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Carbon (6). Cerium (58)
Chlorine (17).. Chromium (24) Cobalt (27)
Copper (29) Curium (96).
Erblum (68) .....
Fluorine (9) Gadolinium (64).
Ca-45. Ca-47. Cf-249. Cf-250. C1-252. C-14. Ce-141. Ce-143. Ce-144. Cs-131. Cs-134m. Cs-134. Cs-135. Cs-136. Cs-137. Cl-36. C1-38. Cr-51.. C0-56.. Co-57 Co-58m. . Co-58. Co-60 Cu-64. Cm-242. Cm-243. Cm-244. Cm-245. Cm-246 Dy-154. Dy-165 Dy-166 Er-169. Er-171. Eu-150. Eu-152m. Eu-152 Eu-154. Eu-155. F-18. Gd-153 Od-159 Ga-67.. G&-72. Ge-71. Au-193. Au-194. Au-195. Au-196. Au-198. Au-199 H1-181. Ho-166.. H-3 (see tritium) In-113m In-114m. In-115m. In-116. I-124. 1-125. I-126. I-129. I-131. I-132. I-133. I-134. I-135. Ir-190. Ir-192. Ir-194. Fe-55 Fe-59. Kr-85m. Kr-85m (uncompressed) 3. Kr-85. Kr-85 (uncompressed) Kr-87. Kr-87 (uncompressed) : La-140. Pb-203. Pb-210. Pb-212. Lu-172. Lu-177.
Germanium (32) Gold (79)..
Mixed Fission Products
Phospborus (16) -
paint, or adsorbed on
(c) For mixtures of radionuclides the following shall apply:
(1) If the identity and respective activity of each radionuclide are known, the permissible activity of each radionuclide shall be such that the sum, for all groups present, of the ratio between the total activity for each group to the permissible activity for each group will not be greater than unity.
(2) If the groups of the radionuclides are known but the amount in each group cannot be reasonably determined, the mixture shall be assigned to the most restrictive group present.
(3) If the identity of all or some of the radionuclides cannot be reasonably determined, each of those unidentified radionuclides shall be considered as belonging to the most restrictive group which cannot be positively excluded.
(4) Mixtures consisting of a single radioactive decay chain where the radionuclides are in the naturally occurring proportions shall be considered as consisting of a single radionuclide. The group and activity shall be that of the first member present in the chain, except if a radionuclide "X" has a half-life longer than that of that first member and an activity greater than that of any other member including the first at any time during transportation; in that case, the transport group of the nuclide "X" and the activity of the mixture shall be the maximum activity of that nuclide "X" during transportation. $ 146.19–10 General packaging require
must be packaged as prescribed in $$ 146.19–10 through 146.19-20 and $ 146.19-100.
(b) The outside of each package must incorporate a feature such as a seal, which is not readily breakable and which, while intact, will be evidence that the package has not been illicitly opened.
(c) The smallest outside dimension of any package must be 4 inches or greater.
(d) Radioactive materials must be packaged in packagings which have been designed to maintain shielding efficiency and leak tightness, so that, under conditions normally incident to transportation, there will be no release of radioactive material. If necessary, additional suitable inside packaging must be used. Each package must be capable of meeting the standards in § 146.19-27(b). Specification containers listed as authorized for radioactive materials shipments may be assumed to meet those standards, provided the packages do not exceed the gross weight limits prescribed for those containers in the applicable DOT regulations.
(1) Internal bracing or cushioning, where used, must be adequate to assure that, under the conditions normally incident to transportation, the distance from the inner container or radioactive material to the outside wall of the package remains within the limits for which the package design was based, and the radiation dose rate external to the package does not exceed the transport index number shown on the label. Inner shield closures must be positively secured to prevent loss of the contents.
(e) The packaging must be so designed, constructed, and loaded that, when transporting large quantities of radioactive material:
(1) The heat generated within the package because of the radioactive materials present will not, at any time during transportation, affect the efficiency of the package under the conditions normally incident to transportation, and
(2) The temperature of the accessible external surfaces of the package will not exceed 122° F. in the shade when fully loaded, assuming still air at ambient temperature. If the package is transported as full load, the maximum accessible external surface temperature shall be 180° F.
(a) Unless otherwise specified, all shipments of radioactive materials must meet all requirements of this section, and
(f) Pyrophoric materials, in addition to the packaging prescribed in this subpart, must also meet the packaging requirements of Subparts 146.21 and 146.22.
(g) Liquid radioactive material must be packaged in or within a leak-resistant and corrosion-resistant inner container. In addition
(1) The packaging must be adequate to prevent loss or dispersal of the radioactive contents from the inner container, if the package were subjected to the 30-foot drop test prescribed in § 146.1927(c) (2) (i); or
(2) Enough absorbent material must be provided to absorb at least twice the volume of the radioactive liquid contents. The absorbent material may be located outsid radiation shield only if it can be shown that if the radioactive liquid contents were taken up by the absorbent material the resultant dose rate at the surface of the package would not exceed 1,000 millirem per hour.
(h) There must be no significant removable radioactive surface contamination on the exterior of the package (see $ 146.19-30).
(i) Except for shipments described in paragraph (j) of this section, all radioactive materials must be packaged in suitable packaging (shielded, if necessary) so that at any time during the normal conditions incident to transportation the radiation dose rate does not exceed 200 millirem per hour at any point on the external surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10.
(j) Packages for which the radiation dose rate exceeds the limits specified in paragraph (1) of this section, but does not exceed at any time during transportation any of the limits specified in subparagraphs (1) through (4) of this paragraph, may be transported as a full load if transported in a transport vehicle or van assigned for the sole use of that consignor, and unloaded by the consignee from the transport vehicle or van in which originally loaded.
(1) 1,000 millirem per hour at 3 feet from the external surface of the package (closed transport vehicle only);
(2) 200 millirem per hour at any point on the external surface of the car or
$ 146.19-11 Empty packaging.
All packagings and accessories which have been used for shipments of radioactive materials and which contain residual internal radioactive contamination, when shipped as empty must be securely closed, the external surface must be free of significant removable radioactive contamination as provided in $ 146.19-30(a), and the radiation at the external surface of the packaging must not exceed 0.5 millirem per hour. The "Empty" label, described in $ 146.0517(u) must be affixed to the packaging. $ 146.19–12 Fissile radioactive material.
(a) The following materials are not classified as fissile radioactive materials, are exempted from this section, and must instead be packaged in accordance with the other provisions of this subpart, as appropriate:
(1) Not more than 15 grams of fissile material;
(2) Thorium, or uranium containing not more than 0.72 percent by weight of fissile material;
(3) Uranium compounds other than metal (e.g., UF., UF, or uranium oxide in bulk form not pelleted or fabricated into shapes), and aqueous solutions of uranium, in which the total amount of uranium-233 and plutonium present does not exceed 1 percent by weight of the uranium-235 content, and the total fissile content does not exceed 1 percent by weight of the total uranium content;
(4) Homogenous hydrogenous solutions or mixtures containing not more than:
(1) 500 grams of any fissile material, provided the atomic ratio of hydrogen to fissile material is greater than 7,600; or
(ii) 800 grams of uranium-235, if the atomic ratio of hydrogen to fissile material is greater than 5,200, and the con