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PAUSILIPPO-PAVEMENT OF THE STREETS.
conqueror. lle became still more insupportable, / grotto was found at the summit of the Pausilippo, after having, at the head of the allied Greek fleet, which is probably the crypta Pausilypona of the delivered the Grecian cities, and, after a long strug- ancients, the name which is now given to what gle, Cyprus also, and, finally, Byzantium itself, the Seneca called the crypta Neapolitana. key of Asia Minor, from the Persian yoke. While PAUW, CORNELIOS DE, canon at Xanten, in Cleves, Aristides and C'inon, who commanded under him, was born at Amsterdam in 1739, and died in 1799. won the hearts of all by their affability, Pausanias He was a writer of much learning and ingenuity, but abused the allies, and considered the Spartans as the led away by a love of theory and unfounded specularuling nation among the Greeks. At length, he tions. His Recherches philosophiques sur les Grecs, entered into secret negotiations with Xerxes, and sur les Americains, and sur les Egyptiens et les conceived the design of making himself master of Chinois, were published together in seven vols., Svo, Greece. He restored to Xerxes, without ransom, at Paris, in 1785. many distinguished Persians, who had been taken PAVEMENT OF THE STREETS. If this imprisoners at Byzantium, openly renounced the man- portant invention is not of recent date, its general ners and customs of the Spartans, adopting Persian use is comparatively recent. No large European habits and the Persian costume, and carried things city, Rome only excepted, had paved streets till toso far, that the disgust of the allies could no longer wards the twelfth or thirteenth century. More be suppressed. The Spartans summoned him home ; mention is made in the ancient authors of paved but hardly was he acquitted in consideration of his highways than streets, which Beckmann, in his rank and services, when he betook himself again to History of Inventions, ascribes, however, to the Byzantium, uuder the pretence of taking part in the simple circumstance that the latter were probably campaign. Being compelled by the Athenians to paved by the citizens, each taking the part before leave the city, he went to Colonæ, in Troas, and his own his house, so that the government was not entered into fresh negotiations with the enemies of required to make provision for this purpose. Isiodore Greece. He was once more recalled and imprisoned; says that the Carthaginians were the first people who but, notwithstanding the charges against him, was bad paved streets, which were soon imitated by the aynin liberated, uuder promise to appear whenever Romans ; but long before that time Semiramis paved he should be summoned. But he entered into new highways, as her own vain-glorious inscription, prenegotiations with the Persian king. To secure him. served by Strabo, asserts. At Thebes the streets self against detection, he had obtained from arta were under the care of telearchs, who provided for bazus a promise to put to death the bearers of his repairing and cleaning them. Epaminondas's being letters. The suspicions of one Argilius, whom he appointed to the oflice rendered it honourable and sent on this errand, being awakened, he opened the sought for, whilst before it had been contemned, and letter intrusted to him, found his suspicions confirm- for that very reason given to that great general. ed, and gave information of the fact to the ephori. Jerusalem seems not to have been paved in the times In order to procure full proof, they directed Argilius of Agrippa, according to Josephus. When Rome to take refuge in the temple of Neptune, at Tænarus, was first paved is not exactly ascertained, though as if fearing for his life. As soon as Pausanias heard many antiquarians consider it to have been in the of the circumstance, he hastened to meet him. They year of the city 578, according to a passage of Livy, entered into a conversation, which disclosed to the which admits, however, of several explanations. The ephori, who were concealed in the place, the guilt of ediles at first had the superintendence of the streets; Pausanias. The ephori now returned to Sparta, de- at a later period particular officers called curatores termined to punish him according to the rigour of the viarum. Pavements of lava, with elevated side law. Pausanias, having been informed, on the way, walks, are found at Herculaneum and Pompeii. Of of the fate which awaited him, took refuge at the feet modern cities, Paris is generally mentioned as having of Minerva Chalciæcus. But his indignant mother the oldest pavement; but it is certain that Cordova, brought the first stone to close the entrance of the in Spain, was paved about 850 A. D. by Abderrahtemple. The people followed her example, and the man 11., who also brought water to the city in leaden unhappy prisoner, being thus walled up, died of pipes. Paris was not paved in the twelfth century, hunger. He was buried before the temple, and the for Rigord, physician and historian of Philip II., tells anger of the goddess was appeased by the erection of us that the king, standing at his window, and distwo bronze statues.
gusted with the dust and dirt thrown up by the PAUSILIPPO); a hill near Naples, with a large and vehicles, resolved to pave the street, for which orders beautiful grotto (la grotta di Pausilippo). This is a were issued in 1184 ; and this is confirmed by several straight passage cut through the rock, from Naples to historians. It is certain that many streets of Paris Puzzuoli, eighty or ninety feet high, from twenty four were not paved even in 1641. All historians allow to thirty wide, and about 1000 paces long. Through that London was not paved at the end of the eleventh the deep night of this grotto, which is luigh and wide, century. It is not certain when it was first paved ; but inaccessible to the rays of the sun, passes the probably the paving took place by degrees. Holborn daily travel of a very populous district. A powerful was first paved in 1417, the great Smithfield market echo from the roof increases the rumbling noise of not until 1614. the passage. This cavern, of which so many fables The first pavement of modern cities was generally, were related in the time of Strabo, was probably though not always, very bad, as it is even now, in the hewn out before the time of the Romans, at first generality of small places, as the traveller can testisy only as a quarry, but afterwards continued through who has been jolted through the small towns of the the hill. Alfonso I. (1412—1458) enlarged it. It European continent. That the Romans knew what was subsequently made broader and higher, paved, good pavement was, is proved by the sti!l existing, and provided with air-boles. The whole rock is via triumphalis, beautifully paved with basalt. Of firm, and has never been shaken by earthquakes. Io late, parements have been much improved; stones the centre, there is a chapel of the Virgin Mary; have been squared so as better to fit each other, or over the grotto, are the remains of an aqueduct and the streets have been macadamized. In Germany, of what is called Virgil's tomb. Since 1822, the where coaches often enter the large gateways of the Austrian troops have constructed a road over the houses, and on stone pavemento sbake the whole Pausilippo to Puzzuoli
, by which the passage through building, paving with square wooden blocks, cut from the grotto is avoided.' In the course of this work, a the knotty parts of a tree, and presenting the ends of
the grain uppermost, has been adopted with great James Pazzi, uncle of Francis, and a peaceful and prusuccess. Lately iron pavement has been proposed dent citizen, was persuaded by Montesecco, the generin London : oyster shells have been tried as pave- al of the pope, to take part in the conspiracy. While ment in New Orleans. For more information, see Charles Manfredi, count of Faenza, was sick, the Beckmann's History of Inventions.
conspirators, without exciting the suspicion of the PAVIA, (anciently Ticinum) in the Lombardo- Medici, collected a number of troops for their de. Venetian kingdom, lies in the Tesino, near its con- fence. They resolved to murder both the Medici at fluence with the Po; lat. 45° 10' N. ; lon. 9° 9' E.; a festival. Their project was twice frustrated by the population 21,250. The most remarkable buildings absence of Julian; and the 26th of April, 1478, the are the palaces Mezzabarba, Bellisomi, and Botta, day in which religious service was to be celebrated in and the new cathedral. The university is said to the church of Santa Reparata, was next fixed upon have been instituted by Charlemagne. In 1770, it for the execution of their designs. The sound of the received a new organization, and in 1817 was revived, bell, at the moment the priest raised the host, was to with its thirteen colleges. It has about 800 students, be the signal ; but as the time approached, Montean observatory, anatomical theatre, &c. The citadel secco refused to pollute the sacred place. The work is built in the old style. Pavia was at one time the was now committed to Anthony of Volterra and Steresidence of the kings of Lombardy. In 1525, phen, a priest, two weak men. Lorenzo and a large Francis I. was made prisoner by the emperor Charles number of people were already assembled in the V. at the battle of Pavia. The Carthusian monastery church, but Julian was not present. Francis Pazzi (La Certosa) here is the finest in Italy.
and Bandini went and persuaded him to attend the PAVILION, at Brighton, England ; a building mass. On the way to the church they conversed erected in 1784 for the then prince of Wales. It with him in the most friendly manner, and Francis was a favourite residence of George IV., and its Pazzi several times embraced him, in order to ascername sometimes occurs in connexion with important tain that he was not clothed in armour. When they measures agitated there. See Brighton.
arrived at the church, they placed him between themPAWN-HOUSES. See Lombards.
selves, and Anthony of Volterra and Stephen stationPAYS DE VAUD, WAADTLAND, or WAADT; | ed themselves by the side of Lorenzo. At the second one of the cantons of the Swiss confederacy which sound of the bell, Francis Pazzi stabbed Julian with has the lake of Geneva on the S., France on the W., such violence as to wound himself. Bandini murderNeufchatel on the N., and Friburg and Berne on the ed Nori, the friend of Julian. Anthony and Stephen E.; square miles, 1181 ; population (1827), 178,880, attacked Lorenzo, but only gave him a slight wound of which 6000 were Germans and the rest French ; in the neck. He escaped into the sacristy. Francis Calvinists, 175,850. The capital is Lausanne. This and Bandini, who undertook to pursue hini, were precanton is not only one of the largest and most popu- vented. Many persons lost their lives in the crowd, lous of the confederacy, but according to Simond, is and it was with difficulty that the cardinal was dethe one in which the advantages of education are fended by the priests from the popular fury. Bandini most generally enjoyed. Crimes are of very rare oc- fed. Francis, after an unsuccessful attempt to rouse currence. The legislative body consists of 180 mem- the people to insurrection, faint from loss of blood, bers, nine of whom constitute the executive. Justice is was forced to return home. Salviati and James Pogadministered by justices of the peace, district courts, gio at the head of about 100 Perugians, had proceedand the supreme court at Lausanne. The soil is ed to the palace to take possession of it ; but Cæsar fertile and well cultivated; the most important pro Petrucci, the gonfalonier, suspecting their designs, ductions are orchard fruits and the wine grape ; the summoned the guards, and occupied the upper story. Ryff wine and the vin de la Côte are celebrated. The Perugians were accidentally shut up in a hall The Vaud formerly belonged to the dukes of Savoy, which could not be opened from within, and the Florfrom whom it was conquered by Berne. In 1803, it entines easily seized the archbishop and many of the was acknowledged as an independent canton. In conspirators. Some of them were killed on the spot; December, 1830, the popular voice demanded a re- others were hanged from the windows, and afterwards vision of the constitution; a committee was according-thrown into the streets. The enraged populace seize ly formed for this purpose, but its dispositions did not ed Francis Pazzi in his house, dragged him baked meet the public views, and a general rising took place. through the streets, and hanged him, with seventy Eight thousand petitiouers, without arms, assembled at others, at the windows of the palace. James Pazzi, Lausanne, but, on receiving assurances of reform, dis- who was riding through the streets calling the people to persed without committing violence. See Switzerland. arms and liberty, was stoned from the palace of the sig.
PAZZI, one of the richest and most distinguished noria, and, finding no adherents, fled to the Apennines, families in the Florentine republic, is celebrated for where he was recognized by a peasant, carried back its connexion with the conspiracy of 1478, of which to Florence, and lianged with Renatus Pazzi. The it became the victim. Jealousy of the power of the people took his body from the family tomb, and threw Medici combined with the jealousy of a disappointed it into the fields. The corpse was again buried, and lover to inflame Francis Pazzi, the author of the con- again disinterred by the people, and thrown into the spiracy, against Julian of Medici, his rival, who had | Arno. Bandini had fled to Constantinople; but he privately married Camilla Cafarelli. Francis Pazzi, was surrendered by the sultan, Bajazet, and executrash, haughty and vindictive, resolved to avenge ed with Anthony of Volterra, and Stephen, who had this offence, and the humiliations of his family, by the fied to a monastery. Napoleon Francesi and William destruction of the Medici. Bernard Bandini, who Pazzi, who was innocent, and was brother-in-law of also hated the Medici, was his first confidant. Aware Lorenzo, both escaped the rage of the populace. But that the increasing power of the Medici was viewed notwithstanding the entreaties of his wife, Bianca, the with dislike by the pope, Sixtus IV., they acquainted latter was banished to his villa for life. The former his son, Jerome Riario, the friend of Pazzi, of their disappeared, and was never more heard of. The rest design of assassinating Lorenzo and his brother Julian of the family were imprisoned for life in the dungeous of Medici, and introducing a new form of govern- of Volterra. Montesecco was beheaded ; and the ment, and wished through him to gain the assistance cardinal was sent back by Lorenzo, with many apolo of the pope. The latter promised his aid, and Francis gies to Rome. Salviati, archbishop of Pisa, the enemy of the Floren- PE; a Chinese word, indicating north; fur tines and of Lorenzo de' Medici, also joined them. I instance, Pe-King (northern residency ::
PEA (pisum satirum). The native country of the PEACE, Reliciors (German, Religions.friede). pea is unknown, but it is commonly referred to the There are two treaties of peace in German history south of Europe. It has been cultivated from remote bearing this name, both in the time of the reformaantiquity, and is now universally diffused, and forms tion; one concluded July 22, 1532, and called the one of the most valuable of culinary plants. It religious peace of Nuremberg; the other concluded belongs to the natural family leguminose. The root September 26, 1555, and called the religious peace is annual; the stem herbaceous, divided often from of Augsburg. By the first, the emperor Charles V. the base into several cylindrical weak branches, promised to convoke a great council to settle all trailing upon the ground, unless support is afforded; religious differences, until which all hostilities should the leaves are pinnate, provided at base with large be suspended; and, if a council should not be constipules, and terminated with tendrils; the flowers voked, a new compromise was to be made between are axillary, usually disposed in clusters upon a the Protestants and Catholics. But, respecting the common peduncle, and of a whitish, or, sometimes, claims of the Protestants, particularly as to the free reddish or purple colour; they are succeeded by and public exercise of their religion, the imperial oblong and almost cylindrical pods. The varieties commissioners were unwilling to promise any thing which have been produced by cultivation are very definite. The Protestants placed themselves, by numerous, and differ in the colour of their flowers, this peace, in a disadvantageous position. The their number, and that of the seeds, the time of second peace produced something like a settlement ripening, and in stature, some being low plants of a between the two religious parties, after a long few inches, and others attaining the height of ten period of war and suffering. Ferdinand declared, or twelve feet. Some varieties have pods destitute in the name of his brother the emperor, at Augsof the coriaceous inner film, which admits of their burg, that little good could be expected from a being boiled entire, and served up in the same national council, and that it was much better to manner as kidney-beans. Peas are nutritious, and, think of establishing peace in the empire without especially when green, form an agreeable article of attempting to reconcile jarring religious opinions. food to most persons. When ripe they are used for Peace was finally concluded on the terms that no soup, and are prepared by freeing them from the member of the empire should be attacked on account husks, and splitting them in milis constructed for of his religion, but should be left in quiet possession the purpose. They are sometimes ground into flour, of his land, subjects, property, mode of worship, &c.; which is mixed with that from wheat by bakers, but religious disputes should be settled only by amicable the bread is rendered heavy and unwholesome. means; people should be allowed to change their With rye-flour, however, in the proportion of one residence on account of religion, &c. Two points fourth, they are said to afford a palatable and nour-only furnished subjects of an obstinate dispute for ishing bread. Green peas are among the earliest six months. The Protestants demanded that the products of the garden, and a succession may be ecclesiastical members of the empire, the bishops, kept up throughout the season by sowing at dif- abbots, &c., should be at liberty to become Protesferent periods of time. A second species, the pisum tants, which the Catholics would agree to only on maritimum, grows wild on the sea-shore. It resem-condition that every clergynian becoming a Protesbles in form the preceding, and has large reddish tant should, ipso jure et facto, lose his office and or purple flowers, disposed in racemes. The seeds authority; but the Protestants demanded that the are bitter and disagreeable, though it is said they converted bishops should continue in authority over have been collected for food in times of scarcity. wealthy countries. The two parties could not
PEACE, JUSTICE OF THE. See Justice of the agree, and the emperor at last deciled, as was Peace.
customary. This point is called the reservatum ecPEACE, PERPETUAL. St Pierre was the first who clesiasticum. The emperor decided that every proposed a formal plan for perpetual peace, which bishop, prelate, &c., becoming Protestant, should Rousseau afterwards made known. The almost ver- lose his office and income, but without injury to his bal coincidence of St Pierre's articles for his inter- honour and dignity. The second point was, whether national league with the articles of the act of the Ger- Protestants under Catholic governments should be manic confederation is very remarkable. (See Henry allowed to enjoy the free exercise of their religion, IV.) This subject has subsequently been brought Ferdinand decided that they should until a final forward by Kant, among others, in his treatise Zum religious compromise ; and thus peace was conewigen Frieden (For Perpetual Peace). The general cluded without the necessary basis, free exercise of means proposed for producing perpetual peace were religion, An opening was thus left for many bloody sometimes the balance of power, sometimes a uni- wars. versal monarchy, and sometimes a general inter- PEACE RIVER. See Mackenzie's River. national union, or league of states, adjusting all PEACH. This is, perhaps, the most exquisite of their disputes by amicable arbitration by means of a the fruits of temperate climates, and, if not eaten to permanent congress, as the highest tribunal of the excess, one of the most wholesome. The tree is of nations. But all these means are necessarily imper- middling stature, but varies, in this respect, accordfect. The idea of promoting the cause of perma- ing to soil and climate. It belongs to the natural nent peace by societies expressly organized for that family rosacea. The leaves are alternate, simple, purpose, was agitated in this country before the late lanceolate, acute, and finely serrated. The flowers war with England; but it was not till after the close appear before the leaves, are very beautiful, and of the war that the first peace society in the world diffuse an agreeable odour. The fruit is a large was formed in New York, in August, 1815. In the downy drupe, contaiving a stone which is deeply subsequent year, a peace society was formed in furrowed and rough externally, which character disLondon. In France, a society with similar views tinguishes it from both the almond and apricot. was formed in 1821, under the sanction of govern. "The peach tree is known to botanists under the ment, enumerating among its members men of high name of amygdalus Persica, or, more recently, rank and character. The object of these societies Persica vulgaris, and is supposed to have been is to effect the abolition of war by the diffusion of introduced into Europe from Persia. It was first intelligence and knowledge; but their efforts, as introduced into England abont the year 1562. The yet, have been confined to the distribution of a few varieties are very numerous, differing in size, flavour, tracts.
and time of ripening ; but they are principally of
two sorts—the free-stones, in which the flesh may be coast of Malabar, the kingdom of Siam, and the easily separated from the stone, and the cling- island of Java. As early as the days of Solomon, stones, in which it is adherent. The nectarine is by they were imported into Judea by the fleets which some considered a mere variety of the peach, differ- that monarch equipped on the Red sea. From India ing only in its smooth skin; and this fruit is like they were brought into Asia Minor, and subsequently wise divided into cling and free-stones. The peach into the isle of Samos, where they were formerly is reproduced by planting the stones; but it is much multiplied, and consecrated to Juno, but frum usual, when the stocks have attained a certain size, which they have now wholly disappeared. In to graft upon them any required variety. Forty Greece, they still brought a high price in the time years are mentioned as the duration of the peach- of Pericles. They were introduced into Rome tree. It is recommended, when the fruit approaches towards the decline of the republic; and the orator maturity, to strip off the surrounding leaves, in Hortensius was, according to Pliny, the first who order that it may be fully exposed to the rays of the had them presented at table, at a feast which he
gave to the college of augurs. The emperors took PEACOCK (pavo, Lin., &c.); bill naked at the à pride in collecting large dishes of the heads or base, convex above, thickened, bent down towards brains of peacocks, which seem to have had nothing the tip; nostrils open;, cheeks partially denuded; to recommend them but the enormous expense at feathers of the rump elongated, broad, capable of which they were provided. In modern times, the being expanded like a fan, and ocellated; tail young birds only are reckoned fit for the table. wedge-shaped, consisting of eighteen feathers'; feet The Europeans have introduced them into Africa furnished with four toes; the tarsi with a conical and America. spur ; the head crested.
P. chinquis, Tem.; pavo bicalcaratus, and pada P. cristatus, Lin., &c.; crested, or common Thibetanus, Lin.; peacock pheasant, iris peacock, peacock. To recite the numerous details of the Thibet peacock. These singular birds, which are markings of this splendid bird would require a long rather larger than a pheasant, and highly elegant description, which, after all, would convey but å and beautiful, inhabit China and the mountains faint idea of the original. There are, however, which separate Hindostan from Thibet. According few of our readers who are not sufficiently familiar to Sonnerat, they likewise occur in Malacca. The most with the rich attire of the living specimen to dis- remarkable circumstance in their natural history is pense with a minute enumeration of its changeable that of the tarsi being armed with several spars, hues. Like other domesticated birds, it exhibits which vary in number from two to six, and freseveral varieties. The ordinary length of the quently the same bird has a different number on each peacock, from the tip of the bill to that of the full-leg. Another curious fact is that the tail is comm. grown tail, is about four feet. The female is rather posed of two distinct ranges of long feathers, the less; and her train is not only very short, but desti- undermost being the true tail. These feathers are tute of those beauties which ornament the male ; capable of being erected, and displayed like a fan her crest, too, is shorter, and her whole plumage when the bird is agitated, but at other times they partakes of a cinereous hue; her throat and neck are remain in a horizontal position. The plumage of green, and the spots on the side of the head are the female is less brilliant than that of the male, larger than those of the male. The females of this and the tail shorter. In the natural state, this species, however, like those of some other birds, species is not very wild, and it readily becomes have sometimes been known, when past breeding, accustomed to confinement, and propagates with to assume the male attire. In a state of nature, the facilitý. pea-hen breeds once a year, and lays, it is alleged, PEAK; a name given to the upper corner of from twenty-five to thirty eggs, of a whitish hue, those sails which are extended by a gaff, or by : speckled with dusky. In colder climates, and when yard which crosses the mast obliquely, as the mizzesdomesticated, the number of eggs seldom exceeds yard of a ship, the main-yard of a bylander, &c. five or six, and the hen sits from twenty-five to The upper extremity of these yards and gatls is also thirty days, according to the temperature of the coun- denominated the peak. try and season. When pleased or delighted, the
PEAK CAVEŘN, in Derbyshire. See Care. cock erects his tail, unfolds his feathers, and fre- PEALE, CHARLES Willson, the founder of the quently turns slowly round, as if to catch the sun- Philadelphia museum, was born of English parers, beams in every direction, accompanying this move- at Chestertown, Maryland, in 1741; was appreoment with a hollow murmuring At other times, ticed to a saddler at Annapolis, and married at an his cry is very disagreeable, and often repeated, early age. He successively carried on the trades ei especially before rain. Every year he sheds his saddler, harness-maker, silversmith, watchmaker, plumes ; and courts the most obscure retreats till and carver ; and afterwards, as a recreation fra the returning spring renews his lustre. The young his sedentary practice of portrait-painting, beceos acquire the perfect brilliancy of their plumage in a sportsman, naturalist, and preserver of animas; their third year ; but, in cold climates, they require made himself a violin and guitar; invented as attention in rearing, and should be fed on grass, executed a variety of machines; and was the ti meal, cheese, crumbs of bread, and insects, until dentist in America that made sets of enamel teen they are six or seven months old, when they will at the age of twenty-six, he was first excitit so eat wheat and various sorts of grain, like other become a painter by the desire of surpassing 1 gallinaceous birds; but the peacock is, in this wretched things which he happened to meet the respect, extremely capricious, and there is hardly At this time, Hesselius, a portrait-painter from t'a any kind of food which it will not, at times, covet school of Sir Godfrey Kneller, was living near Art and pursue. According to Aristotle, it lives about polis. Mr Peale, selecting the handsomest sare twenty-five years ; but Willoughby and others al- his shop afforded, as a present to the artist, trinn lege that it is capable of existing for near a century. duced himself
, and solicited the favour of een When full grown, it is not readily injured by cold. for the first time, the mysterious operations Though long naturalized in Europe, it is of Eastern painting. Mr Hesselius gave him essential ir gre origin, occurring in the greatest profusion in the tion, and he afterwards received similar senin neighbourhood of the Ganges, and in the extensive from Mr Copley, on a visit to Boston. Soon plains of India, particularly in Guzerat, Cambay, the by the aid of his friends, he went to England,
studied, during the years 1770 and 1771, in the grayish, or reddish; in the consistence of the pulp, royal academy at London, under the direction of Mr dry and firm, or melting and watery; and in taste, West. The writer of this article was informed by insipid, austere, acid, or sugary. A constant suc. colonel Trumbull, that, one day when he was in Mr cession may be had from the beginning of summer, West's painting room, some hammering arrested his throughout the winter. Pears are chiefly used in attention. “Oh,” said Mr West, “ that is only that deserts, and are generally considered much superior ingenious young man, Mr Peale, repairing some of to apples; some varieties are stewed with sugar, my bells or locks, according to custom.” This cus-baked, or preserved in sirup. France and the north lom, much to the comfort and amusement of many of Italy are celebrated for the perfection to which a host, he continued all through life, whenever he they have carried the culture of this fruit. Even in was on a visit in the country, either for business or districts where it grows wild, the tree is very liable to pleasure. On his return to America, he removed injury from frosts, which greatly diminish its bearing. to Baltimore, and afterwards to Philadelphia, where There are, besides, numerous varieties of pears, culhe opened a picture gallery. For about fifteen years, tivated solely for the purpose of making perry, a he was the only portrait-painter in North America ; liquor analogous to cider, and prepared nearly in and persons came to him to be painted even from the same manner. This is less wholesome, and in Canada and the West Indies. During the revolu- general is less esteemed, than cider, though often tionary war, he raised a company, was often em- very agreeable ; indeed, many of the dealers in ployed in confidential services, and was engaged in Champaigne wine are said to use perry to a great the battles of Trenton and Germantown. In 1777, extent in the adulteration of it; and really good he was elected a representative of Philadelphia in perry is little inferior to it in taste or quality. The the state legislature, where be chiefly interested wood is fine-grained, of a yellowish colour, and himself in the law for the abolition of slavery: susceptible of a brilliant polish: it is not subject to During the revolutionary contest, he had painted the attacks of insects, and receives a black dye the portraits of many distinguished officers, some of remarkably well, when it so much resembles ebony, > whom were afterwards killed. This collection con- that it can only be detected by the difference in stituted the chief interest of his gallery, and was, specific gravity. In the early ages of Greece, this from time to time, extended, and afterwards made to wood was employed in statuary; now it is used for comprise the portraits of men eminent in the different musical instruments, the handles of carpenter's tools, walks of life. Some large bones of the mammoth, and a great variety of mechanical purposes ; it is, found in Kentucky, and brought to him to be besides, excellent fuel. Nive other species of pyrus, drawn, laid the foundation of his museum, when the as the genus is above restricted, are known; all name of museum was scarcely known even to our natives of the temperate parts of the eastern contravellers, and Europe possessed none of great tinent. note but the celebrated Aldobrandine collection at PEARL. Pearls are produced by a testaceous Florence. The increasing income from his museum fish of the oyster kind, which lives in the waters of at length enabled Mr Peale to procure almost an the East and West Indies, and in other seas in warm entire skeleton of the mammoth, at an expense of latitudes. They are found in some parts of the 5000 dollars. A large quantity of the bones of an globe in clusters of a great number, on rocks in the individual of this species was discovered in Ulster depths of the sea. Such places are called pearlcounty, New York, which Mr Peale purchased, bunks, of which the most famous are near the coast of together with the right of digging for the remainder Ceylon, and that of Japan, and in the Persian gult, in a swainpy marl pit, which was obtained after near the island of Bahreim or Bahrem. Near the very great exertions. When the Pennsylvania coasts of Java, Sumatra, &c., the pearl is also academy of the fine arts was founded, he zealously found. The finest and most costly pearls are the co-operated for many years, and lived to contribute to Oriental. Some consider pearls to be unfructified seventeen annual exhibitions. After a life of extra- eggs, others a morbid concretion or calculus, proordinary exertion and temperance, he died, in 1827, duced by the endeavour of the animal in the shell at the age of eighty-five.
to fill up holes in the shell : others consider pearls PEAR; the fruit of the pyrus domestica, a tree as mere concretions of the juice of which the shell growing wild in many parts of Europe, and now cul. has been formed, and with which the animal annually tivated in all temperate climates. The pear tree angments it. To collect these shells is the business belongs to the rosaceæ, and, by some authors, is of divers, brought up to this most dangerous occuplaced in a different gents from the apple, from pation from early youth. They descend from their having flexible sides to the cells which contain the boat with a rope fastened round their body, and a seeds, and from the turbinated form of the fruit. It stone of twenty or thirty pounds weight attached to is the largest of the genus, and reaches the height the foot to sink them. Generally they have to of forty feet, with the trunk two feet or more in descend from eight to twelve fathoms, before they diameter. The leaves are simple, alternate, oval, reach the shells. Their nostrils and ears are stopped and finely serrated. The flowers are white, about up with cotton; to the arm a sponge, dipped in oil, an inch in diameter, and are disposed in terminal or is fastened, which the diver now and then brings to lateral corymbs. The fruit, in a wild state, is his mouth, in order to draw breath without swal. regularly turbinated, about an inch either way, lowing water. Every diver has, besides, a knife, to and to the taste is austere until perfectly ripe, when loosen the shells, and a little net or basket, to collect it becomes soft, juicy, and not disagreeable. In the them. When he has filled this, or is unable to stay cultivated plant, the fruit varies exceedingly in size, any longer under water, he unlooses the stone colour, taste, and time of ripening. The culture of quickly, shakes the line, and is drawn up by his the pear is very ancient, and several varieties were companions. These divers are often destroyed by known to the Greeks and Romans. At the present sharks; their bealth always suffers by this occupaday, more than two hundred, fit for the table, are tion. Other divers use the diving bell. The shells enumerated, and constant accessions are made every thus obtained are put into vessels, where they year; for the seeds never reproduce the same remain till the body of the animal putrefies, when variety without more or less modification. These they mostly open of themselves. Those which couvarieties are perpetuated only by grafting ; they tain any pearls, have generally from eight to twelve. differ in colour, being either greenish, yellowish, | After being dried, they are passed ihrough nine