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Illinois; he thought the people of his State were opposed to international copyright because it would make books higher. I tried to convince him that the opposite would be the effect; that competition always made books and everything else cheaper than any other method; and, for the same reason, the fact that cotton cloth is sold here so much lower than years ago is because there is so much more made; and the effect would be to stimulate authorship, and there would be a great many more books published. There is no stimulus for an author. You know that, within our recollection, authors, the most celebrated to-day, not only had to write their own books, but had to pay for printing them, and they were sent out through the country on sale. We are beyond that now, and if there is a stimulus added, we shall have plenty of books and authors; and that stimulus must be added, and is being furnished to a very large extent by our public schools. The appetite for books does not increase in a superficial ratio, but in a geometrical ratio. We see how art has flourished here in the
past few years. We can remember when cheap chromos adorned our walls; but they have all disappeared, and pictures of a higher order have taken their place. The fact is that when an American sees anything better than he had before, he will have that. I have never been troubled with the multitude of cheap books. People who buy a cheap book will throw it away soon, and come and buy the better book we publish, and they will keep it. In proportion as cheap literature had flourished, so had the better-made class
of literature flourished. There will be no trouble about a market in this country.
"There is another consideration-we are not called upon to legislate for England, Germany, and France. We want the best minds of England, France, and Germany to come here and publish their books; and that tendency is coming about because we have a greater mass of readers. We are publishing an important historical work, and we have sold an edition to the English market, and the book is to be manufactured and published here first. Why do we get such men as Agassiz to come here? It is because we have a greater field here for their genius. The London publisher wants to get out his elegant edition for the English market, and then wants to get a cheap edition for this country. He wants us to take the remnants, and he does not want his books to come here until after they have had their market in England; but, if you want to publish an American book in England, you must publish it there first. Now, legislating for our own country, my own feeling is that we should give a copyright to anybody, whether he be Hottentot, Jew, Englishman, Frenchman, German, or whatever he may be, provided he will first publish that book in this country. It is our duty to protect our own authors. If they do that, we can still allow them to have a copyright here; and they will come here because we have the greatest market in the world. I don't care a fig for any mechanical protection. I am willing to compete with any of them, but I want the freshest and newest books published here first, because we have the greatest and best market; and we have gone so far in that direction that there can be no limits put upon it. No man can say Thus far and no farther,' because the public education has settled that matter already.
"There are two practicable objections to an international copyright, and I think this League and every other League should apply themselves,
as has been suggested by the honorable member of Congress here, to create a proper public sentiment on that ground. One is, the country newspapers think they will have nobody's field to poach from, under international copyright. They need not be afraid. There will be plenty of people willing to give their productions for nothing. We want to talk to these people, to influence them to believe that they should help their country and the cause of morality. The other question is, the matter of dear books. Now, you cannot have dear books in this country if you try. We are going to make all books cheaper than they are. The greater the demand, the cheaper they will be; and if we have international copyright, competition and the demand for books will settle that question. Therefore, as practical men, let us try and convince the country newspaper man to get rid of his fallacy, and try to get the public to understand that if it wants good books and cheap books it must go in for international copyright." (Applause.)
Upon the conclusion of Mr. Houghton's remarks President Eliot said: "We have been told we want less gush and more law, and I will call upon Mr. R. H. Dana for a few words."
Mr. Dana replied as follows: "The only thing that struck me that I would like to speak about is this, that one often finds that a public sentiment has been created before it has been brought to bear at all upon the Congressmen ; and nothing shows that more, I think, than experience in such things as civil-service reform and tariff reform. There are lots of people who believe that the tariff ought to be reduced, but they were so afraid of being called free-traders that they never met together. At last some one suggests to call a meeting, and they find that lots of people believe in it. Congress does not feel the influence of scattered people, who don't express their opinion; but, if they have an organization which meets together, that has a great deal more power, and, therefore, it will be well worth while to have a corresponding secretary to start organizations in various cities in the country, and soon you will find that there has been so much talk about it in the newspapers, that numbers of people will flock together to form organizations, and you will do much better than you can at desultory work."
The meeting was then declared adjourned. The number of approvals of the organization, at and since the meeting, were considerable.
HENRY JAMES ON INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT.
From the Critic, December 10.
THE bright American mind does not want exceptional terms, or humiliating bargains, or babytreatment, or pilfered pleasures of any kind, and it has a total disbelief in any privileges of which the source is not pure. It owes too much to books-which are the blessings of life-not to open its heart to the whole body of our English utterance, not to feel that we have all inherited together the magnificent library of our race, not to detest the idea of refusing the tax that will keep up the institution. I am comparatively of your opinion that we will read better, and write better, and think better, and feel better, as we say, when the air is clearer, and that the air will be clearer only when justice is done.
Fifth. On the broad ground of justice and wise national policy.
ADDRESS OF THE PUBLISHERS' COPY-
To American Bookbuyers and Booksellers. A
We appeal, therefore, to all members of the book-trade and to all readers of books, to coöperate in the efforts now being made to secure from Congress an International Copyright Law. We invite them to associate themselves with one or the other of the Copyright Leagues, and we urge them also to write in behalf of the measure to their respective Senators and Representatives.
International copyright is required—
We ask, further, that they will aid in securing signatures to the memorials in behalf of international copyright which will shortly be placed in the book-stores for the purpose, and that they will do what may be in their power to develop
First. For the purpose of relieving American authors from the competition of the unpaid work of foreign writers, and thus of promoting the pro-and to bring to bear an enlightened public opinduction of American books, and of furthering the wholesome development of American literature.
Second. In order to secure for foreign authors whose works render service to American readers, and (under reciprocity arrangements) for American authors, whose writings are coming into increasing demand abroad, the return for their labors which is justly their due, and which should in equity be proportionate to the number of the readers deriving benefit from these labors.
THE AMERICAN PUBLISHERS' COPYRIGHT LEAGUE, OFFICE OF SECRETARY, 27 & 29 W. 23D ST., N. Y. THE American Publishers' Copyright League ask for the coöperation of all who deal in books, and of all who read books in obtaining an international copyright law.
ion on the subject.
WILLIAM H. APPLETON, Pres.,
INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT AND
Condensed from the Boston Post.
Third. For the sake of American readers, who are direct losers through the hindrances to the development of their national literature, are debarred from the advantages of American editions of many English and foreign works of importance, which, without an assured market to the publishers, cannot be reprinted at all, and are further debarred from the advantages of many international undertakings in standard and popular literature and in higher education, which undertakings can be entered upon only under inter. national arrangements and secure markets.
It has not yet been shown that books would be dearer in America if the works of the living English authors were bought instead of stolen. It is not necessary to accept the statement that "high-priced books and "monopoly control" are any part of the English system. Other English books than novels are on the whole cheaper than our own. There are "libraries" in paper from threepence up to a shilling. There are a great many series of modern novels-some of them only a year or two published-excellently printed and substantially bound in boards, which sell at eighteen pence, or thirty-five cents, and are far superior in every way to the cheap editions pub
American buyers of books can be assured that under an international copyright which will enable the prime outlay to be divided among several markets, many important books will not be dearer but cheaper than at present, and that the publishers can be depended upon, on the ground of their own business interests, to provide for American readers the low-priced editions which are suited to the special requirements of this country.
lished here. There are a number of series of cloth-bound books of a more solid character (some of which fairly deserve to be called exquisite) which are sold at prices from ninepence, or eighteen cents, to twice that amount. No such books have ever been published in this country, to our knowledge, at a price under half a dollar. Of course these low prices are partly due to the cheaper cost of production in England; but this could fairly be rated as only about one-third less than the cost here. Thus one of Routledge's nine pence or shilling books ought to be sold in America, if manufactured here, at thirty or forty cents. Of the superiority in paper, print, and binding of these cheap English books to ours there is no question. In medium-priced books there is less to choose. Mr. Black's novels, for instance, can be bought in single cloth volumes in England for four shillings and sixpence and seller's, not the publisher's, which are 25 per cent. here for a dollar; these prices being the bookits and diminished resources, the booksellers are higher in both cases. Other instances equally apeach year becoming less instead of more effective plicable might be quoted. But we have said in the all-important service of maintaining in enough, we think, to dispose of the "cheap their several communities centres of literary in-vice with those unacquainted with the real facts argument which does such yeoman's ser
Fourth. For the purpose of placing the American book-trade, the selling agent of authorship, on a more satisfactory and remunerative basis. The business of American booksellers is being seriously undermined by the decrease in the sale of good books in shape for permanent preservation, and by the obstacles in the production of American literature. With smaller prof
formation and distribution.
in the case.
MARK TWAIN ON COPYRIGHT.
From the Century, February, 1886.
No one denies the foreign author's simple moral right to property in the product of his brain; so we may waive that feature and look at non-existent international copyright from a combined business and statesmanship point of view, and consider whether the nation gains or loses by the present condition of the thing.
As for the business aspect, a great argument of politicians is that our people get foreign books at a cheap rate. Most unfortunately for the country, that is true: we do get cheap alien books--and not of one kind only. We get all kinds-and they are distributed and devoured by the nation strictly in these proportions: an ounce of wholesome literature to a hundred tons of noxious. The ounce represents the little editions of the foreign masters in science, art, history, and philosophy required and consumed by our people; the hundred tons represent the vast editions of foreign novels consumed here--including the welcome semi-annual inundation from Zola's sewer.
Is this an advantage to us? It certainly is, if poison is an advantage to a person; or, if to teach one thing at the hearthstone, the political hustings, and in a nation's press, and teach the opposite in the books the nation reads is profitable; or, in in other words, if to hold up a national standard for admiration and emulation half of each day, and a foreign standard the other half, is profitable. The most effective way to train an impressible
young mind and establish for all time its standards of fine and vulgar, right and wrong, and good and bad, is through the imagination; and the most insidious manipulator of the imagination is the felicitously written romance. The statistics of any public library will show that of every hundred books read by our people, about seventy are novels and nine-tenths of them foreign ones. They fill the imagination with an unhealthy fascination for foreign life, with its dukes and earls and kings, its fuss and feathers, its graceful immoralities, its sugar-coated injustices and oppressions; and this fascination breeds a more or less pronounced dissatisfaction with our country and form of government, and contempt for our republican commonplaces and simplicities; it also breeds longings for something "better," which presently crop out in diseased shams and imitations of that ideal foreign life. Hence the "dude." Thus we have this curious spectacle: American statesmen glorifying American nationality, teaching it, preaching it, urging it, building it up-with their mouths; and undermining it and pulling it down with their acts. This is to employ an Indian nurse to suckle your child, and expect it not to drink in the Indian nature with the milk. It is to go Christian-missionarying with infidel tracts in your hands. Our average young person reads scarcely anything but novels; the citizenship and morals and predilec- | tions of the rising generation of America are largely under training by foreign teachers. This condition of things is what the American statesmen thinks it wise to protect and preserve-by refusing international copyright, which would bring the national teacher to the front and push the foreign teacher to the rear. We do get cheap books through the absence of international copyright; and any who will consider the matter thoughtfully will arrive at the conclusion that these cheap books are the costliest purchase that ever a nation made. MARK TWAIN.
WILL COPYRIGHT REFORM RAISE THE
It is one of the assumptions of those who oppose international copyright, either ignorantly or wilfully, that this reform will raise the price of books in the United States. We are all agreed that the American people must have cheap books, yet the ordinary answer to this plausible assertion is modelled on Mr. Lowell's memorable saying that "there is one thing better than a cheap book, and that is a book honestly come by." I think it is possible to make a broader answer than this by boldly denying the assumption. The passing of the bill proposed by the American Copyright League will not raise the price of any class of books in the United States, with one possible exception. To this exception I will return shortly: in the meanwhile I wish to repeat my assertion, that books will not be any dearer in America after we have passed the copyright bill than they are now. The absence of International Copyright makes books cheaper here only in so far as American publishers are willing to take foreign books without paying for them. A consideration of the present condition and annual statistics of the American book-trade will show that the legal right to pirate is not now utilized by most American publishers, and that those who are still privateers seek their booty chiefly, if not solely, among books of one exceptional class.
PUBLISHERS' WEEKLY, the following table has been From the figures published annually in THE prepared to show the different kinds of books published in the United States during the past five years. (The classification is not quite that of the WEEKLY, but has been modified slightly by condensation.)
Taking up these classes in turn, we shall see what will be the effect on each of the passage of the bill of the American Copyright League. On the first class, education and language, there would be no effect at all, as the text-books now used in American schools were written by Americans and are covered by copyright: it is hardly an exaggeration to say that the American schoolboy never sees a book of foreign authorship in school-hours; I know that I never did until after I had entered college, and then very infrequently. Fortunately for the future of our country, young Americans are brought up on American books. The foundation of American education is the native Webster's Spelling-book. In some respects the making of school-books is the most important branch of the publishing business, and the passage of the copyright bill would not influence it in
any way; American school-books would be neither dearer nor cheaper.
In the second class, law, are included a tenth of the books published in the United States last year, and from the inexorable circumstances of the case most of these books are of American authorship and are already protected by copyright. All reports, and all treatises on practice and on constitutional law, etc., are of necessity national. Now and again an English treatise of marked merit may be edited for the use of American lawyers with references to American cases, but this is infrequent; and not often would the price of any work needed by the American lawyer be increased by the passage of the copyright bill..
Of books in the third and fourth classes-science and theology-very few indeed are ever pirated. Once in every three or four years there appears in England or France or Germany a book like Canon Farrar's "Life of Christ," the American price of which is lowered by rival reprints. A large majority of these books are written by American authors; and in general the minority by foreign authors are published here by an arrangement with the foreign author tantamount to copyright. Although purely ethical considerations ought to have more weight with readers of books of this class than with those of any other, yet it would be only infrequently that the price of any book of this class would be raised by giving to the literary laborer who made it the right to collect the hire of which he is worthy.
Taken together, the next three classes on the list-history; literary history and miscellany, biography and memoirs, description and travel, humor and satire; and poetry and the dramainclude nearly all of what used to be called Belles Lettres (except fiction), and they supply nearly a quarter of the books published in America. In these and in the preceding classes most of the books are of American authorship, and most of those of foreign authorship are published at just the same price as though they were by native writers. It would probably surprise most readers who imagine that the absence of International Copyright gives us many inexpensive histories and biographies and books of travel and poems, if they were to consider carefully the catalogues of the paper-covered collections which furnish forth our cheap literature. Among the chief of these collections are the Franklin Square Library and Harper's Handy Series. In 1886, there were issued fifty-four numbers of the Franklin Square Library, one of which was by an AmeriOf the remaining fifty-three, forty-six were fiction, and only seven numbers could be classified as history, biography, travels, or the drama-only | seven of these books in one year, and they were less than one-seventh of the books contained in this collection. In the same year there were sixty-two numbers in Harper's Handy Series Deducting four by American authors we have fifty-eight books issued in cheap form owing to the absence of International Copyright. Of these fifty-eight books fifty-two were fiction, and only six belonged in other branches of Belles Lettres, -only six of these books in one year, and they less than one-ninth of the series. In these two cheap collections, then, there were published in 1886 one hundred and eleven books of foreign authorship, and of these all but thirteen were novels or stories. Not one of these thirteen books was a work of the first rank which a man might regret going without. It may as well be
admitted frankly that these thirteen books would probably not have been published quite so cheaply had there been International Copyright; but it may be doubted whether if that were the case, the cause of literature and education in the United States would have been any the worse.
In the class of books for the young there are probably more works of foreign authorship sold than in any other class that we have hitherto considered, but in most cases they are not sold at lower prices than American books of the same character. Indeed, I question whether many English or French books for the young are sold at all in America. At bottom the American boy is more particular and harder to please than the American woman; he likes his fiction homemade, and he has small stomach for imported stories about the younger son of a duke. He has a wholesomer taste for native work; no English juvenile magazine is sold in the United States, although several American juvenile magazines are sold in Great Britain. We export books for the young, and we import them only to a comparatively slight extent.
I come now to the one class of books the price of which would be increased by the granting of International Copyright. This is the large and important class of fiction. Of course American novels would be no dearer ; and probably translations from the French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Russian would not vary greatly in price. But English novels would not be sold for ten, fifteen, twenty, or twenty-five cents each. We should not see five or ten rival reprints of a single story by the most popular English novelists. There would be but a single edition of the latest novels of the leading British story-tellers, and this would be offered at whatsoever price the authorized publisher might choose to ask, sometimes much, generally little. English fiction would no longer cost less than American fiction. The premium of cheapness which now serves to make the American public take imported novels instead of native wares would be removed; and with it would be removed the demoralizing influence on Americans of a constant diet of English fiction. That American men and women should read the best that the better English novelists have to offer us is most desirable; that our laws should encourage the reading of English stories, good and bad together, and the bad, of course, in enormous majority, is obviously improper and unwise. A well-nigh exclusive diet of English fiction full of the feudal ideas and superstitions and survivals of which we have been striving for a century to rid ourselves, is not wholesome for those who need to be strengthened and enlightened to do their duty as citizens of a free republic. The strongest argument against novel-reading just now is that the novel which an American is most likely to read is British. Society is a strong solution of books," Dr. Holmes tells us; "it draws the virtue out of what is best worth reading, as hot water draws the strength of tea-leaves." And in like manner society draws the vice out of what is least worth reading. Unfortunately, under the present state of the law, society in America is far less likely to get what is best worth reading than what is least worth reading.
The passage of the Authors' Copyright Bill would tend to correct this evil; it would make English novels dearer, probably; but it would have very little effect on the prices of other books.
LISTS CONTRIBUTED BY PUBLISHERS AND ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY UNDER THEIR NAMES.
NOTE. This series constitutes a bibliography of American copyright books, approximately complete, but not fully so, since some of the smaller lists were not furnished by their publishers, and those given do not include all books by deceased authors on which copyright still holds. The index, arranged by authors, refers only to the lists here given, and some of the authors may have books in publishers' catalogues not here represented; the figures give the number of books on each list.
INDEX TO AUTHORS.
Appleton, 2 .Little, B. & Co., 1 Dodd, M & Co., 2 ..Harper, 1
Abbott, A. O..
Abbott, B. V...Harper, 1; Little, B. & Co., 1; Lothrop, 1
Adam, G. M., and Wetherland, A. E..
See Adams, John..
BOOKS BY AMERICAN AUTHORS.
(CHIEFLY THOSE LIVING.)
Abbot, Francis Ellingwood. Abbot, Willis J.
Adams, J. Q. -and C. F.
See Adams, Chas. F., Jr. Adams, H. C.. Adams, Isaac E.
Adeler, Max. Adler, F.
Adams, Oscar Fay
Adams, Wm. T. (" Oliver Optic").
Agassiz, Alex. & Eliz. C..
gassiz, Eliz. C..
Agnew, D. Hayes, M. D. Aikman, Rev. Wm.. Akers, Éliz...
Allen, G. G
Allen, Harrison. Allen, H. B.. Allen, Jos. H.
Allen, Prof. A. V. G..
Allen, Hon. Lewis F.
Allen, Prof. W. F.
Lee & S., 89 .Lee & S., 1; Lovell, 2 Putnam, 1 .Houghton, 1 .Houghton, 1 .Lippincott, 2 Fowler & Wells, 2 .Houghton, 1 Lee & S., 1 .Roberts, 6 ..Belford, C., 1; Roberts, 22 .Lothrop, 51 Harper, 1 .Lee & S., 4: Phillips & H., 1 Harper, 5; Holt, 1; Putnam, 1 . Lovell, 1 .Little, B. & Co., 1 Houghton, 17 Scribner, 1 . Putnam, 1 .Roberts, 6 . Lippincott, 1 ..Houghton, 1 Fowler & Wells, 1 Belford, C. & Co., 1 Estes & L., 1 Estes & L., 1 Lee & S., 1 Lippincott, 2 Lippincott, 1 Roberts, 5 O. Judd & Co., 2 .O. Judd & Co., 1
Lothrop, 2 .C. H. Kerr, 1 .Lippincott, 5 . McClurg, 1 .Scribner, 1 . Harper, 1 .Scribner, 1 . Putnam, 1 Lee & S., 1
Anderson, E. L.
Attwood, F. G. See McVickar, H. W.
Austin, Jane G... ... Lee & S., 2; Putnam, 1; Ticknor, 3
Holt, 1 .Lee & S., 1 Griggs, 4 . Putnam, 1 Fowler & Wells, 1 Appleton, 1 Lippincott, 3 Lee & S., 4 Rand, McNally & Co., 1 .Scribner, 2 .Lippincott, 1 Roberts, 5 Lippincott, 1 Fowler & Wells, 1
Ticknor, 1 Houghton, 1 McClurg, 2 Lovell, 12 . Lippincott, 1 .Scribner, 1 Harper, 1; Putnam, 4 ...Lothrop, 1 ..Roberts, 2 .Lippincott, 1 Lippincott, 1 .O. Judd & Co., 1 ..Dodd, M. & Co., 1
Baker, J. T..
Baldwin, Simeon E.
.O. Judd & Co., 1 . Putnam, 1 .Belford, C. & Co., 1 Belford, C. & Co., 1 Lothrop. 1 Lee & S., 4 Lee & S., 1
..Harper, 1 Appleton, 1
Baird, W. H.
Baker, Mrs. H. N. W. See "Aunt Hattie" (Pseud.)
. Putnam, 1 ..Lee & S., 1 . Fowler & Wells, 1
Lee & S., 2 Lee & S., 1 Stokes, 3 .Lee & S., 20
. Putnam, 1 .Lee & S., 1 Hubbard, 2 . Lee & S., 1 McClurg, 1; Scribner, 3 .Little, B. & Co., 1 ...Lovell, 2 . Harper, 1