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lowing work, what I conceive to be parts of one prophecy are arranged accordingly; and several chapters are frequently commented upon collectively, as jointly forming only one complete whole. The usual method of treating the subject by selecting detached texts, instead of considering the unbroken predictions of which these texts are mere parts, has always appeared to me extremely defective. I have therefore departed from it, and think myself fully justified in doing so.

At one period it was the humour of the day to spiritualize the prophecies, as it was called : that is to say, those prophecies, which in their plain and obvious acceptation relate to the restoration, the conversion, and the future glories, of the house of Israel, were referred to the original propagation and final universal extension of Christianity. But, according to such a mode of exposition, there is scarcely any thing which the ancient prophecies may not be made to declare. Its extreme licence affords a sufficient confutation of it. I entirely think with the late Bp. Horsley, that the plain literal meaning of the prophecies which respect the future fortunes of the Jews ought to be strenuously maintained by all who study them. They are occasionally indeed written in the language of


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symbols; and, when this is the case, they must no doubt be interpreted accordingly. But the literal application of them is not thereby affected. The political and spiritual revival of the house of Israel inay be exhibited to us under the imagery of the birth of a child or of a resurrection from the dead. But, although the language in this particular be metaphorical, the proper house of Israel, not the Gentile Church of Christ, must be intended, unless, we wholly depart from the obvious sense of the prophecy. The literal mode of exposition recommended by Bp. Horsley in opposition to the licence of spiritualizing, has been adopted by Mr. Bicheno, as well as by myself: and, though I can not agree with him in all points (if I could, the present work had been superfluous), I certainly think, that in his treatise on the restoration of the Jews he has thrown much light, perhaps more light than any of his predecessors, on the subject.

In a work written on the plan of the present one, it was impossible to avoid a certain degree of repetition: but I could not give up the plan, because I am persuaded that it is best calculated to attain to the knowledge of the truth.

In my preliminary general statement, I have detailed, in one unbroken narrative, what I conceive may be col6


lected from prophecy relative to the great events which will take place after the expiration of the 1260 years. But this, unless supported by proofs, would be no better than a sort of theological romance. The proofs therefore follow in their order. Each prediction is given at length, and each is separately considered. Now, since all these predictions relate to the same period, though there is a considerable degree of variety in them, there must likewise be much sameness; and of this character of the predictions the several commentaries upon them must unavoidably partake. The subject however is of so much importance, that, by those who really wish to study it, I shall readily be excused for discussing it so largely.

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It may not be improper to prefix to the second edition of this work a few remarks on certain objections which have been made to my opinion that we have not yet arrived at the termination of the

1260 years.

I. Some modern writers have supposed, that they are already expired, and that their expiration took place about the commencement of the French revolution, in the year 1789 or 1792. In favour of this opinion it has been urged, that the wonderful political convulsions, with which all Europe has been shaken since that era, must be the dashing to pieces of the ten toes of Daniel's great image, and the sitting of the judgment upon his ten-horned beast in its last state*. But the dashing to pieces of the ten toes, and the judgment of the ten-horned

• Dan. ji, 34, 35, 44.



beast, evidently synchronize with the expiration of the 1260 years. Therefore, since those great judgments of God have now commenced, and since they commenced at the era of the French revolution, the 1960 years must have expired, and the era of their expiration must be that of the French revolution *

1. However specious this argument may seem, it does by no means convince me—The witnesses are to prophesy in sackclotlı, or profess the truths of the Gospel in a depressed condition, 1260 years. They have only ceased to do this in protestant countries : therefore the 1260 years of their prophesying cannot have expired—The idolatrous Gentiles of the Romish communion are to tread the holy city under foot during the same period. They have not yet ceased to tread it under foot, for Popery is still the paramount religion of the greatest part, of Europe: therefore the 1260 have not expired–The Jews, according to Daniel, are to begin to be restored at the close of the three times and a half; according to our Lord, they are to cease to be scattered, when the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled; and, according to St. Paul, their


* Bicheno's Signs of the times. Preface, p. xvi. xvii. p. 87, 186, 233, 300, 301, and passim. 6th edition.


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