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JUNE 21 (legislative day, JUNE 20), 1955.—Ordered to be printed

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INTRODUCTION

By Hon. Alexander Wiley, Senior Republican, Senate Committee on

Foreign Relations

* * *

Three dates have assumed deepest significance for mankind.

On December 8, 1953, the President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower, in an address before the General Assembly of the United Nations, proposed that governmentsbegin now and continue to make joint contributions from their stockpiles of normal uranium and fissionable materials to an international atomic energy agency The more important responsibility of this atomic energy agency would be to devise methods whereby this fissionable material would be allocated to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind. Experts would be mobilized to apply atomic energy to the needs of agriculture, medicine, and other peaceful activities. A special purpose would be to provide abundant electrical energy to the power-starved areas of the world.

On December 4, 1954, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution endorsing the proposed establishment of an International Atomic Energy Agency. The resolution directed that an international technical conference be held under the auspices of the United Nations for the purpose of exploring means of developing the peaceful uses of atomic energy through international cooperation.

August 8, 1955 marked the opening of the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy.

Between these three historic dates of December 8, 1953, December 4, 1954, and August 8, 1955, an important and promising era of world history has begun to unfold.

PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT

It is the purpose of this manual to chronicle, step by step, the many developments on atoms-for-peace during these 14 crowded years.

What is related here is, however, more than the story of international cooperation in a bold, new field of scientific endeavor. Rather, there are many stories involved in this chronicle, all of which fortunately are promising, all of which are inspiring. Thus, we see at once all of these attributes:

FIVEFOLD INSPIRING MEANING

1. The unalterable dedication of the Government and the people of the United States toward the attainment and maintenance of a world of peace and plenty for all.

2. The tireless devotion of the American Government and people to the task of finding and sealing a basis for cooperation between East and West, relieving tensions and seeking the elimination of the cloud of nuclear war which has for so long hovered over mankind.

3. The resourcefulness and enterprise of the American free-enterprise system which is acting speedily to fulfill the mandate of the United States Congress for civilian application of atomic energy.

4. The vitality of the United Nations and of its affiliated agencies which have contributed immeasurably toward the fulfillment of the deep desires in the heart of mankind for peaceful use of atomic energy.

5. The teamwork of the respective nations in cooperating bilaterally and multilaterally to realize the universal promise of science.

The story of these and other meanings is still in its opening phases. In the months and years which are up ahead, the beginnings, which have been herein depicted, will be carried forward with an everincreasing tempo of achievement.

SIGNIFICANCE TO AVERAGE MAN

The average layman may only vaguely understand the technical process by which vast amounts of energy are released from the splitting of the atom. But he can definitely appreciate the ultimate significance to himself and to his loved ones in the making available of plentiful low-cost energy, particularly in power-short underdeveloped areas. He can appreciate the miracle of new healing weapons for the eradication of man's age-old enemy of disease and new tools to increase food production so as to eliminate his age-old enemy of hunger.

Indeed, few news developments within the memory of living man have more stirred the imagination of human beings everywhere, than has the atoms-for-peace effort. Few developments have provided man with more substantial hope that, once and for all, men might be able to break the tragic pattern of the diversion of so much of science to war, a pattern which has brought such suffering and dread to mankind.

WORDS WHICH COME ALIVE IN ACTION The contents of this manual, expressed as they are, lørgely in the language of international diplomacy and national legislation, may seem relatively cold and formal.

But actually, in the words on the pages which follow, there is a warm and living vitality. There is dramatic meaning for example, in the agreements for cooperation through which the United States will generously provide the fissionable material and technical know-how for the operation of research reactors abroad.

There is human warmth and vitality in the opening of a school at the Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, where the scientists and technicians of foreign lands may equip themselves for fuller contributions to the breathtaking vistas of the world of tomorrow; equally so, in the continuing training course in isotope ore at the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies.

AMERICA'S WELCOME MISSION

Surveying recent progress, few if any people inwardly rejoice more in the carrying through of this great mission than do the people of the United States. Few if any people more earnestly desire that the atom shall be the servant of man, of all men, than do the people of my country.

But no people more clearly recognizes that however intense our own feelings, we are not unique in them. For men and women everywhere on the face of the globe share the same fundamental desire-the

people of every nation, every race, every creed, every color, every
standard of living.

It has become the fortunate lot of the American people and of their
Government to play a principal part in the fulfillment of this mission.
And it is our fervent intention to carry forth this mission successfully.

A TASK FOR ALL MEN

But we humbly appreciate that this is not the task of 1 nation or of
2 nations or 3 or 4. This is a universal task, requiring the enlisting of
the resources and capabilities and skills of nations all over the earth,
working as partners toward a common objective.

It is with the belief that this document may contribute to a keener
and readier understanding of the background and magnitude of this
mission that it has been compiled.

CONTENTS SELECTED

Necessarily, no document of such limited size could include all of
the pertinent official and unofficial material. Necessarily, a process
of selection has been followed. But it is hoped that the earnest
researcher in this field will find herein all of the principal materials
necessary for a thorough appreciation of this problem as it unfolded
between December 8, 1953 and mid-July, 1955, the cut-off period of
this document.

RELATED MATERIAL OFTEN INCLUDED

Sometimes, the reader will find herein material not directly related
to the atoms-for-peace effort, as such, but indirectly related to it; this
is because material has been preserved in its larger context wherever
necessary for complete understanding.

THANKS TO MANY SOURCES AND COUNSEL, MR. J. N. CAHN
I should like now to express my thanks to all of the sources in the
legislative and executive branches of Government which contributed
in the compilation of this document, notably the United States De-
partment of State, the Atomic Energy Commission, the United States
Information Agency, and the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy.

I should like, finally, to thank the counsel to the Senate Foreign
Relations Committee, Mr. Julius N. Cahn, for the faithful discharge
of the responsibility of compiling and editing this document. May I
also express appreciation to Kathryn Johnson, of my staff, for her
assistance; to the Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., for its cooperation;
and to the staff of the Government Printing Office for its conscientious
publication work.

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