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the entire series. Hence, the transitions, apparent in my arrangement-sometimes, from one part of the book, to another very distant part. My interpretation keeps pace with the succession of events, not with that of revelations. The chronological order is followed- not that of the visions.
Now there is no event foreshown in these sublime prophecies, of earlier date, than the rise of the Antichristian Empire. With tbat event, one of the seven lines of prophecy (the last one) into which this book is distributed, has its beginning; and the one which, in contrast with the other lines,
has the earliest commencement. In the contemplation of the vision of Babylon and the Beast, we set forth on our career of inquiry, at the point in the world's future history, from which the things foreshown in this book will be found to move onwards, in orderly succession, to a designed and magnificent conclusion.
I say, in the world's future history; regarding, not Rome, but Constantinople, as the “Great Babylon " of the Apocalypse, and not the Papacy-but an Infidel King hereafter to be revealed, as the Apocalyptic “Beast." Constantinople is such a city as John saw destroyed—Maritime and Oriental. Rev. xvii, 17—19. Rome is neither. Constantinople is seated, moreover, in the region of which it was foreshown to Daniel, that Antichrist would be the King -the northern quarter of the kingdom of Alexander the Great. (Compare Daniel xi, 36, 37, 45, with 2 Thess. ii, 4, Rev. xiii, 5, 8,). When his empire
was divided after his death among his generals, the northern portion, comprising Macedon and Thrace, fell to Lysimachus. Byzantium, on whose site Constantinople now stands, was the capital of Thrace. If I am met with the objection, that the Angel described Great Babylon to John as “ that great city which reigneth over the kings of the earth”-speaking in the present tense-I answer, that his reference was, to the city present in vision to the Apostle, as reigning, and seen by him destroyed. It was of things future as if they were present, that the Angel was holding discourse with John. Conversing about the city whose destruction John had been called to witness, what evidence is there that Rome was at all in the thoughts of either the Apostle or the Angel ?
Then, note the manner in which the Angel, when discoursing with John, introduced his description of the “ Great City.” And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth. His language plainly supposed the position of these seven mountains to be, at that time, a thing by no means easy to ascertain. The mind that could make the discovery, would be thereby proved to be the mind which hath wisdom.” And, certainly, if the seven hills on which Constantinople is seated, were those to which the Angel's words were meant to apply, the mind which, at that period, could have foreshown that a city, seated on those hills, was the destined metropolis of the world, would have been " the mind wbich hath wisdom
Constantinople was then unborn, and remained so for more than two centuries after these words were spoken. The Angel might, therefore, safely put forth his challenge to any human spirit, to prove, by its discovery of the “ seven mountains on which the woman sitteth,” its title to the character of “ the mind which hath wisdom”-if the Constantinopolitan hills were those present to his thought.
But not so, if the seven hills on wbich Rome is seated, were those of which he spake to John. Millions of minds could, in this case, have responded to his challenge. Indeed, the first guess that every human creature who knew aught of Rome would have been prompted to make, and the only one that, in those days, men were likely to make, would have resolved the difficulty. And then—where would have been the mind which hath wisdom ?
The fact, that “ the wisdom of God in a mystery,” (undiscovered, and by some supposed to be undiscoverable) has in this Book, been hitherto presented to the Church of God, must, in great part, be attributed to the assumption that Rome is the • Great Babylon ” of the Apocalypse. This assumption has been so common as to have become almost universal. And it is so popular as almost to be deemed unquestionable. Yet, it has proved fatal to every scheme of interpretation into which it has been admitted, and must be subversive of every exposition in which it shall hereafter be allowed to have a place, for the simple but sufficient reason that it is an unwarranted assumption: one, which Holy Scripture does not support-one, with which the course of past events has not agreed, and cannot be made to agree. To force it to do so, the strangest liberties have been taken with the language of the Apocalypse ; but in vain. The Church of God remains unsatisfied ; andtill looking elsewhere than to Rome for the " great City” of John's visions—will continue to be so. Rome cannot be the Babylon of the Apocalypse. For we cannot make Rome a maritime City, nor an Oriental City: nor can we place her in the region out of which Inspired Prophecy foretells that Antichrist shall arise--the northern quarter of the kingdom of Alexander the Great: nor show her to be a city, whose location it was so difficult to discover at. the time when the angel spake to John, that he who should then make the discovery, would be the declared possessor of “the mind which hath wisdom.” Constantinople has, however, all these Scripturally delineated features of the destined Metropolis of the Antichristian Empire, and is, besides, as strictly as Rome is, a city seated on seven mountains."
Here, then, we commence our contemplationswith the rise of the Antichristian Empire, having Constantinople as its metropolis : the time, as yet future and unknown. It is to have its first development under seven kings, of whom one will be Antichrist. The first five kings are represented as “fallen.” (Section iv.) The chronology of this Book opens with the sixth King-the “one” that “is.” We
are to suppose ourselves brought to that period in future time. Then
Section V. The scene of action changes-from earth to heaven; where we behold preparation made for the Judgment on Antichrist. A second and third line of prophecy (Lines i. iv.) open upon us. (See Sections v. vi.) “The Judgment is set" Beast, “and the Books opened”.
-as it had been foreshown, ages before, to the Prophet Daniel, that they would be. Dan. vii, 9, 10. Then-Judgment is executed-first, on Satan, as the representative of the Beast, then on the Beast himself.
With the casting down of Satan and his angels to the earth, the Calendar of Prophecy begins to assume a definite character. We are brought to the day 2400 before our Lord's next Advent.
Section XVII. We return to the Line of Prophecy from which, at Sect. V., we diverged—and witness the execution of Judgment on the Beast. Then we contemplate his foretold re-appearance, and the contemporaneous accession to power of the Ten Kings, who, with him, are to compose the Antichristian Confederation. (For the time of these events, see the Analysis.)
Section XX. We enter on a fourth Line (Line v.) of Prophecy, which presents to our view Antichrist restored. The seven kings are gone. We no longer see crowns on the seven heads of the Beast. The Ten Horns now have crowns upon them. The rise of the Beast is reverted to. His identity with the Fourth Beast of Daniel's vision (vü, 7) is shown. His death