Design of Early Warning and Predictive Source-water Monitoring Systems

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American Water Works Association, 2001 - Technology & Engineering - 298 pages
 

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Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
PROJECT CONTEXT
2
SURVEY OF EARLY WARNINGSOURCE WATER MONITORING
3
Assessment of Survey Results
4
SOURCE WATER QUALITY AND MONITORING REGULATIONS
6
EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS AN OVERVIEW
9
COMPONENTS OF AN EARLY WARNING SYSTEM
12
Confirmation and Characterization of Contamination Events
15
Flow cytometry
147
Immunoassays
148
Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR
150
Electrochemiluminescence
151
Ribotyping
152
Bioluminescence
153
Immunomagnetic Separation IMS
155
REVIEW OF SURFACE WATER MODELS FOR USE IN EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS
157

Institutional Issues
16
Responses to an Early Warning
18
INVENTORY OF EXISTING MONITORING TECHNIQUES
23
REGULATED COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER
24
UNREGULATED PARAMETERS OF INTEREST
33
Odor
34
Temperature
35
UV Absorbing Organic Constituents
36
METHODS OF ANALYSIS BY TECHNOLOGY
42
Gas Chromatography GC
43
High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC
46
Atomic Absorption Spectrometry AAS
47
Anodic Stripping Voltammetry ASV
48
Sample Storage and Preservation
49
CONCLUSIONS
50
BIOMONITORING OF RAW WATER SOURCES
51
FISH TESTS
52
Swimming Patterns
53
Ventilation Rates
54
Avoidance Patterns
57
DAPHNIA TESTS
59
MUSSEL TESTS
61
ALGAE TESTS
65
BACTERIA TESTS
66
INTERPRETATION OF DATA FROM BIOLOGICAL MONITORS
67
Daphnia Monitoring
68
ASSESSMENT AND CONCLUSIONS
69
EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS CASE STUDIES
71
Ohio River
74
Paris France
81
St Clair River Canada
86
River Trent United Kingdom
93
River Dee United Kingdom
97
Yodo River Japan
102
Rhine River
107
Edmonton Canada
116
Other Advanced Early Warning Systems
121
EXAMPLE SOURCE WATER MONITORING SYSTEMS IN THE US
125
Central Utah Water Conservancy District
129
New JerseyAmerican Water Company Monmouth System
131
COMPARISON OF EARLY WARNING PRACTICES AROUND THE WORLD
133
Practices in the US
134
Detection Methods
136
Monitoring Issues
137
EMERGING MONITORING TECHNIQUES
139
ELECTRONIC NOSE TECHNOLOGY
140
Principles
141
Companies and Instruments
142
Examples of Electronic Nose Technology Use
143
Summary
144
DNAGene Chip Technology
145
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILL MODELS
158
Surface Water Categories
160
Temporal Representation
161
FLOW MODELS
163
CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT MODELS
165
FATE MODELS
168
INCORPORATION OF A MODEL IN AN EARLY WARNING SYSTEM
169
REVIEW OF SELECTED GENERAL PURPOSE MODELS
170
REVIEW OF SPILL MODELS
176
Rhine AlarmModel
178
RTOT Model
179
REMM Model
180
Comparison of Spill Models
181
OIL SPILL MODELS
182
SUMMARY
183
RIVERINE SPILL MODELING SYSTEM
185
RIVERINE SPILL MODELING SYSTEM
186
Branched Lagrangian Transport Model
188
Architecture
189
River and Hydraulic Representation
190
Program Usage
191
Model Calibration
195
APPLICATION OF RSMS TO THE OHIO RIVER
196
RSMS Calibration on the Ohio River
197
CONCLUSIONS
205
RISKBASED ANALYSIS OF EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS
207
MODEL DESCRIPTION
208
Modeling Framework
209
Technical Model Description
212
Simulation Process
227
Model Parameterization
231
EXAMPLE APPLICATION
232
APPLICATION OF RISK MODEL TO THE OHIO RIVER
237
Model Parameters
238
Model Results
240
GENERAL APPLICATION OF SPILL RISK MODEL
244
Monitoring Frequency
246
Communication Time
247
Monitor Location
248
Detection Methods
250
Action Policy Decisions
251
SUMMARY
253
GUIDANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS
255
GUIDANCE FOR EARLY WARNING SYSTEM DESIGN OPERATION AND RESEARCH
256
EARLY WARNING SYSTEM DECISION MAKING PROCESSES
263
Evaluation of Risks Associated with Current System
264
Identification and Examination of Alternatives
267
UTILITY SURVEY
269
REFERENCES
279
ABBREVIATIONS
291
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