visualize the scope of RCA's operating activities.
SERVICES TO THE U.S. GOVERNMENT
RCA radio and cable facilities are used to handle critical military and nonmilitary Government traffic throughout the world, and the services it furnishes to DOD are extensive. We currently provide the U.S. military with a wide range of leased communications circuits in the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Pacific areas. These facilities are used for voice, high-speed data, and conventional teleprinter transmissions. The Pacific cable and radio circuits are vital at this time since they handle traffic critical to military operations in South Vietnam.
Since the earliest days of Project Mercury, RCA has provided the National Aeronautics and Space Administration with an ever-expanding global network of communications facilities used for U.S. space programs. We also provide long-haul communications facilities for the Weather Bureau, Voice of America, the U.S. Information Agency, and a number of other civil agencies. Included in our current roster of Government services is the radio "Hot Line,” which links Washington to Moscow.
We provide leased channels for the U.S. Department of State, which carry diplomatic communications between Washington and U.S. Embassies in other parts of the world. In so doing, RCA is sharing in the responsibility to meet, as Mr. Scott expressed it, the State Department's "basic requirement to communicate rapidly, reliably, and se curely with and between" its diplomatic posts throughout the world.
The creation of RCA was itself intimately related to providing critical service to the U.S. Government. It was the inadequacy of U.S. facilities for international communications during World War I which prompted the U.S. Navy Department, in 1919, to sponsor the organization of RCA. Then, as now, RCA's mission was to provide international communications services for the U.S. Government and the American people in time of both peace and national emergency.
For each of the calendar years 1962 through 1965, the total RCA Communications services to agencies of the Government, including DOD, were, respectively, in dollars and in percentages of its total operating revenue: $4.3 million or 11.6 percent; $4.6 million or 11.1 percent, $5.3 million or 11.9 percent, and $7.8 million or 15.1 percent. For the first 7 months of 1966, comparable amounts were $6.1 million or 18.6 percent. With respect to communications services to DOD for the years 1962 through 1965 and for the first 7 months of 1966, the comparable figures are $2.7, $3, $3, $4.4, and $4 million.
This year, over 98 percent of all services to DOD were in the leased channel service category. The reasons for the increase in RCA's services to the Government in the last 3 years are the growing U.S. space program and expanding U.S. military commitments.
RCA leased channel services are provided on a month-to-month basis to the U.S. Government. RCA has made substantial investments in communications facilities to provide such services without longterm commitments or other obligations by the U.S. Government.
Since the beginning of 1962, RCA has invested $72.5 million in additional communications facilities to improve and expand its overseas communications services, including services for the U.S. Government. RCA has invested in the business substantially more than its total profits from communications operations during the same period.
RCA's present total assets employed in the communications business amount to $102 million. It has approximately 3,500 employees operating its global system.
SUMMARY OF RCA POLICY POSITION
RCA has long advocated the establishment of a global commercial communications satellite system at the earliest practicable date. Because of its belief that the role of satellites in our international communicaions system is growing, RCA acquired 250,000 shares, or 2.5
percent of Comsat common stock. RCA does not have an RCA official on the board of directors of Comsat.
In order to implement the growth of satellite communications as an integral part of the Nation's global communications system, RCA has consistently urged the participation by the authorized common carriers in the direct ownership and operation of the initial earth stations for commercial service.
However, in May 1965, the Federal Communications Commission established an interim policy under which Comsat would have the sole responsibility for the design, construction,
and operation of the three initial earth stations, at Andover, Maine, Brewster Flat, Wash., and Paumalu, Hawaii. The Commission determined that this earth station policy was a temporary measure only and is subject to the outcome of any proceedings on conflicting applications.
On September 1, 1965, RCA filed applications to participate in the ownership and operation of these three initial earth stations. The RCA applications are now pending before the Commission. We have also joined with other international carriers in requesting authority to construct, operate, and own an additional earth station in the southeastern part of the United States.
We believe that participation by the authorized international carriers in earth station ownership and operation is the best course available to meet the objectives of the Communications Satellite Act of 1962 and to assure the economic viability of the international carriers. There is no question in our minds that if participation in ownership and operation of the earth stations were to be permanently foreclosed to the international record carriers, they would be relegated to secondclass citizenship in international satellite communications. This, I might add, would severely diminish their ability to maintain and develop the most advanced international record and voice-record services.
In the recent authorized user proceeding on satellite services, FCC docket No. 16058, the Commission concluded that "Comsat is to be primarily a carrier's carrier ***.” RCA supports this conclusion and would like to add that in its belief the Government is the only noncarrier entity which may lawfully be permitted to deal directly with Comsat—and then only in unique or most exceptional circumstances. Under all other circumstances it remains in the national interest for both Government and non-Government users to procure communications services, including those via satellite, from the international carriers established for this purpose.
We believe that the Commission has the licensing authority, and the responsibility, to regulate the scope of the services to be furnished by Comsat and by other international carriers as will best serve the public interest, convenience, and necessity. The Commission's authorized user decision is a proper exercise of that authority in our view, and it was required by the public interest.
We are firmly committed to the belief that the national interest requires a strong common carrier resource to serve the Government and the Nation as a whole in times of peace and of war. We therefore have been alarmed by Comsat's apparent attempt to usurp the historical common carriers' function of providing leased channels directly to users, including the U.S. Government. Comsat, we submit, is using the great leverage of its exclusive satellite position to seek a preferred