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whose responsibilities are most closely (ii) Flight opportunities will now related to the particular scientific or generally be limited to professional engineering discipline associated with NASA astronauts and payload speciala payload. For all other payloads, the ists essential for mission requirements; payload sponsor is identified by the and Associate Administrator who contracts (iii) Top priority must be given to: with the agency or organization, (A) Establishing, proving, and mainwhether foreign or domestic, private. taining the reliability and safety of sector or governmental, to fly a pay: the Shuttle system; load on the STS.
(B) Timely and efficient reduction of (h) Unique requirements. The need the backlog of high priority scientific for a highly specialized or unusual and national security missions; and technical or professional background maximum utilization of the Shuttle or the need for instrument operations capacity for primary and secondary requiring a highly specialized or un payloads that require transportation usual background that is not likely to to or from orbit by the Space Shuttle. be found in the group of mission spe (3) All Shuttle flights will be cialists or cannot be attained in a rea planned with a minimum NASA crew sonable training period.
of five astronauts (commander, pilot,
and three mission specialists). When 8 1214.302 Background.
payload or other mission requirements (a) The Space Transportation define a need and operational conSystem (STS) has been developed to straints permit, the crew size can be expand the Nation's capabilities to uti increased to a maximum of seven. Any lize the unique environment of space. such additional crew members must be It provides opportunity for individuals identified at least 12 months before other than career astronauts to par- flight and be available for crew inteticipate as onboard members of the gration at 6 months. flight crew under specified conditions. (4) NASA policy and terminology are The purpose of such participation by revised to recognize two categories of these individuals is to ensure the persons other than NASA astronauts, achievement of the payload or mis each of which requires separate policy sion-related objectives.
treatment. They are: (b) The STS will provide these addi. (i) Payload specialists, redefined to tional crew members with a habitable refer to persons other than NASA asworking environment and support tronauts (commanders, pilots, and misservices in such a way as to require a sion specialists), whose presence is reminimum of dedicated space flight quired onboard the Space Shuttle to training, allowing them to concentrate perform specialized functions with retheir efforts on the accomplishment of spect to operation of one or more paytheir scientific, technical, or mission loads or other essential mission activiobjectives.
(ii) Space flight participants, defined 8 1214.303 Policy.
to refer to persons whose presence on(a) General. (1) The Challenger acci- board the Space Shuttle is not redent marked a major change in the quired for operation of payloads or for U.S. outlook and policies with respect other essential mission activities, but to the flight of other than NASA as- is determined by the Administrator of tronauts. NASA and interested exter NASA to contribute to other approved nal parties, domestic and internation- NASA objectives or to be in the naal, must re-examine previous under- tional interest. standings, expectations, and commit- (b) Payload specialists. Payload spements regarding flight opportunities cialists may be added to Shuttle crews in light of the new policies now being when more than the minimum crew enunciated.
size of five is needed and unique re(2) NASA policies and their imple quirements are involved. In the case of mentation recognize that:
foreign-sponsored missions and pay. (1) Every flight of the Shuttle in loads, the need and requirements for volves risks;
payload specialists will be negotiated
and mutually agreed between the for- Associate Administrator for Space eign sponsors and NASA. The selec- Flight. tion process for additional crew mem- (b) Selection of additional crew bers to meet approved requirements members for NASA and NASA-related will first give consideration to quali. payloads. After the requirement for fied NASA mission specialists. When additional crew members has been espayload specialists are required, they tablished, the IWG will be tasked by will be nominated by the appropriate the payload sponsor to commence the NASA, foreign, or other designated selection process. The IWG review payload sponsor. In the case of NASA process will include the participation or NASA-related payloads, the nomi of a senior astronaut from the Flight nations will be based on the recom Crew Operations Directorate at the mendations of the appropriate Investi. Johnson Space Center who will progator Working Group (IWG).
vide operational and applicant suit(c) Space flight participants. NASA ability criteria. remains committed to the long-term (1) Prior to the payload sponsor's goal of providing space flight opportu. recommendation for additional crew nities for persons outside the profes- members and at his/her direction, the sional categories of NASA astronauts IWG will have studied the requireand payload specialists when this con ments of the selected investigations, tributes to approved NASA objectives the number, qualifications, training or is determined to be in the national requirements and other requirements interest. However, NASA is devoting of payload specialists, and backups its attention to proving the Shuttle necessary to support the payload obsystem's capablity for safe, reliable op- jectives, and made recommendations eration and to reducing the backlog of to the payload sponsor. high priority missions. Accordingly, (2) Members of the mission specialist flight opportunities for space flight cadre will be considered first. The payparticipants are not available at this load mission manager, on behalf of the time. NASA will assess Shuttle oper- IWG, will convey the selection criteria ations and mission and payload re- for the proposed additional crew memquirements on an annual basis to de- bers to the Chief, Astronaut Office. termine when it can begin to allocate
The IWG, the mission manager, and and assign space flight opportunities
the Astronaut Office will coordinate for future space flight participants, the review of the proposed candidates consistent with safety and mission and the mission manager will forward considerations. When NASA deter- recommendations to the payload sponmines that a flight opportunity is sor. Recommendations from the payavailable for a space flight participant, load sponsor will be submitted to the first priority will be given to a "teach Associate Administrator for Space er in space," in fulfillment of space Flight for approval. education plans.
(3) If mission specialists meeting the
requirements cannot be provided be8 1214.304 Process.
cause of the uniqueness of require(a) Determining the need for addi ments or impracticability of the resulttional crew members. The payload ant training obligation, or if backup sponsor will be responsible for recom- payload specialists are required, the mending the number of addition crew IWG may then solicit candidate paymembers and for establishing the load specialists from outside the technical or scientific need, the selec- career astronaut corps. The solicitation criteria, uniqueness of qualifica- tion will require, as a minimum, that a tions, the proposed training, and other summary of professional qualifications requirements for the additional crew be submitted to the IWG. In addition, members. The payload sponsor's re- a medical history, and the results of quirements for additional crew mem the physical examination described in bers, their qualifications, and the pro- paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section posed duration for training will be re- will be required. The IWG will be reviewed with and concurred in by the sponsible for:
(1) Establishing professional and (3) The committee or procedure in operational criteria for payload spe paragraph (c)(1) of this section and cialists for specific payloads. The crite the person named in paragraph (c)(2) ria will include willingness on the part of this section will be established of the candidate to accept the applica during the negotiations between the ble provisions of $ 1214.306 and satis foreign sponsor and NASA, consistent factory completion of a background in with the specific circumstances. vestigation conducted to NASA's (4) The payload sponsor will also be standards, as determined by the Direc responsible for submission to NASA by tor, NASA Security Office.
an appropriate authority of written as(ii) Evaluating all candidates using surance that an inquiry has been made the criteria established.
into the recommended payload spe(iii) Determining which candidate cialist's background and suitability on payload specialists, who meet the the basis of standards similar to those NASA Class III Space Flight Medical applied to NASA payload specialist Selection Standards, are deemed best candidates and a statement by the seprofessionally qualified. (The preselec lected candidate asserting a willing. tion phases of the medical examina ness to accept the applicable provition will be conducted at Johnson sions of $ 1214.306. These written asSpace Center by certified examiners surances must be received and acceptapproved by the Director, Life Sci- ed by NASA before selection and ences Division, NASA Headquarters). before any NASA training can begin.
(iv) Submitting its recommendations (d) Selection of additional crew for payload specialists through the members for other payloads. After the mission manager to the payload spon request for additional crew members is sor who in turn will determine final approved, the payload sponsor will recommendations which will be re commence the selection process. The viewed with and concurred in by the payload sponsor review process will inAssociate Administrator for Space clude the participation of a senior asFlight.
tronaut from the Flight Crew Oper(4) The payload sponsor and the As- ations Directorate at the Johnson sociate Administrator for Space Flight Space Center who will provide operwill advise the Administrator of the ational and applicant suitability critepayload specialist selections.
ria. (c) Selection of additional crew (1) The payload sponsor will first members for foreign payloads. The consider members of the mission speneed and requirements for payload cialist cadre. A representative of the specialists will be negotiated and mu payload sponsor selection committee tually agreed to between the foreign will convey the selection criteria for sponsor and NASA. This negotiating the proposed payload specialists to the process will include the participation Chief, Astronaut Office, and coordi. of a senior astronaut from the Flight nate on the recommendations for misCrew Operations Directorate at the sion specialists to satisfy the requireJohnson Space Center who will pro- ments. The recommendations will be vide operational and applicant suit submitted to the Associate Adminisability criteria. After agreement is trator for Space Flight for approval reached, the payload sponsor will initi- who will then advise the Administraate the selection process. Subject to tor of the selections. the negotiated agreement, subsequent (2) If mission specialists meeting the steps in the process will be similar to requirements cannot be provided bethose described in $ 1214.304(b) modi. cause of the uniqueness of qualificafied as follows:
tions or impracticability of the result(1) The IWG functions will be per- ant training obligation, the payload formed by a selection committee or sponsor selection committee, with conother procedure designated by the currence from the payload sponsor payload sponsor
and the Associate Administrator for (2) The payload sponsor will desig Space Flight, may then consider other nate an individual to perform the mis candidate payload specialists. The pay. sion manager functions.
load sponsor will be responsible for:
(i) Establishing professional and Center 6 months prior to flight, unless operational criteria for payload spe otherwise agreed between the payload cialists for specific payloads. The crite sponsor and the Director, Flight Crew ria will include willingness on the part Operations, Johnson Space Center. of the candidate to accept the applica. (3) The payload specialists must be ble provisions of $ 1214.306 and satis certified for flight by the Director, factory completion of a background in Flight Crew Operations, upon satisfacvestigation conducted to NASA's
tory completion of all required trainstandards, as determined by the Direc ing and demonstrated performance of tor, NASA Security Office.
assigned tasks. Certification of the (1) Evaluating all candidates using payload specialist's readiness for flight the criteria established.
will be made to the payload mission (iii) Determining which candidate
manager and will include an assesspayload specialists, who meet the
ment by the crew commander of the NASA Class III Space Flight Medical payload specialist's suitability for Selection Standards, are deemed best
space flight. professionally qualified. (The preselec
(4) The mission manager is responsition phases of the medical examina
ble for verifying to the payload spontion will be conducted at the Johnson
sor that all crew members are properly Space Center by certified examiners
trained for in-flight payload operapproved by the Director, Life Sci
ations. ences Division, NASA Headquarters).
(i) The medical program for payload (iv) Submitting its recommendations
specialists will be continued during the for payload specialist selection to the Associate Administrator for Space
preflight period in accordance with Flight for approval.
the NASA Class III Space Flight Medi
cal Selection Standards. (e) Preflight activities for additional crew members. Mission specialists
(ii) If, during the preflight period, serving as additional crew for the pay
the number of additional crew memload, once selected, will be primarily
bers is reduced to fewer than that responsible to the mission manager
agreed to, or an additional crew who, together with the IWG (or com
member does not meet the certificaparable body designated by the pay
tion requirements, the necessary reload sponsor) and the Director, Flight
processing may be initiated to provide Crew Operations. will determine the replacements consistent with the integrated training and work sched
and workenned above described selection process and ules as appropriate to the areas of re
the STS training requirements. sponsibilities outlined in the following
(f) Designation of primary and paragraphs.
backup payload specialists (when re(1) The IWG for NASA and NASA. quired). At an appropriate time desigrelated payloads or the Payload Spon nated by the mission manager (not sor for all other payloads is responsi later than 9 months prior to flight), ble for defining the training necessary
the IWG for NASA and NASA-related for payload elements within its cogni. payloads or payload sponsor for all zance. The mission manager is respon other payloads will recommend which sible for the total integrated payload payload specialists should be designattraining and will assist the IWG as ed as prime and which as backup. necessary in carrying out the defined However, in cases where mission spetraining activities.
cialists have been selected for the pay. (2) The Director, Flight Crew Oper load specialist position(s), they will be ations, is responsible for establishing considered as primary at the time of the training requirements for payload selection. The recommendations will specialists on Orbiter, Spacelab, and be forwarded by the mission manager STS-provided payload support systems to the Program Office which will as appropriate. In order to enhance review the recommendations and forthe crew integration process, the addi- ward them to the Associate Administional crew members (payload special trator for Space Flight for concurists and additional mission specialists) rence. The payload sponsor and the will be based at the Johnson Space Associate Administrator for Space
Flight will advise the Administrator of tems and standard payload support the selections.
systems, such as Spacelab and Inter(g) Effective date. The described se nal Upper Stage systems. With aplection process will apply to all STS proval of the commander, payload spemissions for which selections have not cialists may operate payload support been approved prior to December 31, systems which have an extensive inter1988.
face with the payload. 8 1214.305 Payload specialist responsibil. 8 1214.306 Payload specialist relationship ities.
with sponsoring institutions. (a) Relationship with flight crew.
Specialists who are not U.S. GovernThe crew commander has overall re
ment employees must enter into a consponsibility for crew integration and
tractual or other arrangement estabthe safe and successful conduct of the
lishing an obligatory relationship with mission. With respect to crew and ve
an institution participating in the payhicle safety, the commander has ulti
load as designated by the payload mate responsibility and authority for
sponsor prior to selection and before all assigned crew duties. The payload
entering into training at a NASA inspecialist is responsible to the author
stallation or NASA-designated locaity of the commander and operates in
tion. Payload specialists who are not compliance with mission rules and
otherwise U.S. Government employees Payload Operation Control Center di
will not become U.S. Government emrectives. Payload specialists are ex
ployees by virtue of being selected as a pected to operate as an integral part
payload specialist. Except as specified of the crew and will participate in
in the following paragraphs of this crew activities as specified by the crew
section, NASA will not enter into any commander.
direct contractual or other arrange(b) Operation of payload elements. The payload specialist will be responsi
ment with individual payload specialble for the operation of the assigned
ists. Any exception must be approved payload elements. Onboard decisions
by the NASA Administrator. concerning assigned payload oper
(a) Payload specialists who are not ations will be made by the payload
citizens of the United States will be respecialist. A payload specialist may be
quired to enter into an agreement with designated to resolve conflicts between
NASA in which they agree to accept the payload elements and approve
and be governed by specified standsuch deviation from the flight plan as
ards of conduct. Any such agreement may arise from equipment failures or
will be signed on behalf of NASA by STS factors. In the instance of STS
the NASA General Counsel or desig. factors, the mission specialist will nee. present the available options for the (b) Payload specialists who are citi. payload-related decisions by the pay
zens of the United States and who are load specialist.
not employees of the U.S. Govern(c) Operation of STS equipment. ment, will be required to enter into an The payload specialist will be responsi. agreement with NASA in which they ble for knowing how to operate certain agree to accept and be governed by Obiter systems, such as hatches, food, specified standards of conduct. Any and hygiene systems, and for profi. such agreement will be signed on ciency in those normal and emergency behalf of NASA by the NASA General procedures which are required for safe Counsel or designee. crew operations, including emergency (c) Payload specialists who are emegress and bail out. The responsibility ployed by a branch, department, or for on-orbit management of Orbiter agency of the U.S. Government oth systems and attached payload support than NASA may (pursuant to the ex. systems and for extravehicular activi. ercise of judgment by the NASA Genty and payload manipulation with the eral Counsel) be required to enter into Remote Manipulator System will rest an agreement with NASA to accept with the NASA flight crew. The NASA and be governed by specified standflight crew will operate Orbiter sys- ards of conduct. Any such agreement