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e. Equipment and other capital expenditures are unallowable as indirect costs. However, see paragraph 9 for allowability of use allowances or depreciation on buildings, cap ital improvements, and equipment. Also, see paragraph 42 for allowability of rental costs for land, buildings, and equipment.

14. Fines and penalties. Cost of fines and penalties resulting from violations of, or failure of the organization to comply with Federal, Stato, and local laws and regulations are unallowable except when incurred as a result of compliance with specific provisions of an award or instructions in writing from the awarding agency.

15. Fringe benefits. See paragraph 6. f. 16. Idle facilities and idle capacity. a. As used in this paragraph the following terms have the meanings set forth below:

(1) Facilities means land and buildings or any portion thereof, equipment individually or collectively, or any other tangible capital asset, wherever located, and whether owned or leased by the organization.

(2) Idle facilities means completely unused facilities that are excess to the organization's current needs.

(3) Idle capacity means the unused capacity of partially used facilities. It is the difference between that which a facility could achieve under 100 per cent operating time on & one-shirt basis less operating interruptions resulting from time lost for repairs, setups, unsatisfactory materials, and other normal delays, and the extent to which the facility was actually used to meet demands during the accounting period. A multishift basis may be used if it can be shown that this amount of usage could normally be expected for the type of facility involved.

(4) Costs of idle facilities of idle capacity means costs such as maintenance, repair. housing, rent, and other related costs; e.g., property taxes, insurance, and depreciation or use allowances.

b. The costs of idle facilities are unallowable except to the extent that:

(1) They are unnecessary to meet fluctuations in workload; or

(2) Although not necessary to meet fluctuations in workload, they were necessary when acquired and are now idle because of changes in program requirements, efforts to achieve more economical operations, reorganization, termination, or other causes which could not have been reasonably foreseen. Under the exception stated in this subparagraph, costs of idle facilities are allowable for a reasonable period of time, ordinarily not to exceed one year, depending upon the initiative taken to use, lease, or dispose of such facilities (but see paragraphs 47.b. and d.).

c. The costs of idle capacity are normal costs of doing business and are a factor in the normal fluctuations of usage or indirect cost rates from period to period. Such costs

are allowable, provided the capacity is reasonably anticipated to be necessary or was originally reasonable and is subject to reduction or elimination by subletting, renting, or sale, in accordance with sound business, economics, or security practices. Widespread idle capacity throughout an entire facility or among a group of assets having substantially the same function may be idle facilities.

17. Independent research and development (Reserved).

18. Insurance and indemnification.

a. Insurance includes insurance which the organization is required to carry, or which is approved, under the terms of the award and any other insurance which the organization maintains in connection with the general conduct of its operations. This paragraph does not apply to insurance which represents fringe benefits for employees (see paragraph 6.f. and 6.8.(2)).

(1) Costs of insurance required or approved, and maintained, pursuant to the award are allowable.

(2) Costs of other insurance maintained by the organization in connection with the general conduct of its operations are allowable subject to the following limitations.

(a) Types and extent of coverage shall be in accordance with sound business practice and the rates and premiums shall be reasonable under the circumstances.

(b) Costs allowed for business interruption or other similar insurance shall be limited to exclude coverage of management fees.

(c) Costs of insurance or of any provisions for a reserve covering the risk of loss or damage to Government property are allowable only to the extent that the organization is liable for such loss or damage.

(d) Provisions for a reserve under a self-insurance program are allowable to the extent that types of coverage, extent of coverage, rates, and premiums would have been allowed had insurance been purchased to cover the risks. However, provision for known or reasonably estimated self-insured liabilities, which do not become payable for more than one year after the provision is made shall not exceed the present value of the liability.

(e) Costs of Insurance on the lives of trustees, officers, or other employees holding positions of similars responsibilities are allowable only to the extent that the insurance represents additional compensation (see paragraph 6). The cost of such insurance when the organization is identified as the beneficiary is unallowable.

(3) Actual losses which could have been covered by permissible insurance (through the purchase of insurance or a self-insurance program) are unallowable unless expressly provided for in the award, except:

(a) Costs incurred because of losses not covered under nominal deductible insurance coverage provided in keeping with sound business practice are allowable.

(b) Minor losses not covered by insurance, cost. Materials and supplies charged as a disuch as spoilage, breakage, and disappear rect cost should include only the materials ance of supplies, which occur in the ordinary and supplies actually used for the performcourse of operations, are allowable.

ance of the contract or grant, and due credit b. Indemnification includes securing the should be given for any excess materials or organization against liabilities to third per supplies retained, or returned to vendors. sons and any other loss or damage, not com 24. Meetings, conferences. pensated by insurance or otherwise. The a. Costs associated with the conduct of Government is obligated to indemnify the meetings, and conferences, and include the organization only to the extent expressly cost of renting facilities, meals, speakers provided in the award.

fees, and the like. But see paragraph 12, En19. Interest, fund raising, and investment

tertainment costs, and paragraph 29, Particimanagement costs.

pant support costs. a. Costs incurred for interest on borrowed

b. To the extent that these costs are idencapital or temporary use of endowment

tifiable with a particular cost objective, they funds, however represented, are unallowable.

should be charged to that objective. (See b. Costs of organized fund raising, includ

paragraph B. of Attachment A.) These costs ing financial campaigns, endowment drives,

are allowable provided that they meet the solicitation of gifts and bequests, and similar

general tests of allowable, shown in Attachexpenses incurred solely to raise capital or

ment A to this Circular. obtain contributions are unallowable.

c. Costs of meetings and conferences held c. Costs of investment counsel and staff

to conduct the general administration of the and similar expenses incurred solely to en

organization are allowable. hance income from investments are unallow

25. Memberships, subscriptions, and profesable. d. Fund raising and investment activities

sional activity costs. shall be allocated an appropriate share of in

a. Costs of the organization's membership direct costs under the conditions described

in civic, business, technical and professional in paragraph B of Attachment A.

organizations are allowable. 20. Labor relations costs. Costs incurred in

b. Costs of the organization's subscriptions maintaining satisfactory relations between

to civic, business, professional, and technical the organization and its employees, includ

periodicals are allowable. ing costs of labor management committees,

c. Costs of attendance at meetings and conemployee publications, and other related ac

ferences, sponsored by others when the pritivities are allowable.

mary purpose is the dissemination of tech21. Losses on other awards. Any excess of

nical information, are allowable. This incosts over income on any award is unallow

cludes costs of meals, transportation, and able as a cost of any other award. This in

other items incidental to such attendance. cludes, but is not limited to, the organiza 26. Organization costs. Expenditures, such tion's contributed portion by reason of cost as incorporation fees, brokers' fees, fees to sharing agreements or any underrecoveries promoters, organizers or management conthrough negotiation of lump sums for, or sultants, attorneys, accountants, or investceilings on, indirect costs.

ment counselors, whether or not employees 22. Maintenance and repair costs. Costs in of the organization, in connection with escurred for necessary maintenance, repair, or tablishment or reorganization of an organiupkeep of buildings and equipment (includ zation, are unallowable except with prior aping Government property unless otherwise proval of the awarding agency. provided for) which neither add to the per 27. Overtime, extra-pay shift, and multishift manent value of the property nor appre premiums. Premiums for overtime, extra-pay ciably prolong its intended life, but keep it shifts, and multishift work are allowable in an efficient operating condition, are al- only with the prior approval of the awarding lowable. Costs incurred for improvements agency except: which add to the permanent value of the &. When necessary to cope with emerbuildings and equipment or appreciably pro- gencies, such as those resulting from accilong their intended life shall be treated as dents, natural disasters, breakdowns of capital expenditures (see paragraph 13).

equipment, or occasional operational bottle23. Materials and supplies. The costs of ma necks of a sporadic nature. terials and supplies necessary to carry out b. When employees are performing indirect an award are allowable. Such costs should be functions such as administration, maintecharged at their actual prices after deduct nance, or accounting. ing all cash discounts, trade discounts, re c. In the performance of tests, laboratory bates, and allowances received by the organi procedures, or other similar operations zation. Withdrawals from general stores or which are continuous in nature and cannot stockrooms should be charged at cost under reasonably be interrupted or otherwise comany recognized method of pricing consist pleted. ently applied. Incoming transportation d. When lower overall cost to the Governcharges may be a proper part of material ment will result.

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28. Page charges in professional journals. special skill, and who are not officers or emPage charges for professional journal publi ployees of the organization, are allowable, cations are allowable as a necessary part of subject to b, c, and d, of this paragraph when research costs, where:

reasonable in relation to the services ren2. The research papers report work sup dered and when not contingent upon recovported by the Government; and

ery of the costs from the Government. b. The charges are levied impartially on all b. In determining the allowability of costs research papers published by the journal, in a particular case, no single factor or any whether or not by Government-sponsored au special combination of factors is necessarily thors.

determinative. However, the following fac29. Participant support costs. Participant tors are relevant: support costs are direct costs for items such (1) The nature and scope of the service renas stipends or subsistence allowances, travel dered in relation to the service required. allowances, and registration fees paid to or (2) The necessity of contracting for the on behalf of participants or trainees (but not service, considering the organization's capaemployees) in connection with meetings, bility in the particular area. conferences, symposia, or training projects. (3) The past pattern of such costs, particuThese costs are allowable with the prior ap larly in the years prior to Government proval of the awarding agency.

awards. 30. Patent costs.

(4) The impact of Government awards on d. Costs of (1) preparing disclosures, re the organization's business (1.e., what now ports, and other documents required by the problems have arisen). award and of searching the art to the extent (5) Whether the proportion of Government necessary to make such disclosures, (11) pre work to the organization's total business 18 paring documents and any other patent costs such as to influence the organization in in connection with the filing and prosecution favor of incurring the cost, particularly of a United States patent application where where the services rendered are not of a contitle or royalty-free license is required by tinuing nature and have little relationship the Government to be conveyed to the Gov- to work under Government grants and conernment, and (111) general counseling serv. tracts. ices relating to patent and copyright mat (6) Whether the service can be performed ters, such as advice on patent and copyright more economically by direct employment laws, regulations, clauses, and employee rather than contracting. agreements are allowable (but see paragraph (7) The qualifications of the individual or 34).

concern rendering the service and the cusb. Cost of preparing disclosures, reports, tomary fees charged, especially on non-Govand other documents and of searching the ernment awards. art to the extent necessary to make disclo (8) Adequacy of the contractual agreement sures, if not required by the award, are unal for the service (e.g., description of the servlowable. Costs in connection with (1) filing ice, estimate of time required, rate of comand prosecuting any foreign patent applica pensation, and termination provisions). tion, or (11) any United States patent appli c. In addition to the factors in paragraph b cation, where the award does not require above, retainer fees to the allowable must be conveying title or a royalty-free license to supported by evidence of bona fide services the Government, are unallowable (also see available or rendered. paragraph 43).

d. Cost of legal, accounting, and consulting 31. Pension plans. See paragraph 6. g.

services, and related costs incurred in con32. Plant security costs. Necessary expenses nection with defense of antitrust suits, and incurred to comply with Government secu the prosecution of claims against the Govrity requirements or for facilities protection, ernment, are unallowable. Costs of legal, acincluding wages, uniforms, and equipment of counting and consulting services, and related personnel are allowable.

costs, incurred in connection with patent in33. Preaward costs. Preaward costs are fringement litigation, organization and reorthose incurred prior to the effective date of ganization, are unallowable unless otherwise the award directly pursuant to the negotia- provided for in the award (but see paragraph tion and in anticipation of the award where 47e). such costs is necessary to comply with the 35. Profits and losses on disposition of depreproposod delivery schedule or period of per- ciable property or other capital assets. formance. Such costs are allowable only to &. (1) Gains and losses on sale, retirement, the extent that they would have been allow or other disposition of depreciable property able if incurred after the date of the award shall be included in the year in which they and only with the written approval of the occur as credits or charges to cost awarding agency.

grouping(s) in which the depreciation appli34. Professional service costs.

cable to such property was included. The &. Costs of professional and consultant amount of the gain or loss to be included as services rendered by persons who are mem- a credit or charge to the appropriate cost bers of a particular profession or possess a grouping(s) shall be the difference between

the amount realized on the property and the undepreciated basis of the property.

(2) Gains and losses on the disposition of depreciable property shall not be recognized as a separate credit or charge under the following conditions.

(a) The gain or loss is processed through a depreciation reserve account and is reflected in the depreciation allowable under paragraph 9.

(b) The property is given in exchange as part of the purchase price of a similar item and the gain or loss is taken into account in determining the depreciation cost basis of the new item.

(c) A loss results from the failure to maintain permissible insurance, except as otherwise provided in paragraph 18.a.(3).

(d) Compensation for the use of the prop erty was provided through use allowances in lieu of depreciation in accordance with paragraph 9.

(e) Gains and losses arising from mass or extraordinary sales, retirements, or other dispositions shall be considered on a case-bycase basis.

b. Gains or losses of any nature arising from the sale or exchange of property other than the property covered in paragraph a. above shall be excluded in computing award costs.

36. Public information service costs. 2. Public information service costs include the cost associated with pamphlets, news releases, and other forms of information services. Such costs are normally incurred to:

(1) Inform or instruct individuals, groups, or the general public.

(2) Interest individuals or groups in participating in a service program of the organization.

(3) Disseminate the results of sponsored and nonsponsored activities.

b. Public information service costs are allowable as direct costs with the prior ap proval of the awarding agency. Such costs are unallowable as indirect costs.

37. Publication and printing costs.

a. Publication costs include the costs of printing (including the processes of composition, plate-making, press work, binding, and the end products produced by such processes), distribution, promotion, mailing, and general handling.

b. If these costs are not identifiable with a particular cost objective, they should be allocated as indirect costs to all benefiting activities of the organization.

c. Publication and printing costs are unallowable as direct costs except with the prior approval of the awarding agency.

d. The cost of page charges in journals is addressed paragraph 28.

38. Rearrangement and alteration costs. Costs incurred for ordinary or normal rearrangement and alteration of facilities are allowable. Special arrangement and alteration

costs incurred specifically for the project are allowable with the prior approval of the awarding agency.

39. Reconversion costs. Costs incurred in the restoration or rehabilitation of the organization's facilities to approximately the same condition existing immediately prior to commencement of Government awards, fair wear and tear excepted, are allowable.

40. Recruiting costs. The following recruiting costs are allowable: cost of "help wanted” advertising, operating costs of an employment office, costs of operating an edocational testing program, travel expenses including food and lodging of employees while engaged in recruiting personnel, travel costs of applicants for interviews for prospective employment, and relocation costs incurred incident to recruitment of new employees (see paragraph 41c). Where the organization uses employment agencies, costs not in excess of standard commercial rates for such services are allowable.

41. Relocation costs.

a. Relocation costs are costs incident to the permanent change of duty assignment (for an indefinite period or for a stated period of not less than 12 months) of an existing employee or upon recruitment of a new employee. Relocation costs are allowable, subject to the limitation described in paragraphs b, c, and d, below, provided that:

(1) The move is for the benefit of the employer.

(2) Reimbursement to the employee is in accordance with an established written policy consistently followed by the employer.

(3) The reimbursement does not exceed the employee's actual (or reasonably estimate) expenses.

b. Allowable relocation costs for current employees are limited to the following:

(1) The costs of transportation of the employee, members of his immediate family and his household, and personal effects to the new location.

(2) The costs of finding a new home, such as advance trips by employees and spouses to locate living quarters and temporary lodging during the transition period, up to a madmum period of 30 days, including advance trip time.

(3) Closing costs, such as brokerage, legal, and appraisal fees, incident to the dispogltion of the employee's former home. These costs, together with those described in (1) below, are limited to 8 per cent of the sales price of the employee's former home.

(4) The continuing costs of ownership of the vacant former home after the settlement or lease date of the employee's new permanent home, such as maintenance of buildings and grounds (exclusive of fixing up expenses). utilities, taxes, and property insurance.

(5) Other necessary and reasonable edo penses normally incident to relocation, suca as the costs of cancelling an unexpired lease,

disconnecting and reinstalling household Applicances, and purchasing insurance against loss of or damages to personal property. The cost of cancelling an unexpired lease is limited to three times the monthly rental.

c. Allowable relocation costs for new employees are limited to those described in (1) ind (2) of paragraph b. above. When relocaion costs incurred incident to the recruitnent of new employees have been allowed either as a direct or indirect cost and the employee resigns for reasons within his control within 12 months after hire, the organization shall refund or credit the Government for its share of the cost. However, the costs of travel to an overseas location shall be considered travel costs in accordance with paragraph 50 and not relocation costs for the purpose of this paragraph if dependents are not permitted at the location for any reason and the costs do not include costs of transporting household goods.

d. The following costs related to relocation are unallowable:

(1) Fees and other costs associated with acquiring a new home. (2) A loss on the sale of a former home. (3) Continuing mortgage principal and interest payments on a home being sold.

(4) Income taxes paid by an employee related to reimbursed relocation costs. 42. Rental costs.

&. Subject to the limitations described in paragraphs b. through d. of this paragraph, rental costs are allowable to the extent that the rates are reasonable in light of such factors as: Rental costs of comparable property, If any; market conditions in the area; alternatives available; and the type, life expectancy, condition, and value of the property leased.

b. Rental costs under sale and leaseback arrangements are allowable only up to the amount that would be allowed had the organization continued to own the property.

C. Rontal costs under less-than-length leases are allowable only up to the amount that would be allowed bad title to the prop erty vested in the organization. For this purpose, & less-than-arms-length lease is one under which one party to the lease agree ment is able to control or substantially influence the actions of the other. Such leases include, but are not limited to those between (1) divisions of an organization; (11) organizatlons under common control through common officers, directors, or members; and (111) an organization and a director, trustee, officer, or key employee of the organization or his immediate family either directly or through corporations, trusts, or similar atrangements in which they hold a controlling

allowed had the organization purchased the property on the date the lease agreement was executed; e.g. depreciation or use allowances, maintenace, taxes, insurance but excluding interest expense and other unallowable costs. For this purpose, a material equity in the property exists if the lease is noncancelable or is cancelable only upon the occurrence of some remote contingency and has one or more of the following characteristics:

(1) The organization has the right to purchase the property for a price which at the beginning of the lease appears to be substantially less than the probable fair market value at the time it is permitted to purchase the property (commonly called a lease with a bargain purchase option);

(2) Title to the property passes to the organization at some time during or after the lease period;

(3) The term of the lease (initial term plus periods covered by bargain renewal options, if any) is equal to 75 percent or more of the economic life of the leased property; 1.e., the period the property is expected to be economicially usable by one or more users.

43. Royalties and other costs for use of patents and copyrights.

a. Royalties on a patent or copyright or amortization of the cost of acquiring by purchase a copyright, patent, or rights thereto, necessary for the proper performance of the award are allowable unless:

(1) The Government has a license or the right to free use of the patent or copyright.

(2) The patent or copyright has been adjudicated to be invalid, or has been administratively determined to be invalid.

(3) The patent or copyright is considered to be unenforceable.

(4) The patent or copyright is expired.

b. Special care should be exercised in determining reasonableness where the royalties may have been arrived at as a result of less than arm's length bargaining; e.g.:

(1) Royalties paid to persons, including corporations, affiliated with the organization.

(2) Royalties paid to unaffiliated parties, including corporations, under an agreement entered into in contemplation that a Government award would be made.

(3) Royalties paid under an agreement entered into after an award is made to an organization.

c. In any case involving a patent or copyright formerly owned by the organization, the amount of royalty allowed should not exceed the cost which would have been allowed had the organization retained title thereto.

44. Severance pay.

a. Severance pay, also commonly referred to as dismissal wages, is a payment in addition to regular salaries and wages, by organizations to workers whose employment is being terminated. Costs of severance pay are


d. Rental costs under leases which create a material equity in the leased property are allowable only up to the amount that would be

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