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ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS AND
BROUGHT DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME;
A COPIOUS COLLECTION OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES
THE BASIS OF THE SEVENTH EDITION OF THE GERMAN
CAREY AND LEA.
SOLD IN PHILADELPHIA BY E. L. CAREY AND A. HART-IN NEW YORK
BY G. & C. & H. CARVILLAIN BOSTON BY
CARTER & HENDEE.
EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, to wit : BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the tenth day of August, in the fifty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States of Amorica, A. D. 1829, Carcy, Lea & Carey, of the said district, havo deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit:
.“ Encyclopædia Americana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics and Biography, brought down to the present Time; including a copious Collection of Original Articles in American Biography; on the Basis of the seventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Francis Lieber, assisted by E. Wigglesworth."
In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, “ An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, duriug the times therein mentioned :" and also to the act, entitled, “An Act supplementary to an act, entitled, 'An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned ;' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints.
CRANTARA (Gaelic, crean tarigh); the crape brought from China is of a more cross of shame, because, says sir Walter substantial fabric. Scott, in his note on the passage of the CRAPELET; father and son; two printers. Lady of the Lake (canto 3), in which he The father, Charles, born at Bourmont, has made such a fine use of it, disobedi- Nov. 13, 1762, established his printingence to what the symbol implied, infer- office in 1789, and died Oct. 19, 1809. He red infamy. The Highlanders of Scot- might be called the French Baskerville. land appear to have borrowed it from the Like this printer, he endeavored to unite ancient Scandinavians, of the use of it the greatest simplicity with elegance, to among whom, for rousing the people to deliver the art of printing from the heteroarms, Olaus Magnus gives a particular geneous ornaments with which it was so
As late as the insurrection in overloaded, particularly in France, and 1745, the crantara, or fiery cross, was cir- from which even Didot could not entirely culated in Scotland, and, on one occasion, free himself; but he surpassed his model it passed through the district of Breadal- in the form of his types and the regularity bane, a tract of 32 miles, in three hours. of his work. His editions are no less corAfter Charles Edward had marched into rect than neat and beautiful. He has also England, two of the king's frigates threat- been successful in printing on parchment, ened the coast with a descent. The cran- and has shown his skill by producing an tara was sent through the district of Ap- impression in gold (13 copies of Audepine by Alexander Stuart of Invemahyle bert's Oiseaux dorés, Paris, 1802, 2 vols., (who related the circumstance to sir Wal- folio).-A. G. Crapelet has extended his ter Scott), and, in a few hours, a sufficient father's business, and has even excelled force was collected to render the attempt him in elegance. His Lafontaine (1814), of the English hopeless.
Montesquieu (1816), Rousseau and VolCRAPE; a light, transparent stuff, like taire (both 1819), are monuments of his gauze, made of raw silk, gummed and taste; and the large vellum-paper copies twisted on the niill, woven without cross- are truly splendid works. The words ing, and much used in mourning: Crapes De l'imprimerie de Crapelet” are a great are either craped (i. e., crisped) or smooth. recommendation. Renouard has had all The silk destined for the first is more the editions published at his expense twisted than that for the second, it being printed by Crapelet, who, in 1800, emthe greater or less degree of twisting, ployed 22 presses. especially of the warp, which produces ČRASSUS. Two Romans of this name the crisping given to it, when taken out of are here to be mentioned. 1. Lucius Lithe loom, steeped in clear water, and rub- cinius Crassus, who was made consul bed with a piece of wax for the purpose. A. U.C. 638 (B. C. 96), and passed for the Crapes are all dyed raw. This stuff came greatest orator of his time. He was disoriginally from Bologna; but, till of late tinguished for talent, presence of mind years, Lyons is said to have had the chief and integrity. 2. M. Licinius Crassus, surmanufacture of it. It is now manufactur- named Dives (the rich), so called, like maed in various parts of Great Britain. The ny of his family, on account of his vast
riches. He possessed a fortune equal to ed his hair to grow: then standing collars, $5,000,000. He once gave an entertain- embroidered and pinked, the plaited colinent to the whole people, in which 10,000 larettes, the neck-band, plain or laced and tables were set, and, besides this, distrib- pointed, encompassed the neck chin-deep; uted corn enough to last each family three and, when Louis XIV adopted those enormonths. In the years of Rome 683 and mous periwigs, which hardly left the throat 698, he was a colleague of Pompey, in the visible, all these splendid envelopes gave consulship, and, in 688, censor. As he way to ribands, tied in brilliant bows. was one of the most influential men in Next came the epoch of the dangerous Rome, and very ambitious, his friendship subjection of the neck to constriction and was sought by Cæsar, who formed, with compression, from which it had hitherto him and Pompey, the famous triumvirate. been exempt
. In 1660, a foreign regiment Ho perished, with a great part of his army, arrived in France, composed of Croats, in in an expedition against the Parthians, whose singular costume one thing was undertaken from motives of avarice and generally admired and imitated. It was a ambition, B. C. 53.
bandage about the neck, consisting of CRATER. (See Volcano.)
common stuff for the soldiers, and of Cravat; an unhealthy, uncomfortable, muslin or silk for the officers. The ends unbecoming article of European and were disposed in a bow, or garnished American dress. The ancients were un- with a tuft or a tassel, and hung not unacquainted with this ridiculous and injuri- gracefully over the breast
This new ous style of bundling up the neck. They article of dress was at first called a croate, left unconfined that important region of and afterwards, by corruption, a cravat. the body, through which so many vessels The military and the rich, at that time, pass, and in which are situated so many wore very fine cravats, with the border organs, which will endure no constraint embroidered, or edged with broad lace. with impunity. In some cases, indeed, Those of the soldiers consisted of a scrap they defended themselves from the cold by of cloth, of cotton, or, at the best, of black, a woollen, cotton or silk band, called, in plaited taffeta, bound round the neck by Latin, focale, from fauces, throat. But no two small cords. Afterwards, the place one could venture to use this contrivance of these cords was supplied by clasps or a publicly, unless he was sick; in which buckle, and then cravats took the name of case he might cover his head, and the stocks. Under Louis XVI, the stocks upper part of the shoulders, and even yielded to the cravats à la chancelière. wear breeches (q. v.), without disgrace. The last flourished but for a moment: the “Palliolum, sicut fascias et focalia,” says revolution came, and with it disappeared Quinctilian, “sola excusare potest valetudo.” cravats, and even tight breeches. Soon It was allowable, indeed, to cover the after this epoch (1786), the cravat recovneck with the toga in bad weather, or to ered its popularity, and increased to an hold the hand over it, for the preservation incredible degree of extravagance. Some or restoration of the natural temperature. persons enveloped the neck with whole The Poles never wear any thing round pieces of muslin ; others, with a padded the neck, notwithstanding the severity of cushion, on which were wrapped numertheir winters. The same custom prevails ous folds. In this way, the neck was among the Orientals, hy whom a white, puffed out so as to be larger than the head, round neck is compared to the beauty of with which it was imperceptibly conan ivory tower. The bare neck gradually founded. The shirt-collar arose above became unfashionable in Europe. It was the ears, and the upper edge of the craat first surrounded, but not constrained, by vat buried up the chin and the mouth a starched band of fine linen, on the upper nose-deep; so that the visage, bristling on edge of the shirt, falling back natural- either side with a grove of bushy whisly upon the bust, where it was fastened kers, and its upper regions ensconced to the by a small cord. This was the origin of eyes by the hair flattened down over the all the different species of collars since brows, absolutely showed nothing except used--the innocent parent of those thick, the nose, projecting in all its plenitude. hot folds, in which the neck was destined The exquisites thus cravatted resembled to be afterwards muffled. Ruffs, stiffened any thing rather than men, and afforded or plaited, single or in many rows,-an excellent subjects for curicatures. If they inconvenient, indeed, but not a dangerous wished to look any way except straight ornament-had their turn, and lasted as forward, they were obliged to turn the long as short hair was in fashion. They whole trunk, with which the neck and were abandoned, when Louis XIII allow- head formed but one piece. It was im
possible to incline the head in any direc- produced to form a rostrum or beak; the tion. Most fashions have been invented abdomen large, slightly attenuated posteto hide an infirmity or a deformity: large riorly, composed of six joints, forming a cravats were probably first used to conceal tail quite as long, when extended, as the some disagreeable scars, or some unlucky body, and terminating in five broad-fring, malformation. A singer or a public speak- ed, swimming appendages, which fold er cannot use his voice to advantage dur- laterally upon each other. In both sexes, ing the time when his cravat is tied too the under part of the abdomen is generally tight. The habit of wearing large cravats provided with five pairs of false claw's, lenders the neck very liable to be affected each terminated by two plates or plaby exposure. By uncovering the neck ments. The exterior jaw-feet are mostly imprudently when heated, severe and narrow, elongated, and do not entirely dangerous diseases have often been con- cover the other parts of the mouth. The tracted. A young man or young lady, on gills are pyramidal, brush-shaped, or leaving a party in a waim apartment, plume-like, separated from each other by should be careful to protect the neck and tendinous slips, and situated beneath the breast from cold.
sides of the great superior shell, over the CRAVEN, Elizabeth, lady; margravine external base of the feet. Of the latter, , of Anspach, youngest daughter of the earl the second and third pairs are elongated, of Berkeley ; born in 1750, and married in slender, and furnished at the last joint, 1767, to Willian, last earl of Craven, by which is movable, with small pincers; whom she had seven children. But, after the fourth and fifth pairs have the last a connexion of 14 years, in consequence joints simply pointed or hooked. The of his ill-treatment, a separation was sexual organs are placed, in both sexes, in agreed upon in 1781. Lady Craven, after the basal joint of the last pair of feet. this, lived successively at the courts of The species belonging to this genus, as Versailles, Madrid, Lisbon, Vienna, Berlin, at present restricted, do not exceed six. Constantinople, Warsaw, St. Petersburg, Some of these kinds are peculiar to salt Rome, Florence and Naples; then in An- and others to fresh water. Otthe former, spach, where she became acquainted with the most celebrated is the lobster (astacus the margrave Christian Frederic Charles gammarus), so prominent among the luxAlexander, a nephew of Frederic the uries of New York, and our other eastem Great. On this tour, in 1787, she was maritine cities. In their modes of living, persuaded by the count Choiseul-Gouffier, the crawfish generally resemble the aquatFrench ambassador to Constantinople, to ic crahs (see Crab), feeding on putrefying descend into the grotto of Antiparos, anima) matter, spending their time on the which no woman had ever before visited. Sandy or rocky bottom of deep waters, After the death of lord Craven, at Lisbon, and only approaching the shallows when in 1791, the margrave married her, sur- impelled by the necessity of undergoing rendered his cstates to the king of Prussia their change of shell, or when under the for a yearly pension, and went, with leis sexual influence. The common lobster is consort, to England, where lie purchased the largest species, and grows to a size an estate (Brandenburg), not far froin which may well appear wonderful to perHammersmith, and died in 1806. From sons accustomed to see none but small that time, lady Craven las lived partly in ones. They are brought to the New York England, partly in Naples. The account market more than two feet in length, ani of her travels through the Crimea to Con- weigling 20 pounds and upwards. Such stantinople, in a series of letters, was first individuals
, lowever, are not preferred for published in 1789. A new enlarged edi- the table, as their size is a good indication tion appeared in 1811. Besides thest, of their age, and their period of lite is she has written poems, plays and roman- statel to extend to 20 vears and more. The ces; also her own memoirs (Memoirs of smaller, or half-sized lobsters, are consiilthe Margravine of Anspach, formerly Lady ercil the best. The quite small, or young Craven, &c., London, 1825). These are ones, which are commonly soll in New interesting on account of lier intercourse Haren (Connecticut), as too small for the with Catharine II, Joseph II, and other New York market, are, in our opinion, tar princes.
superior to cither.-The fresh-water crairCRAWFISII (astacus, Fab.); 22 crustaceous tislı, of which one species (exstacus barino) genus, belonging to the family decapola is very common in most of the frestimucroura (ten legged, long tailel), charac- Watcr sirciliis ani brooks from Pemusylterized by having the anterior part of the väliin seuil Waril, infiords lis the best opelongateci semi-cylindric superior shell portunity for cheerving their habits. Vo