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T has been our fortune to trace our unhappy ci

vil diflentions down from their original causes and earliest appearance, nearly to the point of their ultimate conclusion, in the feparation of Great Britain and her colonies. In this course, which conItantly required all the labour and attention we were capable of bestowing, we were, by degrees, unwittingly led into the execution of a work far beyond our ability and powers; and upon which we could scarcely have ventured, had we foreseen its extent and difficulty. · We were led into the history of a war of such a magnitude, as would have afforded a full scope to the genius of the first writers :-a war, by far the most dangerous in which the British nation was ever involved; of the first rank in point of action and event; but of still wider importance, when considered with a view to its actual or probable consequences. It has already overturned those favourite Systems of policy and commerce, both in the old and in the new world, which the wisdom of

ages and the power of the greatest nations had in vain endeavoured to render permanent; and it seems to have laid the feeds of itill greater revolutions in the history and mutual relations of mankind.

Unequal

Unequal as we were to the task, and under all the obvious difficulties and disadvantages attending the writing and publication of bistory immediately on the heel of action, we have fortunately had no , occasion to regret our temerity. The increasing favour we experience from the public at home, and the diftinguished reception which our work meets with abroad, not only in those extensive parts of the world where the English language is vernacular, but wherever the general affairs of mankind are so far known as to be interesting, and are adınitted to become subjects of free discussion, have fully qualified all our apprehenfions, and amply repaid our labours. In these circumstances, instead of repining at any expence of labour or time, it will ever be our pride that we happened to be the early and faithful recorders of events of such magnitude and celebrity, and that we have been at any period capable of producing a work which has met with such general approbation.

The repeated complaints which have been made, relative to the delay of the present publication, has compelled us to the painful necessity of running more into egotism, and bringing ourselves more forward upon this occasion than usual.

As it may now be hoped that the return of the public tranquillity will afford fome considerable relaxation of our labour (for we shall claim none with respect to care and affiduity) fo, by degrees, a due punctuality as to the season of publication, will be a neceflàry consequence.

THE

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Retrospective view of affairs in the East, which led to the late alarming and dan

gerous fituation of the British empire in India. State of the native porvers, with respect to each other, and to the East India Company. Greatness of the Maratta empire ; and nature of its power, resources, and government. Infant Ram-Rajah deposed, and a government of ministers, called the Paishuajhift

, substituted in his place. Ragonaut Row being obliged 10 abandon Poonah and his coune try, for the alassination of his nephew the young Paishwa, flies for refuge to Borsa bay. Protection afforded to Ragonaut ; lays the foundation of all the subsequent wars with the Marnttas. Treaty of friendjhip and alliance between the Eaft India Company and Hyder dilly, concluded at Madras in the year 1769. Re

. fusal to furnish Hyder with the fuccours flipulated by treaty in his subsequent ruincus war with the Marattas, estranges that prince from the Company, and oce cafions his embracing French connections. Treaty concluded at Bombay with Ragmaut Row. War entered into with the Marattas

for his restoration so power. Island of Salfette, Baroach, and other places conquered. Treaty of Poonak, by VOL. XXV.

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which Ragonaut is to be given up, and the new conquests are confirmed to the Company. New Systems of policy adopted. Ragonaut Row is ftill protected, and various intrigues entered into for a revolution in the Maratta government in his favour. New demands to be made ujon tire court of Poonah, the rejection of which are to be deemed violations of the late treaty. Strong military porce, under Colonel Leflie, fent across the continent from Bengal. Proceedings of that detachment; Leslie

; dies, and is succeeded by Colonel Goddard. Projoals for a treaty with Mooda. jie Boosia, tke Rajah of Berar, for placing him at the head of the Ilaratta empire. The court of Poonah refusing to comply with the new demands, the British refident is withdrawn,

and the Bombay army landed on the continent, in ordler to accompany Ragonaut Row to that capital. The army being surrounded, and all

. means of retrent cut off, a capitulation takes place. Moderare terms imiofed by the Marattas in the treaty of Worgaum. Ragonaut Row is given up, and the army conducted by a body of Maratta horfe to the sea-couf, where it embarks for Bombay.

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T

VHB success which attended gaging much in their particular

the British arms in the year quarrels, would enable the Com1778, by the taking of Pondi- pany to become the arbiter of locherry, and the entire reduction dia, and tend equally to the geneof all the French settlements in ral tranquillity, and to the maintethat part of the world, seemed, nance of their own superiority. along with the powerful armies in It was accordingly hoped at the hands of the East India Com. home, and afforded no small conpany, and the naval force destined folation in the most alarming situato their support under Sir Eduard tion which we had ever yet expe. Hughes, fully fufficient, not only rienced, that, however Great Brito fecure their present tranquillity, tain might have been overborne in but to lay such a foundation of that very unequal contest which strength and prosperity as could the was doomed to sustain in every not easily be shaken. They were other. quarter of the globe, yei, now freed from their only Euro- that her dominion and commerce pean competitor, and from a most in the East being happily free from active and enterprizing neighbour, the contingencies of war, still rewhose spirit of intrigue, as well as mained whole and unimpaired; and power, whether in war or in peace, might prove an unfailing resource would constantly afford matter of of wealth and of strength in the jealousy, if not of apprehenfion; worst event. and as wars and conquests had not Such were the hopes of the pub. originally been proposed as the lic, and such perhaps the speculaend of that institution, and were 'tions of statesinen. But the affairs, sendered ftill lefs fo by the state of of nations, their adversity and suc. affairs in Europe, it was fupposed cefs, often depend upon unforeseen that it would require no great re- circumstances, which political fafinement in policy. or in condu&t to gacity cannot always provide a. preferve such a balance between gainit. The experience of ages the native powers, as, without en.. has thewn that it is exceedingly

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