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Fig. 1. First degree of congenital varus, from the foot of an infant: dorsal

aspect

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2. First degree of congenital varus: inner side of the foot

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3. Second degree of congenital varus, from the foot of an infant

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4. Third degree of congenital varus, from the foot of an infant

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5. Plantar surface of congenital varus, from the foot of an infant

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6. Fourth degree of congenital varus, from the foot of an infant

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7. Congenital varus, from a young man seventeen years of age

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10. Second degree of congenital valgus, from the foot of an infant (Hospital Museum)

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11. Third degree of congenital valgus, from the foot of an infant
12. Congenital calcaneus, from the foot of an infant, a patient of
Mr. Lonsdale's

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13. Congenital equinus, from a child three years of age, a patient of Mr. Lonsdale's

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14, 15, 16. Congenital club-hands and club-foot (the other foot was similarly distorted), from an infant, a patient of Mr. Tamplin's 17, 18. Non-congenital spasmodic talipes equinus and talipo-manus, from an infant

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,, 19. Varus, the result of wound and cicatrix, from a patient of Mr. Tamplin's

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20. Non-congenital valgus, occasioned by retraction of M. Peronei 21. Non-congenital equinus, from a man aged fifty-two

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22. Non-congenital talipes equinus, the anterior portion of the foot retroverted, from a patient of Mr. Tamplin's

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Fig. 23. Non-congenital paralytic calcaneus, from a patient of Mr.
Lonsdale's

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24. Non-congenital paralytic talipes varus, from a patient of Mr.

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PREFACE.

THE following chapters have already appeared in the pages of the Medical Times and Gazette.' Since their publication in that periodical, however, they have been rewritten, and much new matter has been added. The author hopes that, in their present form, they may prove acceptable to those who consult works on this subject. He has endeavoured to weigh with care the various arguments which have, from time to time, been advanced in support of different theories; and in stating his own opinions on these and other disputed points, he has not been unmindful of the respect due to greater experience than his own; yet, he has ever borne in mind the precept of Cullen, that, "Without principles deduced from analytical reasoning, experience is a useless and blind guide."

Many circumstances tend to vitiate statements dignified with the name of experience; but perhaps no circumstance contributes more essentially to error than insufficient education—want of knowledge to appreciate facts, and logically to draw conclusions. To reason accurately demands freedom from prejudice, and a knowledge of facts sufficient to suppress those hypotheses which invade uncultivated minds. And without the mind be constituted to appreciate truth, experience becomes a blind guide, which leads to error as surely as the ignis fatuus misleads the benighted traveller.

Insufficient inquiry and insufficient knowledge to investigate and recognise facts, are fertile sources of error.

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