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Chairman HAYDEN. Will you please explain the situation which requires this appropriation ?

Mr. Fox. Yes, sir. Senator Hayden, I have a statement here for the record. We will explain the need for this supplemental due to the flood situation which was without precedent in Montana.

The statement covers the needs for this supplemental in terms of the restoration work for the structures and the watershed protection, the cleaning out of debris from the streams, and the rehabilitation of certain structures that are included in this estimate. I submit the statement for the record.



Ten national forests suffered serious damages from the most severe floods in their history.

About 90 percent of this damage was to roads and trails ($8.9 million). For fiscal years 1964 and 1965 an additional apportionment was received to obligate $7.2 million for repair of this damage within authorizations already made by the Congress. The remainder of the road and trail damage is being deferred until fiscal year 1966.

This supplemental, therefore, is confined to $940,000 for repair and restoration of items covered within the forest land management appropriation. Within that appropriation a total estimated damage of $1,974,000 was sustained. To obtain prompt action in this emergency situation, a total of $205,000 was used from fiscal year 1964 forest land management funds. About $30,000 of this amount was in assisting in saving life and property from losses during the flood. Immediate attention was given to the more important items to meet temporary forest fire control improvement restoration needs. The Congress directed that repair of recreation facilities should be made from the regular fiscal year 1965 appropriations; $350,000 was the amount of this damage. About $82,000 additional is being expended on urgent restoration work from regular fiscal year 1965 funds. About $397,000 represents deferral and cooperative financing anticipated. This leaves the $940,000 for this supplemental which is about one-half the damage sustained from items in this appropriation.

Three work centers and two cabins, including all of the facilities, were completely wiped out. Four ranger stations were flooded and two other work centers damaged. Three airfields used for fire and administrative work were damaged. Telephone lines, firé control structures, water systems, and various other administrative improvements sustained considerable damage.

The flood left large debris jams, undercut banks, and scoured stream channels in numerous headwater streams above towns, agricultural lands, and reservoirs. If these streams are left untreated, they will continue to be a source of heavy sedimentation which will be deposited in downstream reservoirs and on farmlands, prevent recovery of the habitat for fishery purposes, and could trigger additional floods under near normal runoff conditions with the resultant threat to loss of life and property. The debris jams also constitute intolerable fire risks. They are situated at scattered and frequently hard to reach points at the bottom of the slopes. Fires will start easily and rapidly attain a rate of spread potential beyond the capability of suppression forces. Under these circumstances, a fire starting in just one of these debris jams would likely result in damaging forest fires where suppression costs alone might exceed the cost of the total treatment proposed.

Debris jams act as temporary dams. Water backs up behind them, then suddenly the jam breaks apart to release a surge of floodwater which triggers a series of failures at each similar spot in the channel below. The effect is to create flood behavior under normal runoff conditions.

Undercut banks, until stabilized, continue to erode which, together with sloughing of the steepened banks, contribute large quantities of sediment to the stream. The sediment then travels downstream to be deposited in reservoirs and on farmlands to which the streams are tributary. En route, the sediment-laden water destroys micro-organisms which are the food supply for fish and destroys the spawning capability of the stream channel.

The scoured stream channels greatly speed up the discharge of water from tributary lands thus creating rapid peaking of floodwaters in the main downstream channels. Permanently installed obstructions in the stream channels reduce the rate of flow, create small pools to catch suspended sediment, and to provide improved fish habitat,

This work, including the reseeding, should be done during the summer and early fall of 1964 to prevent further aggravation of conditions during next spring's high runoff period. The reduction of sediment and the development of pools and cover for fish would be incidental to the streambank and channel stabilization work. It can be most efficiently handled while the crews and equipment are in the area.

The work contemplated would not completely repair the damage. It will reduce the greatly increased fire hazard, reduce conditions which could contribute to serious flood damage under near normal runoff conditions, and put the area in condition for the natural healing process to begin.


Chairman HAYDEN. Your regular appropriation for forest land management is $198,584,000. Except for recreation construction, are you able to absorb the cost of any of the flood damage?

Mr. Fox. Senator Hayden, in this statement I have included the amount of this total damage that we have been able to absorb. We absorbed some costs in the latter part of last fiscal year during and immediately after the flood and before the fiscal year 1965 appropriation was available.

In our regular appropriations your committee and the Appropriations Committee directed us to use $350,000 of our regular appropriations this year for restoration of the recreation improvement damage.

This has been done. In addition, we absorbed some additional costs this fiscal year. For one airstrip the replacement will be a cooperatively financed project with the State aeronautical board and FAÀ. And then there will be some deferral until succeeding years.

What we have included here are items that we do not feel that we would be able to absorb this year without very considerable reprograming from high priority projects.

Senator YOUNG. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question?
These funds are solely for the purpose of repairing flood damage?

Mr. Fox. Yes.
Senator Young. They are only for the purpose I stated ?
Mr. Fox. Yes.
Senator Young. What would you do?

RESTORATION OF STRUCTURES Mr. PAYNE. There are three kinds of work primarily. One is restoration of structures.

Senator YOUNG. What kind of structures?
Mr. PAYNE. Replacement of structures.
Senator YOUNG. What kind of structures?

Mr. PAYNE. There were some ranger stations destroyed. Some water systems were washed out and the Spotted Bear Ranger Station including the water system and sanitary system were destroyed. There were some administrative cabins both within and outside the wilderness area. There was a work center on the Flathead Forest, a combination bunkhouse-office building and similar type structures.

Senator YOUNG. Mr. Chairman, perhaps we could have that list put in the record. Chairman HAYDEN. Yes. Mr. Fox. We will submit a list for the record. (The list referred to follows:)




(a) Administrative and fire control improvements:
Sewer and water systems.--
Pastures, fences, and cattleguards.
Office-bunkhouse combination building-
Garage-warehouse combination building-
Miscellaneous small improvements.

(b) Sixty-six miles of telephone line.
(c) Three airfields.

1 1 1 51 14

2. WILDLIFE HABITAT MANAGEMENT (a) Projects required for restoration of fish habitat:

Number National forests

of projects National forests Clearwater

12 Lewis and Clark.-Nezperce

12 Lolo--Flathead

6 Coeur d'Alene... Helena_

5 Kaniksu_



Number of projects

2 4 1



Number of miles

(a) Channel restoration, clearing, and bank stabilization:

Number National forests

of miles National forests Clearwater-

6 Lewis and Clark.. Nezperce_

12 LoloFlathead

13 Coeur d'Alene. Helena

3 Kaniksu.




3 8


(6) Restore existing soil stabilization projects previously installed :

Number National forests

of miles National forests Clearwater---

2 Bitterroot--Lolo---

1 Flathead -Kaniksu.

1 Coeur d'Alene.--



Number of miles

1 1



Senator YOUNG. Does the airstrip belong to the Forest Service? Mr. Fox. The three airstrips damaged belong to the Forest Service. The one on which the cooperative funds will be used is a nearby replacement. It will be a common use airfield. It is within the forest, on national forest land, but it makes it better for all of us and reduces the cost to get this cooperation.

Senator Young. To whom does it belong now? Who is maintaining it?

Mr. Fox. This will be a joint operation we will be able to use it for every need the Forest Service will have. It will be on national forest lands.

Senator Young. To whom does it belong now? Mr. Fox. What there is there now belongs to the Forest Service. Senator Young. Do you maintain it? Mr. Fox. Yes, just a strip. Senator YOUNG. Will you improve it? Mr. Fox. Yes. Mr. PAYNE. With cooperative funds and with funds from this supplemental.

Senator Young. Do you have no other funds that you can use for this purpose?

Mr. Fox. Senator, we do have funds in our regular appropriation which could be used for this type of work that we have justified before you in the Appropriations Committee for other items before this flood occurred.

To the extent of this item or to the extent of the entire $940,000, if we meet that from our regular appropriations, it would mean delaying and deferring the high-priority projects which we justified in our testimony on the work which would be done with our fiscal year 1965 appropriations.

Senator Young. That is all. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.
Chairman HAYDEN. Thank you, gentlemen.


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