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(d) The Presidential Memorandum entitled “Government Patent Policy” issued February 18, 1983, directs Federal agencies, to the extent permitted by law, to apply to all research performers the policies of the Bayh-Dole Act. Under the provisions of the National Science Foundation Act quoted above, the Foundation is permitted to apply the Bayh-Dole policies without restriction.
will allow the inventor to retain the principal patent rights unless the awardee, or the inventor's employer if other than the awardee, shows that it would be harmed by that action.
(d) The Foundation will normally allow any patent rights not wanted by the awardee or inventor to be dedicated to the public through publication in scientific journals or as a statutory invention registration. However, if another Federal agency is known to be interested in the relevant technology, the Foundation may give it an opportunity to review and patent the invention so long as that does not inhibit the dissemination of the research results to the scientific community. $650.3 Source of authority.
(a) 35 U.S.C. 200-212, commonly called the Bayh-Dole Act, as amended by title V of Public Law 98-620 (98 stat. 3335, 3364). That law controls the allocation of rights to inventions made by employees of small business firms and domestic nonprofit organizations, including universities, during federally-supported experimentation, research, or development. Government-wide implementing regulations are contained in part 401 of title 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
(b) Section 11(e) of the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended, (42 U.S.C. 1870(e)) provides that the Foundation shall have the authority to do all things necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act, including, but without being limited thereto, the authority-to acquire by purchase, lease, loan, gift, or condemnation, and to hold and dispose of by grant, sale, lease, or loan, real and personal property of all kinds necessary for, or resulting from, the exercise of authority granted by this Act.
(c) Section 12 of the NSF Act (42 U.S.C. 1871) provides that each contract or other arrangement executed pursuant to this Act which relates to scientific research shall contain provisions governing the disposition of inventions produced thereunder in a manner calculated to protect the public interest and the equities of the individual or organization with which the contract or other arrangement is executed.
8650.4 Standard patent rights clause. 96
(a) The following Patent Rights clause will be used in every funding agreement awarded by the Foundation that relates to scientific or engineering research unless a special patent clause has been negotiated (see $ 650.5).
PATENT RIGHTS (APRIL, 1992) (a) Definitions.—(1) Invention means any invention or discovery which is or may be patentable or otherwise protectable under title 35 of the United States Code, to any novel variety of plant which is or may be protected under the Plant Variety Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 2321 et seq.).
(2) Subject invention means any invention of the grantee conceived or first actually reduced to practice in the performance of work under this grant, provided that in the case of a variety of plant, the date of determination (as defined in section 41(d) of the Plant Variety Protection Act (7 U.S.C. 2401(a)) must also occur during the period of grant performance.
(3) Practical application means to manufacture in the case of a composition or product, to practice in the case of a process or method, or to operate in the case of a machine or system; and, in each case, under such conditions as to establish that the invention is being utilized and that its benefits are to the extent permitted by law or Government regulations available to the public on reasonable terms.
(4) Made when used in relation to any invention means the conception or first actual reduction to practice of such invention.
(5) Small business firm means a domestic small business concern as defined at section 2 of Public Law 85-536 (15 U.S.C. 632) and implementing regulations of the Administrator of the Small Business Administration. For the purpose of this Patents Rights clause, the size standard for small business concerns involved in Government procurement and subcontracting at 13 CFR 121.3-8 and 13 CFR 121.3-12, respectively, will be used.
(6) Nonprofit organization means a domestic university or other institution of higher education or an organization of the type described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal
Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 501(c) and exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. 501(a)) or any domestic nonprofit scientific or educational organization qualified under a State nonprofit organization statute.
(b) Allocation of Principal Rights. The grant ee may retain the entire right, title, and interest throughout the world to each subject invention subject to the provisions of this Patents Rights clause and 35 U.S.C. 203. With respect to any subject invention in which the grantee retains title, the Federal Government shall have a nonexclusive, nontransferable, irrevocable, paid-up license to practice or have practiced for or on behalf of the United States the subject invention throughout the world. If the award indicates it is subject to an identified international agreement or treaty, the National Science Foundation (NSF) also has the right to direct the grantee to convey to any foreign participant such patent rights to subject inventions as are required to comply with that agreement or treaty.
(c) Invention Disclosure, Election of Title and Filing of Patent Applications by Grantee. (1) The grantee will disclose each subject invention to NSF within two months after the inventor discloses it in writing to grantee personnel responsible for the administration of patent matters. The disclosure to NSF shall be in the form of a written report and shall identify the grant under which the invention was made and the inventor(s). It shall be sufficiently complete in technical detail to convey a clear understanding of the nature, purpose, operation, and, to the extent known, the physical, chemical, biological or electrical characteristics of the invention. The disclosure shall also identify any publication, on sale or public use of the invention and whether a manuscript describing the invention has been submitted for publication and, if so, whether it has been accepted for publication at the time of disclosure. In addition, after disclosure to NSF, the grantee will promptly notify NSF of the acceptance of any manuscript describing the invention for publication or of any on sale or public use planned by the grantee.
(2) The grantee will elect in writing whether or not to retain title to any such invention by notifying NSF within two years of disclosure to NSF. However, in any case where publication, on sale, or public use has initiated the one year statutory period wherein valid patent protection can still be obtained in the United States, the period for election of title may be shortened by NSF to a date that is no more than 60 days prior to the end of the statutory period.
(3) The grantee will file its initial patent application on an invention to which it elects to retain title within one year after election of title or, if earlier, prior to the end of any statutory period wherein valid patent
protection can be obtained in the United States after a publication, on sale, or public use. The grantee will file patent applications in additional countries or international patent offices within either ten months of the corresponding initial patent application, or six months from the date when permission is granted by the Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks to file foreign patent applications when such filing has been prohibited by a Secrecy Order.
(4) Requests for extension of the time for disclosure to NSF, election, and filing under subparagraphs (c) (1), (2), and (3) of this clause may, at the discretion of NSF, be granted.
(d) Conditions When the Government May Obtain Title. The grantee will convey to NSF, upon written request, title to any subject invention:
(1) If the grantee fails to disclose or elect the subject invention within the times specified in paragraph (c) above, or elects not to retain title; provided that NSF may only request title within 60 days after learning of the failure of the grantee to disclose or elect within the specified times.
(2) In those countries in which the grantee fails to file patent applications within the times specified in paragraph (c) above; provided, however, that if the grantee has filed a patent application in a country after the times specified in paragraph (c) above, but prior to its receipt of the written request of NSF, the grantee shall continue to retain title in that country.
(3) In any country in which the grantee decides not to continue the prosecution of any application for, to pay the maintenance fees on, or defend in a reexamination or opposition proceeding on, a patent on a subject invention.
(e) Minimum Rights to Grantee. (1) The grantee will retain a nonexclusive royaltyfree license throughout the world in each subject Invention to which the Government obtains title, except if the grantee fails to disclose the subject invention within the times specified in paragraph (c) above. The grantee's license extends to its domestic subsidiaries and affiliates, if any, within the corporate structure of which the grantee is a party and includes the right to grant sublicenses of the same scope to the extent the grantee was legally obligated to do so at the time the grant was awarded. The license is transferable only with the approval of NSF except when transferred to the successor of that part of the grantee's business to which the invention pertains.
(2) The grantee's domestic license may be revoked or modified by NSF to the extent necessary to achieve expeditious practical application of the subject invention pursuant to an application for an exclusive license submitted in accordance with applicable provisions at 37 CFR part 404. This license will
not be revoked in that field of use or the geo- response period required by the relevant patgraphical areas in which the grantee hasent office. achieved practical application and continues (4) The grantee agrees to include, within to make the benefits of the invention reason the specification of any United States patent ably accessible to the public. The license in application and any patent issuing thereon any foreign country may be revoked or modi covering a subject invention, the following fied at the discretion of NSF to the extent statement: “This invention was made with the grantee, its licensees, or its domestic Government support under (identify the subsidiaries or affiliates have failed to grant) awarded by the National Science achieve practical application in that foreign
Foundation. The Government has certain country.
rights in this invention." (3) Before revocation or modification of the
(5) The grantee or its representative will license, NSF will furnish the grantee a writ complete, execute, and forward to NSF a ten notice of its intention to revoke or mod
confirmation of a License to the United ify the license, and the grantee will be al
States Government within two months of fillowed thirty days (or such other time as may
ing any domestic or foreign patent applica-,
tion. be authorized by NSF for good cause shown
(6) The grantee or its representative will by the grantee) after the notice to show cause why the license should not be revoked
forward to NSF a copy of any United States or modified. The grantee has the right to ap
patent covering a subject invention within
two months after it is issued. peal, in accordance with applicable regulations in 37 CFR part 404 concerning the li
(8) Subcontracts. (1) The grantee will incensing of Government-owned inventions,
clude this Patents Rights clause, suitably any decision concerning the revocation or
modified to identify the parties, in all submodification of its license.
contracts, regardless of tier, for experi
mental, developmental, or research work. (1) Grantee Action to Protect Government's In
The subcontractor will retain all rights proterest. (1) The grantee agrees to execute or to
vided for the grantee in this Patents Rights have executed and promptly deliver to NSF
clause, and the grantee will not, as part of all instruments necessary to:
the consideration for awarding the sub(1) Establish or confirm the rights the Gov
contract, obtain rights in the subcontracernment has throughout the world in those
tor's subject inventions. subject inventions for which the grantee re
(2) In the case of subcontracts, at any tier, tains title, and
when the prime award by the Foundation (11) Convey title to NSF when requested
was a contract (but not a grant or cooperaunder paragraph (d) above, and to enable the
tive agreement), NSF, subcontractor, and Government to obtain patent protection
contractor agree that the mutual obligations throughout the world in that subject inven of the parties created by this Patents Rights tion.
clause constitute a contract between the (2) The grantee agrees to require, by writ- subcontractor and the Foundation with reten agreement, its employees, other than spect to those matters covered by this Patclerical and non-technical employees, to dis- ents Rights clause. close promptly in writing to personnel iden (h) Reporting on Utilization of Subject Inventified as responsible for the administration tions. The grantee agrees to submit on reof patent matters and in a format suggested quest periodic reports no more frequently by the grantee each subject invention made than annually on the utilization of a subject under this grant in order that the grantee invention or on efforts at obtaining such utican comply with the disclosure provisions of lization that are being made by the grantee paragraph (c) above, and to execute all pa or its licensees or assignees. Such reports pers necessary to file patent applications on shall include information regarding the stasubject inventions and to establish the Gov tus of development, date of first commercial ernment's rights in the subject inventions. sale or use, gross royalties received by the The disclosure format should require, at a grantee, and such other data and informaminimum, the information requested by tion as NSF may reasonably specify. The paragraph (c)(1) above. The grantee shall in grantee also agrees to provide additional restruct such employees through the employee ports in connection with any march-in proagreements or other suitable educational ceeding undertaken by NSF in accordance programs on the importance of reporting in with paragraph (j) of this Patents Rights ventions in sufficient time to permit the fil clause. As required by 35 U.S.C. 202(c)(5), ing of patent applications prior to U.S. or NSF agrees it will not disclose such informaforeign statutory bars.
tion to persons outside the Government (3) The grantee will notify NSF of any de without the permission of the grantee. cision not to continue prosecution of a pat (1) Preference for United States Industry. ent application, pay maintenance fees, or de- Notwithstanding any other provision of this fend in a reexamination or opposition pro- Patents Rights clause, the grantee agrees ceeding on a patent, in any country, not less that neither it nor any assignee will grant to than thirty days before the expiration of the any person the exclusive right to use or sell
any subject invention in the United States unless such person agrees that any products embodying the subject invention or produced through the use of the subject invention will be manufactured substantially in the United States. However, in individual cases, the requirement for such an agreement may be waived by NSF upon a showing by the grantee or its assignee that reasonable but unsuccessful efforts have been made to grant licenses on similar terms to potential licensees that would be likely to manufacture substantially in the United States or that under the circumstances domestic manufacture is not commercially feasible.
(j) March-in Rights. The grantee agrees that with respect to any subject invention in which it has acquired title, NSF has the right in accordance with procedures at 37 CFR 401.6 and NSF regulations at 45 CFR 650.13 to require the grantee, an assignee or exclusive licensee of a subject invention to grant a nonexclusive, partially exclusive, or exclusive license in any field of use to a responsible applicant or applicants, upon terms that are reasonable under the circumstances, and if the grantee, assignee, or exclusive licensee refuses such a request, NSF has the right to grant such a license itself if NSF determines that:
(1) Such action is necessary because the grantee or assignee has not taken, or is not expected to take within a reasonable time, effective steps to achieve practical application of the subject invention in such field of use;
(2) Such action is necessary to alleviate health or safety needs which are not reasonably satisfied by the grantee, assignee, or their licensees;
(3) Such action is necessary to meet requirements for public use specified by Federal regulations and such requirements are not reasonably satisfied by the grantee, assignee, or licensee; or
(4) Such action is necessary because the agreement required by paragraph (i) of this Patents Rights clause has not been obtained or waived or because a licensee of the exclusive right to use or sell any subject invention in the United States is in breach of such agreement.
(k) Special Provisions for Grants with Nonprofit Organizations. If the grantee is a nonprofit organization, it agrees that:
(1) Rights to a subject invention in the United States may not be assigned without the approval of NSF, except where such assignment is made to an organization which has as one of its primary functions the management of inventions, provided that such assignee will be subject to the same provisions as the grantee;
(2) The grantee will share royalties collected on a subject invention with the inventor, including Federal employee co-inventors (when NSF deems it appropriate) when the
subject invention is assigned in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 202(e) and 37 CFR 401.10;
(3) The balance of any royalties or income earned by the grantee with respect to subject inventions, after payment of expenses (including payments to inventors) incidental to the administration of subject inventions, will be utilized for the support of scientific research or education; and
(4) It will make efforts that are reasonable under the circumstances to attract licensees of subject inventions that are small business firms and that it will give preference to a small business firm if the grantee determines that the small business firm has a plan or proposal for marketing the invention which, if executed, is equally likely to bring the invention to practical application as any plans or proposals from applicants that are not small business firms; provided that the grantee is also satisfied that the small business firm has the capability and resources to carry out it plan or proposal. The decision whether to give a preference in any specific case will be at the discretion of the grantee. However, the grantee agrees that the Secretary of Commerce may review the grantee's licensing program and decisions regarding small business applicants, and the grantee will negotiate changes to its licensing policies, procedures, or practices with the Secretary when the Secretary's review discloses that the grantee could take reasonable steps to implement more effectively the requirements of this paragraph (k)(4).
(1) Communications. All communications required by this Patents Rights clause should be sent to: Patent Assistant, Office of the General Counsel, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230.
(b) When the above Patent Rights clause is used in a funding agreement other than a grant, "grant" and “grantee" may be replaced by "contract” and “contractor" or other appropriate terms. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 3145-0084) (57 FR 18053, Apr. 28, 1992, as amended at 59 FR 37438, July 22, 1994)
$ 650.5 Special patent provisions.
At the request of the prospective awardee or on recommendation from NSF staff, a Grants or Contracts Officer, with the concurrence of the cognizant Program Manager, may negotiate special patent provisions when he or she determines that exceptional circumstances require restriction or elimination of the right of a prospective awardee to retain title to any sub
ject invention in order to better promote the policy and objectives of chap ter 18 of title 35 of the United States Code or the National Science Foundation Act. The Grants or Contracts Offlcer will prepare the written determination required by $ 401.3(e) of title 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations and assure that appropriate reports are made to the Secretary of Commerce and Chief Counsel for Advocacy of the Small Business Administration as required in $ 401.3(1). Unless doing SO would be inconsistent with an obligation imposed on the Foundation by statute, international agreement, or pact with other participants in or supporters of the research, every special patent provision will allow the awardee, after an invention has been made, to request that it be allowed to retain principal rights to that invention under $ 650.12(e) of this regulation.
$650.6 Awards not primarily for re
search. (a) Awards not primarily intended to support scientific or engineering research need contain no patent provision. Examples of such awards are travel and conference grants.
(b) NSF fellowships and traineeships are primarily intended to support education or training, not particular research. Therefore, in accordance with section 212 of title 35 of the United States Code, the Foundation claims no rights to inventions made by fellows or trainees. The following provision will be included in each fellowship or traineeship program announcement and made part of the award:
8650.7 Awards affected by inter
national agreements. (a) Some NSF awards are made as part of international cooperative research programs. The agreements or treaties underlying many of these programs require an allocation of patent rights different from that provided by the Patent Rights clause in $650.4(a). Therefore, as permitted by $ 401.5(d) of the implementing regulations for the Bayh-Dole Act (37 CFR 401.5(d)), paragraph (b) of the standard Patent Rights clause in 8 650.4(a) has been modified to provide that the Foundation may require the grantee to transfer to a foreign government or research performer such rights in any subject invention as are contemplated in the international agreement. The award instrument will identify the applicable agreement or treaty.
(b) After an invention is disclosed to the Patent Assistant, the recipient of an award subject to an international agreement will be informed as to what rights, if any, it must transfer to foreign participants. Recipients may also ask the Program Manager to provide them with copies of the identified international agreements before or after accepting an award. 8 650.8 Retention of rights by inventor.
If an awardee elects not to retain rights to an invention, the inventor may request the NSF Patent Assistant for permission to retain principal patent rights. Such requests should be made as soon as possible after the awardee notifies the Patent Assistant that it does not want to patent the invention. Such requests will normally be granted unless either the awardee or the employer of the inventor shows that it would be harmed by that action. As required by $ 401.9 of the implementing regulations for the Bayh-Dole Act (37 CFR 401.9), the inventor will be subject to the same conditions that the awardee would have been, except that the special restrictions imposed on nonprofit organizations will not apply to the inventor.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS The National Science Foundation Claims no rights to any inventions or writings that might result from its fellowship or traineeship awards. However, fellows and trainees should be aware that the NSF, another Federal agency, or some private party may acquire such rights through other support for particular research. Also, fellows and trainees should note their obligation to include an Acknowledgment and Disclaimer in any publication.
8650.9 Unwanted inventions.
(a) The Foundation will normally allow any patent rights not wanted by the awardee or inventor to be dedicated