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VII. Lost water
Standard.The loss of water in the distribution system should be minimized.

Action. The city should have a master meter to measure the total amount of water pumped into the system. By comparing the quantity of water pumped into the distribution system with the total quantity metered to customers, the percentage of water accounted for can be determined. If this indicates excessive loss, consulting engineers should be engaged to make a water waste survey. Action should then be taken to repair the defects. VIII. Fluoridation

Standard.—The water should contain between 0.8 and 1.0 part per million of fluoride.

Action.--This is the amount of fluoride found by exhaustive tests and experience to be effective in preventing tooth decay. An analysis of the water should be made to determine the amount of fluoride it contains, and steps should be taken to install equipment for introducing the quantity needed to attain the minimum of one part per million. A few cities have found that their water naturally contains enough fluoride. IX. Water main extensions

Standard.The city should adopt a definite policy for extending water mains to various types of customers.

Action.The extension of water mains into new subdivisions, to new industries, outside the city, etc., always raises policy questions, especially as to sharing of costs between the city and the customers. It is most desirable that a city adopt a policy, so that these questions are answered in advance and a uniform policy will be followed. This is especially important for industrial prospects. Assistance in developing such policies may be obtained from the Municipal Technical Advisory Service or the Tennessee State Planning Commission. X. Quality of water

Standard.—The quality of water should meet the drinking water standards of the U.S. Public Health Service.

Action.-If quality of water is substandard, install treatment facilities to improve the quality, as recommended by a competent waterworks engineer.


1. Adequacy of source

The minimum daily capacity of the source of supply is: 20 At least 100 percent above maximum daily withdrawal last year. 15 75 to 100 percent above. 10 50 to 75 percent above. 5 25 to 50 percent above. 2 10 to 25 percent above. 0. Less than 10 percent above.

SCORE (maximum 20) II. Waterplant

The daily capacity of the waterplant is: 15 At least 50 percent above the maximum daily demand last year. 10

25 to 50 percent above. 5. 10 to 25 percent above. 0 Less than 10 percent above.

SCORE (maximum 15) III. Adequate mains

Water mains meet the standards of the Tennessee Inspection Bureau for fire protection in : 9 100 percent of the city. 7 90 to 100 percent of the city. 5 75 to 90 percent of the city. 3 50 to 75 percent of the city. 0 Less than 50 percent of the city.

SCORE (maximum 9)

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IV. Fire rating

Deficiency points against water system on last rating by Tennessee Inspection Bureau: 15 0 to 170. 13 171 to 340. 11 341 to 510. 9 511 to 680. 7 681 to 850. 5 851 to 1020. 3 1021 to 1190. 2 1191 to 1360. 1 1361 to 1530. 0 1531 to 1700.

SCORE (maximum 15) V. Health rating

Percentage rating of water system by State Department of Public Health: 10 - 90 to 100 percent. 7 85 to 90 percent. 3 80 to 85 percent. 0 Less than 80 percent.

SCORE (maximum 10) VI. Watermeters

(a) Percentage of customers with city-owned watermeters: 8 100 percent. 6 90 to 100 percent. 4 75 to 90 percent. 2 50 to 75 percent. 0 ---- Less than 50 percent.

SCORE (maximum 8) (6) Are all watermeters tested at least once every 5 years, and are trouble cases tested ? 3 Yes. 0 No.

SCORE (maximum 3) VII. Lost water

Quantity of water metered to customers divided by quantity of water pumped into distribution system equals : 8 90 to 100 percent. 5 80 to 90 percent. 3 70 to 80 percent. 0 less than 70 percent.

--------SCORE (maximum 8) VIII. Fluoridation

Does water, either naturally or by treatment, contain between 0.8 and 1.0 p.p.m. of fluoride? 2

Yes. 0 No.

--SCORE (maximum 2) IX. Water main extensions

Has the city adopted a definite policy for extending waterlines? 6 Yes, by ordinance or resolution. 3 Yes, but otherwise established. 0 No policy.

----SCORE (maximum 6) X. Quality of water

Water supplied by the city is (check as applicable) : 1 No positive bacteriological samples within past 12 months. 12 Soft (150 p.p.m. or less hardness). 142 Palatable (no taste or odor). 12 Nonstaining. 12 Noncorrosive. 12 Free of flammable gases. 12 Clear (turbidity 5.0 p.p.m. or less, color 10 or less).

-SCORE (maximum 4)

Future program.-List measures to be taken to overcome deficiencies shown herein; then number to suggest priority.


An adequate sanitary sewerage system serving the entire community is essential for the health and convenience of its inhabitants. It must also be adequate to meet the needs of industries, except large industries that provide their own sewage disposal facilities. It should be adequate not only for present needs but also to meet future needs as the community grows.


Standard.—The entire developed area within the city limits should be served by sanitary sewers.

Action.—Engineering and construction plans to sewer any developed areas not now sewered should be advanced as rapidly as possible. Consulting engineers should prepare plans. MTAS can advise on financial aspects. Sewers should always be provided as new areas are developed. II. Connections

Standard.-All residences and businesses in the areas served by sewers should be connected to the sewers.

Action.—The city should require by ordinance and enforce the connection of all residences and businesses to accessible sewers. III. Outdoor toilets

Standard.—There should be no outdoor toilets in the city.

Action.-Except in areas where no other means of sewage disposal is practicable, outdoor toilets should be prohibited by ordinance, and action taken to insure 100 percent compliance with the ordinance. Similar action should be obtained in the built-up urban fringe area around the city, by securing the cooperation of other governmental agencies. IV. Nonsewered areas

Standard.In nonsewered areas in and adjacent to the city, sewage disposal facilities should meet the standards of the State department of public health.

Action.-It may be virtually impossible to sewer certain limited areas, and it may require some time to extend sewers to other areas. Approved septic tank systems, and in some cases outdoor toilets constructed and maintained strictly in accordance with minimum standards, should be required pending a vailability of sewers or upgrading to a better system (such as replacing outdoor toilets with septic tank systems). V. Surface drainage

Standard. --Storm and sanitary sewers should not be combined. Connection of roof or other surface drains to sanitary sewers should be prohibited.

Action.--Surveys should be made to determine the extent to which this standard does not prevail. Engineering and construction plans should be advanced as rapidly as possible to separate any combined storm-sanitary sewers. An ordinance, thoroughly enforced, should require disconnecttion of any roof or other surface drains from sanitary sewers and prohibit any such connections in the future. VI. Sewage treatment

Standard.—The city should treat all sewage in accordance with standards established by the Tennessee Stream Pollution Control Board. If the city is not satisfactorily treating sewage, it should comply with all orders of the board directed toward this objective.

Action.—Most cities will be required to have a sewage treatment plant, but the board may approve a less expensive, lagoon-type of treatment for small towns. An engineer should be retained to prepare plans, and construction should take place as soon as possible. MTAS can advise on financing aspects. Orders issued by the board should be complied with promptly.

VII. Management

Standard. It is desirable that the water and sewer system be under the same management.

Action.-If this is not the case, a change to such consolidated management should be studied. Generally this is more satisfactory but in exceptional cases separation may be preferred. MTAS can assist in making such a study.



I. Extent of system

The percentage of the developed area within the city limits served by sanitary sewers is: 20 90 to 100 percent.

75 to 90 percent. 10 50 to 75 percent. 5 25 to 50 percent. 0 less than 50 percent.

------SCORE (Maximum 20; II. Connections

(a) The percentage of residences and businesses in the area served by sewers which are connected to sewers is : 12 100 percent 9 90 to 100 percent 6 75 to 90 percent 3 50 to 75 percent 0 less than 50 percent

-SCORE (Maximum 12) (6) Does the city by ordinance enforce connection of all residences and businesses to accessible sewers ? 8

yes 0 no

SCORE (Maximum 8) III. Outdoor toilets

(a) Are there any outdoor toilets within the city ? 5 0 yes

-SCORE (Maximum 5) (6) Are there any outdoor toilets in the build-up urban fringe around the city ? 5

no 0 yes

SCORE (Maximum 5) IV. Nonsewered areas

Do sewage disposal facilities in all nonsewered areas in and adjacent to the city meet minimum standards of the State Department of Public Health ? 7 yes 3 mostly 0 --- no

--SCORE (Maximum 7) V. Surface drainage

(a) The percentage of sewers which are combined storm-santiary sewers is : 10 O percent 7 0 percent-10 percent 3 10 percent-25 percent 0 over 25 percent

----SCORE (Maximum 10) (6) Does the city prohibit connection of roof or other surface drains to sanitary sewers and require the disconnection of any such existing connections? Are both enforced ? 5

yes 0





_SCORE (Maximum 5) VI. Sewage treatment

(a) Is all sewage treated in a manner approved by the Tennessee Stream Pollution Control Board ? 15

yes 0 no

_SCORE (Maximum 15) (0) If answer to (a) is “no,” have all orders of the board been complied with? (If no orders have been received, answer yes) : 5

yes 0

--SCORE (Maximum 5) (0) The maximum day's flow last year divided by daily capacity of treatment facilities produces : 8

less than 75 percent 4

75–100 percent
over 100 percent

---SCORE (Maximum 8) (d) Is the operator of sewage treatment facilities certified by the State? 2

yes 0

--SCORE (Maximum 2) VII. Management

Are the water and sewer systems under the same management? 3

yes 0

--SCORE (Maximum 3) Future program.—List measures to be taken to overcome deficiencies shown herein; then number to suggest priority.




The health of the population should be a primary consideration of every local government. Public health programs should be adequate to prevent disease and to safeguard the health of the community. Medical personnel and facilities should be adequate to provide medical treatment to all people in the community.


I. Governmental health agency

Standard.There should be a local public health agency in operation and responsible for the welfare of the community. This may be operated as a municipal function, combined city-county function, or as a county function with services to the urban area.

Action. If such services are not provided, the State department of public health should be contacted for exploration of need and guidance in establishing such services. II. A dequacy of staff

Standard.Every community should have the services of a public health officer, public health sanitarians, and public health nurses in reasonable ratio to population.

Act ion.-A full-time or part-time public health officer should be employed. If there is less than 1 sanitarian per 15,000 population or less than 1 public health nurse to 5,000 population, additional funds should be provided and competent personnel should be employed. III. Financial support

Standard.--A general standard of $1 to $2 per capita is suggested for expenditure on basic public health purposes (exclusive of indigent hospitalization


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