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native supply of power from the emergency generator; and (c) alternative control arrangements from the bridge to the steering gear. Safe transport of oil and other dangerous chemical substances in bulk
26. A Recommendation on fire safety requirements for the construction and equipment of new tankers has been developed (A.213(VII),1971). The Recommendation contains, inter alia, requirements for a fixed inert gas system for the protection of cargo tanks against explosion. The revised Recommendation has been approved by the Maritime Safety Committee in March 1972 for submission to the eighth IMCO Assembly.
27. A Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk has been developed (A. 212 (VII), 1971). The Code provides suitable design criteria, construction standards and other safety measures for ships transporting chemical substances in bulk so as to minimize the risk to the ship, its crew and the neighbourhood with respect to fire, health, water pollution, air pollution and reactivity hazard. It contains requirements for such matters as construction and arrangements of ships, pumping and piping systems, electrical installations, fire protection, ship operation, etc. Depending on the degree of their hazards, chemicals are required to be carried in one of three types of ships; Types I and II ships are of double hull construction and capable of survival after collision or stranding damage specified for each type of ship. The Code also lays down the maximum quantity of products permitted to be carried in one tank.
28. The International Chamber of Shipping has developed a Tanker Safety Guide (Petroleum) and a Tanker Safety Guide (Chemicals) which set out proce dures for the guidance of masters and crew for the safe operation of oil tankers and chemical tankers. IMCO has recommended to governments that they use these Guides in conjunction, as appropriate, with national regulations of their own (MSC/Circ. 88, 1970 and MSC/Circ. 134, 1972). Similarly, IMCO has recommended to governments the use of the International Oil Tanker Terminal Safety Guide developed by the International Oil Tanker and Terminal Safety Group (IOTTSG) (MSC/Circ. 114, 1971). Carriage of dangerous goods in packages, portable tanks and containers
29. Provisions for the safe carriage and handling of dangerous goods in packages, portable tanks and containers are given in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code which has been developed by the Organization and accepted by a considerable number of Member Governments. The Code classifies. the dangerous substances in accordance with the system accepted by the UN Committee of Experts and is kept under continuous review by adding any new substance which may be proposed by Member Governments.
30. For each substance the Code gives all the data required to assess the degree and nature of danger, provides advice on safe stowage and handling on board and specifies the method of packaging, type of marking and labeling and any special precaution which may be required. The specifications for methods.
packaging are in conformity with those agreed by the UN Committee of Experts. B. Minimization of outflow of pollutants following accidents to ships
31. The IMCO Assembly in 1971 adopted an amendment to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil, 1954 (A. 246 (VII), 1971). The requirements set out a limitation of hypothetical oil outflow in the event of collision or stranding of oil tankers to a value in cubic metres of 400 times the cubic root of the deadweight of a ship, in metric tons, with a minimum of 30,000' and a maximum of 40,000'. The requirements apply to tankers for which the building contract is placed on or after 1 January 1972 and also to any other tanker which will be delivered after 1 January 1977.
C. Minimization of damage to the marine environment uhen accidental
pollution occurs Reporting of incidents
32. Governments have been recommended that they require masters of all ships to report all incidents to their ships which have given or may give ri e to significant spillages of oil (A.147 ( ES.IV), 1968). Such reports should include details on the nature and degree of pollution, the movement of the slick and other useful information as appropriate. It was also recommended that governments appoint an appropriate officer or agency to whom such informtion should
be referred and who should be responsible for the transmission of relevant details to all other governments concerned.
33. By Resolution A.189(VI) 1969, the Assembly invited governments to inform the Secretary-General of all reports received in accordance with Resolution A.147 (ES.IV). As requested by the Assembly, the Maritime Safety Committee has reviewed the existing arrangements for the reporting of spillages and has approved a procedure (MPS/Circ.39) in order that: (a) governments concerned can be informed of such incidents, and (b) the Organization can compile a record of them for the furtherance of its own work and for the information of Member Goverments.
34. As an extension of the recommendation on reporting on accidents involving significant spillages of oil (A.147 (ES.IV) 1968), governments have been recommended that they require masters of all ships to report all incidents to their ships which have given or may give rise to significant spillages of dangerous goods or any loss of packages or containers containing such substances (MSC/Circ.130, 1972). Methods of dealing with spillages of oil
35. A manual on oil pollution has been prepared and published (1973). The manual contains practical information for the guidance of governments on methods, both mechanical and chemical, for dealing with oil spillages on the sea or beaches. It has been compiled to assist governments, particularly those of developing countries, which are concerned with the implementation of contingency plans for dealing with spillages of oil not only from ships but from all sources. Legal measures
36. The Conferences convened by IMCO in Brussels in 1969 and 1971 adopted the following three Conventions relating to the legal aspects of prevention and mitigation of oil pollution damage as well as compensation for its effects : International Convention Relating to the Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Damage; International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage ; International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage.
37. The first Convention regulates the measures which a State directly threatened or affected by a casualty which takes place outside its territorial sea may take to protect its coastline, harbours, territorial sea or amenities when such measures may affect the interests of shipowners, salvage companies or even a flag government.
38. The second Convention provides for compulsory liability and insurance for a ship for damage caused to third parties by oil which has escaped or been discharged from a ship as a result of a maritime casualty. Under the Convention the owner of a ship is liable for any one incident of an oil pollution damage up to $134 for each ton of the ship with the maximum of $14 million for each incident.
39. The third Convention establishes an International Fund for compensation for oil pollution damage. Under the Convention, victims of oil pollution damage may be compensated beyond the level of the shipowner's liability under the 1969 Liability Convention, up to $30 million for each incident. Contributions to the Fund are made by all persons who receive oil by sea in Contracting States.
IV. MEASURES TO BE INCORPORATED IN TIIE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION FOR TIIE
PREVENTION OF POLLUTION FROM SHIPS, 1973 40. The draft text of an International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, which is being prepared by the Maritime Safety Committee and its subsidiary bodies, is the principal basic document to be submitted to the 1973 Conference for considerauon and adoption. The Convention deals with all aspects of pollution, both intentional and accidental, by oil and noxious substances other than oil from ships, with the exception of the disposal of shoregenerated wastes from ships by dumping and the pollution directly arising out of the exploration and exploitation of sea-bed mineral resources. The draft ('02vention contains certain provisions directed towards the minimization of accidental spillages. These are summarized in the following:
(a) Chapter III of Annex I of the draft Convention, which deals with the requirements for minimizing oil pollution from oil tankers due to side and bottom damage, contains provisions for: limitation of size and arrangements of cargo tanks on the same lines as the amendments to the 1954 Oil Pollution Convention (A.246(VII), 1971), survival capability of oil tankers which requires new oil tankers to comply with subdivision and damage stability standards at fully and partially loaded conditions, pumping and piping arrangements for cargo transfer in the event of damage to cargo oil tanks;
(b) The segregated ballast tankers which will be provided for in the draft Convention either as a mandatory requirement for new ships above a certain size or as one of the alternative methods, are primarily intended for the prevention of operational pollution by oil from oil tankers, but would undoubtedly contribute also to the minimization of accidental spillages ;
(c) Regulation 15 of 'Annex II sets out provisions whereby Contracting Governments are required to issue detailed regulations for the design, construction and operation of ships carrying noxious substances in bulk in order to minimize the uncontrolled release of such substances in the event of an accident. For this purpose reference is made to the Bulk Chemical Code (A.212(VII), 1971);
(d) Annex III of the draft Convention lays down the conditions for the car. riage of noxious substances in packages and containers with a view to preventing and minimizing the hazard to the marine environment. Detailed requirements will be included in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code to which reference is made in the draft Convention ;
(e) Article 7 of the draft Convention contains provisions for reporting incidents involving harmful substances. Detailed reporting procedures are included in the relevant Annexes.
41. The draft Convention does not include matters directly relating to the prevention of accidents to ships, since this aspect, although being a major contributing factor for the prevention or minimization of accidental pollution, could more appropriately be dealt with within the framework of Conventions relating to ship safety, such as the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960, the International Convention on Load Lines, 1966, and the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972.
42. A draft Protocol on the extension of the 1969 Intervention Convention to cover substances other than oil, which is also to be submitted to the Conference for consideration and adoption, is considered to be a further contribution to the prevention or mitigation of pollution damage caused by ships carrying substances harmful to the marine environment.
V. MEASURES UNDER CONSIDERATION OR CONTEMPLATED BY IMCO
43. IMCO continues its efforts towards improvement in the safety of ships and prevention of pollution. Some of the measures under consideration or contemplated relate to the prevention, mitigation or elimination of pollution caused by accidents to ships. The work in this field is carried out by the Maritime Safety Committee and its relevant Sub-Committees in respect of the technical aspects and by the Legal Committee in respect of the legal aspects. The main features of such work are summarized in the following: Amendments to the Bulk Chemical Code
44. The Bulk Chemical Code (A.212 (VII), 1971), is being amended to take into account the pollution aspect. This subject is dealt with in more detail in a separate document to be submitted to the Conference (MP/CONF/...). Development of new codes on bulk chemicals
45. The Bulk Chemical Code will be extended to cover ships carrying hazardous gases (compressed or liquefied) in bulk and non-propelled vessels engaged in international sea-going and inland water navigation. This subject is also dealt with in some detail in a separate document for the 1973 Conference (MP/ CONF/...). Janoeuvrability of large ships
46. A study is being carried out on various design and constructional features of ships to improve their manoeuvring capability and stopping distance, One aspect is the formulation of a proposal for amendments to Part C of Chapter II of the 1960 Safety Convention in respect of the steering gear. Amendments to the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
47. Pursuant to the provisions of Annex III of the draft 1973 Convention, the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code will be amended, expanded
and modified as necessary, to include cargoes which present a serious hazard to the marine environment, whether or not they also present a hazard to ship and crew, and in addition, to its present function the Code would provide guidance for the carriage in packaged form and handling of all kinds of noxious goods which may be polluting agents. The presentation of the information in a consolidated document would be helpful to masters, handling personnel, administrations and all other parties concerned. Improvement in the existing traffic separation schemes and establishment of
new schemes 48. Continuous effort is being made to improve the existing traffic separation schemes, and as and when need arises, additional schemes will be formulated. Crow training and watchkeeping
49. The Maritime Safety Committee in 1971 established a new Sub-Committee on Standards of Training and Watchkeeping. The main items to be considered by the Sub-Committee are as follows:
(i) Basic principles to be observed in keeping a safe navigational watch; (ii) Operational guidance for officers of the watch;
(iii) Mandatory minimum requirements for certification of masters and officers in charge of a safe navigational watch;
(iv) Qualifications of rating forming part of a navigational watch;
iv) Standards of training and certification of engineers officers in charge of a watch:
(vi) Training and qualifications of officers and crews of ships carrying hazardous chemicals in bulk ;
(vii) Operational guidance for officers of the watch in port;
(viii) Mandatory minimum requirements for chief mates and masters and for officers serving in very large ships;
(ix) Qualifications of engineer ratings forming part of a watch ;
(xii) Revalidation of certificates subsequent to substantial occupation ashore. Shipborne navigational equipment
50. The provisions of the Safety Convention for shipborne navigational equipment and the related performance standards are kept under review. The performance standards so far prepared cover general requirements for electronic navigational aids and specific requirements for radar equipment, radio direction-inding systems, echo-sounding equipment, radar reflectors and gyro compasses. Performance standards for automatic pilot equipment and racons are under consideration. Rudiocommunication
51. Among the subjects currently under consideration are: a study for a future distress system ; a study for an auto alarm device, suitable for all ships; a study, in conjunction with the IHO, on the promulgation of radio navigational warnings to shipping; and performance standards for ships' radio equipment.
52. Since 1.866 the Organization has taken a considerable interest in the development and application of space techniques for maritime purposes. This interest is based mainly on the need to improve safety communications and to meet certain operational needs of the maritime mobile service which are beyond the scope of existing resources and methods. At present the relevant effort is concentrated in specifying operational and other technical requirements and preparing an organizational plan for an international maritime satellite system. The studies include consideration of the means by which such a system should be established, its legal and financial status and various other factors. It is envisaged that an international conference will be convened in 1974 to reach preliminary agreement on these subjects.
53. The measures described above are aiming at preventing a distress or emergency situation developing into an accident as well as providing assistance to survivors and saving life when the accident has occurred. Development of a comprehensive manual on oil pollution
54. As a continuation of the work on the Manual on the practical information on means of dealing with oil spillages (see pargaraph 35 above), a comprehensive Manual on Oil Pollution is being prepared which will also contain information on other aspects of the problem such as prevention of pollution, contingency planning and salvage. Extension of the 1969 Liability Convention to cover substances other than oil
55. It is envisaged that the 1969 Convention relating to Liability for Oil Pollution Damage will be extended to cover substances other than oil. Long-term work programme of IMCO
56. The seventh IMCO Assembly in 1971 approved a long-term work programme of the Organization which indicates future conferences envisaged during the period 1974-1978. Some of these conferences are pertinent to the subject under consideration; these are: revision of the 1960 Safety Convention; formulation of a convention on standards for certification and training; and extension of the 1969 Liability Convention relating to substances other than oil.
VI. PLANS FOR FUTURE WORK
57. The foregoing paragraphs may illustrate that a considerable amount of work has been achieved in the past and is in progress or planned in the future in the Organization on the prevention, mitigation or minimization of marine pollution as a result of accidents to ships. While some of this work will have concrete results in the form of provisions in the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, a considerable amount of work leading to possible amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960 and other Conventions, has yet to be accomplished.
58. Improvement in maritime safety in general, and the prevention of accidents to ships carrying oil or other noxious substances in particular, is one of the most important aspects of the prevention and abatement of marine pollution. With this in view, the Conference may wish to examine the work which the Organization has so far accomplished, or has in progress or planned, as mentioned in the foregoing, and recommend to the IMCO Assembly that the work in this field should proceed on a priority basis. Certain suggestions on the directions in which such work should proceed are indicated in the following: Revision of the 1960 Safety Convention
59. At present a Conference to revise the 1960 Safety Convention is envisaged for 1976, although the Conference might take place in 1974 if the scope of the revised Convention is limited. In any event, there will be a need for a constant review of the provisions of the Convention leading to subsequent amendments thereto. The basic aim of the Safety and Load Line Conventions is the safety of ships and human life at sea, including the prevention of accidents to ships, whereas the 1973 Marine Pollution Convention will have as its objective the protection of the protection of the marine environment from pollution arising out of maritime activities, including maritime accidents. To this extent, the objectiv of the Safety and Load Line Conventions and of the Marine Pollution Convention may be complementary and occasionally overlapping. Examples are the survival capability of ships, the intention to include pollution aspects in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code and the Bulk Chemical Code, etc. The Conference may wish to consider the relationship between the Safety and Load Line and Marine Pollution Conventions so that the main objectives of, and general matters to be covered by, these Conventions may be clearly defined. For example, such consideration would be particularly useful if it enabled the Safety Conference to determine the extent to which the Bulk Chemical Code or International Maritime Dangerous Code should be made mandatory under the Safety Convention. Review of Assembly Resolutions
60. The fourth extraordinary session of the IMCO Assembly adopted a series of Resolutions on matters which were brought to light by the “Torrey Canyon" accident. In most cases these Resolutions set out recommendations to governments in general and broad terms. Some of the Resolutions have been incorporated in the draft Marine Pollution Convention or further expanded by the Maritime Safety Committee with a view to assisting governments in taking more specific measures.