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present legal status by copyright law, domestic and international; the text of the Chace bill, as modified by the Leagues, gives the proposed bridge from domestic to international copyright here, and with it is coupled the text of the Hawley bill, now abandoned, and the interesting Henry Clay report. A history of the origin and progress of the Copyright League, and full accounts of the publishers' organization in New York and the local one in Boston will be found of value. Mr. Solberg's bibliography of recent copyright literature is a useful guide, and two of the most important utterances to which it points, by Mark Twain and by Brander Matthews, are given in full. But perhaps the most interesting feature of the issue is the list of books by American writers (chiefly those living) contributed by the respective publishers. It is not complete, as some of the smaller lists were not furnished us, though fairly approximate, but the index shows significance in two directions-the unexpected number of American authors, and the small production of most of them. Given international copyright, and many good writers who can't now "make it pay" would give their lives to ennobling American literature.
The many difficulties under which this number has been prepared, at short notice, compel us to apologize in advance for shortcomings which will doubtless be discovered in the lists and indexes, and we regret also that it was not possible to induce all publishers to join in its preparation.
A LITTLE FABLE IN RE COPYRIGHT. Dedicated to Publishers on both sides of the Atlantic. ONCE upon a time two rival coachmen met upon the road, each with a passenger in his coach. After a few unpleasant words, Smith called Jones a thief. Whereupon Jones declared that if he were called that again he would whip Smith's customer. To this Jones replied, "If you do, I'll whip yours," and called him a thief again. Thereupon Jones laid on his whip and made Smith's customer howl, and Smith retaliated by lashing Jones' fare. After thrashing each other's passengers to their heart's content they drove off in opposite directions. After a while Smith's passenger recovered, and asked, "Why did you let him beat me so?" To which Smith replied, "Ah! but did you see how I 'broke up' his customer?"
BERNE conferences. Actes de la conférence inter
nationale pour la protection des droits d'auteur, réunie à Berne du 8 au 19 septembre 1884. 87pp., 1 l. fol. Berne, K. J. Wyss, 1884.
Actes de la 2me conférence, réunie à Berne du 7 au 18 septembre 1885. 81pp. fol. Berne, K. J. Wyss, 1885.
Actes de la 3me conférence, réunie à Berne du 6 au 9 septembre 1886. 44pp. fol. Berne, K. J. Wyss, 1886.
BOWKER (R. R.) Copyright, its law and its literature. Being a summary of the principles and law of copyright, with special reference to books. With a bibliography of literary property by Thorvald Solberg. 4 p. 1., 55pp., 10 l., 60pp. 4°. New York, Office of the "Publishers' Weekly," 1886.
Contains also the text of the Copyright law of the United States, Sir James Stephens' digest of the Copyright law of Great Britain, and the memorial for international copyright with facsimile autographs of 150 American authors.
CLUNET (Édouard). Étude sur la convention d'Union internationale pour la protection des œuvres littéraires et artistiques. 110pp. 12°. Paris, Marchal & Billard, 1887. DARRAS (Alcide). Du droit des auteurs & des artistes dans les rapports internationaux. 4 P. 1.., 688pp. 8°. Paris, A. Rousseau, 1887. [Études théoriques et pratiques de droit international privé. Des droits intellectuels. I.] GRIEVANCES (The) between authors and publishers, being the report of the conferences of the Incorporated Society of Authors, held in March, 1887, with additional matter and summary. [By Walter Besant.] 4 p. 1., 7-188pp. 12°. London, Field & Tuer, 1887.
Papers and remarks, by Lord Lytton, W. Besant, Sir F. Pollock, E. Gosse, A. W. Tuer, G. M. Smith, and G. H. Putnam.
KASTEELE (Johannes van de). Het auteursrecht in Nederland. viii., 208pp. 8°. Leiden, P. Somerwil, 1885.
LAVOLLEE (René). La propriété littéraire et la convention de Berne. 28pp. 8°. Paris, Librairie Guillaumin & cie., 1887.
MARSTON (Edward). Copyright, national and international, with some remarks on the position of authors and publishers. By a Publisher. [Anon.] vii., 8opp. 8°. London, S. Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, 1887. [N. Y., Office of the "Publishers' Weekly."]
ORELLI (Aloys von). Der international schutz des urheberrechtes. 6opp. 8°. Hamburg, J. F. Richter, 1887. PAPPAFAVA (Vladimir). A propos du caractére juridique et des vicissitudes historiques du droit de propriété sur les œuvres de littérature et d'art. 133pp., I l. 8°. Grenoble, Baratier & Dardelet, 1886.
PUTNAM (G. H.) An analysis of Mr. R. Pearsall Smith's scheme for international copyright. Reprinted, with some additions, from the New York" Evening Post." 10pp. 8°. n. p., 1887. SMITH (R. Pearsall). International copyright. Protected copyright with free-trade competition. By an American. [Anon.] 30pp. 8°. London, Ballantyne, Hanson & Co., 1886. SOCIETÀ italiana degli autori. Le nuove convenzioni internazionali sulla proprieta letteraria Spagna, Germania, Svezia, Francia, con la legislazione interna dei diversi stati. 2 p. 1., 132pp. 8°. Milano, 1886.
Note.-The best previous works in the English language upon copyright are, Copinger: "Law of Copyright," 2d ed., Lond., 1881; Curtis: "Copyright in Books," 1847; Drone:"Law of Property in Intellectual Productions," 1879; Morgan: "The Law of Literature," 1875; Spalding: "Law of Copyright," 32°, Phila., 1878; Scrutton: "Laws of Copyright," Lond., 1883; Short: "Law relating to Works of Literature and Art," 2d ed., Lond., 1884.
2. PERIODICALS. London.
President Cleveland on int. cop., Jan. 2, '86, p. 9; Jan. 1, '87, p. 8. Int. cop. in America ["Chace" Rep.], July 3, '86, p. 10.
Int. cop. in the U. S.: Authors' readings, May 16, '85, p. 632. The int. literary and artistic congress [at Antwerp], Sept. 26, '85, p. 403; Oct. 3, P. 438. Proposed amendment of the laws affecting cop., Jan. 23, '86, pp. 136-7. The proposed int. cop. union, Jan. 30, '86, p. 168. Int. cop. and the Amer. Congress, Feb. 6, '86, pp. 200-201. The registration of cop., March 20, '86, p. 393. The manufacturing clause, Apr. 10, 86, p. 488. The int, and colonial cop. bill, Apr. 23, '86, P. 553. Cop. in Germany. By C. A. Buchheim, Jan. 1, '87, p. 35. Int. courtesy. By Jos. Hatton, Jan. 22, '87, p. 129. olive branch from America," Nov. 12, '87, pp. 640-641. CENTURY. New York.
A ready-made foreign market for American goods, v. 29, Dec., '84, PP. 311-312. The present state of the cop. movement. By G. P. Lathrop, v. 29, Dec., '84, pp. 314316. Dr. [O. W.] Holmes on int. cop., v. 30, July, '85, P. 488. Another side of the cop. ques. By B. M., i.e. Brander Matthews (?), v. 30, July, 85, PP. 488-490. The demand of Amer. authors, v. 31, Feb. '86, p. 625. Int. cop.: Plain speech from Amer. authors [J. R. Lowell, and forty-three others], v. 31, Feb., '86, pp. 627-634. Cheap books under int. cop. v. 31, Mar., '86, pp. 796-797. James Russell Lowell's Bible argument, v. 32, May, 86, pp. 161-162. Cheap books. By B. Matthews, v. 35, '87, pp. 328-329. The Amer. book. By J. E. Cieland, v. 35, Jan., '88, pp. 487–488.
FORUM. New York.
Should foreign authors be protected?, v. 1, July, '86: 1, by G. P. Lathrop, pp. 495-500; 2, by Roger Sherman, pp. 500-505. HARPER'S MAGAZINE.
CRITIC. New York.
Cop. in Amer. (from Sat. Rev.), v. 3 n. s., Apr. 11, '85, 177-178. An appeal from the Cop. League, p. 178. Int. 4. esty, v. 5, Feb., 6, 86, pp. 63-65. Int. cop., Feb. 20, 86, p. 96. Mr. Lowell on int. cop. Mar. 6, '86, pp. 119-123. Plain_talk to a professed pirate, Apr. 6, '86, pp. 185-186. Cop., how and by whom, May 22, '86, pp. 260-261. Int. cop. v. 6, Dec. 11, '86, p. 294. Amer, authors and Brit. pirates, extracts from B. Matthews's art., v. 8, Oct. 1, '87, pp. 168-170. Int. cop. : Authors' readings, Dec. 3, pp. 281-282. Int. cop. [Letters by H. James and A. D. F. Randolph], Dec. 10, '87, pp. 301-302.
Authors' readings and int. cop., v. 71, July, '85, pp. 308309. Authors and publishers, v. 75, June, '86, pp. 151152. Int. cop.: The present situation of the ques., Aug., '86, pp. 473-474.
LONGMAN'S MAGAZINE. London.
Notes on reprinting, "royalty" cop., etc. By Andrew
Int. cop, by H. D. Traill, v. 54, June, '86, pp. 151-160. NATION. New York.
The cop. agitation, v. 40, Jan. 15, '85, PP. 49-50. The cop. ques. again, v. 42, Feb. 4, '86, pp. 92-93. A cop. suggestion, Feb. 18, '86, p. 149. Prohibition of importation in Chace bill, p. 151. The Berne int. cop. conference, Apr. 1, '86, pp. 275-277. "Chace" cop. bill, June 3, '86, p. 469. Cop. in Germany, v. 43, Sept. 2, '86, pp. 196-197. Int. "royalty cop. v. 45, Dec., '87, pp. 519 521. The Chace cop. bill, v. 46, Jan. 5, '88, p. 7. NEW PRINCETON REVIEW. New York.
American authors and British pirates. By Brander Matthews, v. 4, Sept., '87, pp. 201-212. Same, v. 5, Jan., '88, 1. A private letter and a public postscript. By Mark Twain, pp. 47-54; 2. An open letter to close a correspondence. By Brander Matthews, pp. 54-65. NINETEENTH CENTURY. London.
Matthew Arnold, Prof. Huxley, and Kegan Paul Trench, & Co., pp. 610-624. [Also reprinted separately.] NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW. New York.
An olive branch from America, Nov., '87, Introductory note by editor, pp. 601-602, Anglo-American cop. By R. Pearsall Smith, pp. 602-610. Expressions of opinions' By Mr. Gladstone, Lord Tennyson, the Duke of Argyll, Archdeacon Farrar, Mr. Rider Haggard, Lewis Morris, Justin M'Carthy, Sir Thomas Farrer, Walter Besant.
Note by G. P. Lathrop explaining his resignation from the Authors' Cop. League, v. 141, Dec., '85, pp. 606-607. Anglo-American cop., v. 146, Jan., '88, pp. 67-85. (Prefatory note by A. T. Rice; paper by R. Pearsall Smith on royalty" cop., followed by comments, by_O. W. Holmes, J. G. Whittier, Julian Hawthorne, C. D. Warner, W. D. Howells, E. Eggleston, John Bigelow, G. P. Lathrop, R. W. Gilder, Lloyd S. Bryce, C. E. Norton, R. E. Thompson, D. C. Gilman, and Moncure D. Conway.)
PUBLISHERS' WEEKLY. New York.
V. 27, Jan.-June, 1885. Text of "Hawley" bill, p. Comments on Hawley" bill, pp. 49-52. The postponement of int. cop., p. 184. Int. cop. with Amer., p. 185. Manufacturing a condition of cop., p. 185. Rev. H. D. Jenkins on int. cop., p. 186. Cheap books and
authors' rights, p. 333. Authors' rights: Hamerton's
"Intellectual Life," p. 334. Int. cop.: Address from executive com. of Amer. Cop. League, p. 450. The next step towards int. cop., p. 607. Int. cop. (Adverse influences), p. 608.
V. 28, July-Dec., 1885. The campaign for int. cop., pp. 16-17. Copyright, by R. R. Bowker: 1. Its nature and origin, pp. 42-43; 11. Its early history, pp. 170-171; III. Development of statutory cop. in England, pp. 193-194 IV. Its history in the U. S., pp. 208-209; v. What can be copyrighted, pp. 243-244, 272-273; VI.: The ownership and duration of cop., pp. 293-294; VII. The entry and protection of cop., pp. 343-345: VIII. Statutory cop. in other countries, pp. 485-487; IX. Int. cop. in Europe, pp. 513-514; x. Int. cop. in this country, pp. 547-549, 573-574; xi. Cop. reform in this country, pp. 600-601. Cop. and quotation, pp. 209210. The Cop. League and the present situation, pp. 637-678. Int. cop.: Remarks of Amer. authors_appended to a Memorial to Congress, pp. 638-641. Cop. in Canada, by S. E. Dawson, p. 667. The Amer. Cop. League, pp. 668-670. Blundering in the Cop. League, pp. 670-671. Mr. W. H. Appleton on cop., p. 943. What 1885 has and has not brought, pp. 966-967.
V. 29, Jan.-June, 1886. Int. cop., Hawley" bill, pp. 20-21. Blind leaders in the cop. matter, P. 21. The U. S. and cop. [by E. Marston], pp. 22-23. Int. petty larceny, by E. P. Roe, pp. 47-48. "Hawley" bill, pp. 105-106. Cop. hearing, pp. 230-231. The "Chace" bill, pp. 232-233. Royalty payment by means of stamps, pp. 233-234. Int. cop., p. 254. Cheap books and int. cop., 254. Cop. ques. again, pp. 255-256. Cop. hearing, p. 280. Cop. reform in England, pp. 281-282. Cop. unlike patents, p. 305. Payment of cop. by royalty stamps, p. 305. The morality of an int. cop. law, p. 306. The objections to int. cop., PP. 334-335; The royalty" plan, P. 381. An English author on the Amer. market, p. 497. Amer. rights and wrongs, by R. L. Stevenson, pp. 497498. Answer to Mr. Roger Sherman's alleged "Reasons why an int. cop. bill should not be passed," by Mr. Henry Holt, pp. 498-499. The Berne int. cop. conference, pp. 519-521. Authors and publishers, p. 542. Is cop. a pension? p. 543. Shall we continue to steal? by E. G. Hirsch, pp. 543-544. The constitutionality of an int. cop. law, PP. 574-575. Rejoinder to the Answer of Mr. H. Holt to Mr. Sherman's Reasons why an int. cop. bill should not pass, by R. Sherman, pp. 599 601. The int. and colonial cop. bill in England, pp. 623-624. Justice to authors, by A. C. McClurg, p. 649. Int. cop., "Chace" Report, pp. 674-675. Senator Chace on cop., PP. 778-779.
V. 30, July-Dec., 1886. The cop. outlook, p. 159. The subscription-book decisions, pp. 204-205. Judge Hammond's cop. decision, pp. 219-221; 235-239. The rights of writers, p. 222. Slow progress toward int. cop., p. 270. "Cheap " literature, p. 332. The English int. cop. act, 1886, pp. 333-334. The int. cop. union, p. 551-554. Amer. Cop. League, pp. 938-939. The President on int. cop., p. 939. Int. cop. in France, pp. 986-987.
V. 31, Jan.-June, 1887. Int. cop. in Senate, pp. 41-42. Amer. Cop. League: 'Circular, Dec. 27, '86, p. 44-45. The cop. status, p. 312. Authors and publishers, p. 394. English authors and publishers. pp. 395-396. Authors and publishers: Opinion of Charles Scribner, pp. 489490. Ditto: Opinions of J. W. Harper, A. D. F. Randolph, Henry Holt and Ed. S. Mead, pp. 511-515. Ditto: G. H. Putnam's views, pp. 534-535. Misunderstandings between author and publisher, p. 533. Authors' contracts with publishers, pp. 558-559. Literary property and int. cop., by G. H. Putnam, pp. 559–561; 584-586; 615-617; 663-665.
32, July-Dec., 1887. The campaign for int. cop., P. 515. Amer. authors and British pirates, by Brander Matthews, pp. 516-518. W. D. Howells on int. cop., pp. 518-519. Meeting of Amer. Cop. League, p. 679. The cop. readings, pp. 884-885. H. Holt on the absence of int. cop., pp. 885-886. Int. cop. convention, p. 887. The royalty-stamp plan of cop., pp. 919-920. The amenities of int. cop., p. 947. On the absurdity of int. cop., pp. 947-948. Gladstone on int. cop., p. 948.
NOTE.-The following, from the plates of "Copyright: its law and its literature," gives the domestic laws of this country in full; and the convention of the International Copyright Union, which follows it, complements this by giving the present basis of international arrangements.
COPYRIGHT LAW OF THE UNITED STATES.
THE following sections of the Revised Statutes and subsequent acts constitute the existing copyright law of the United States:
Revised Statute of the United States, being the Act of July 8, 1870, as contained in the Revised Statutes, Second Edition, 1878, page 957.
SECTION 4948. All records and other things relating to copyrights and required by law to be preserved, shall be under the control of the Librarian of Congress, and kept and preserved in the Library of Congress; and the Librarian of Congress shall have the immediate care and supervision thereof, and, under the supervision of the joint committee of Congress on the Library, shall perform all acts and duties required by law touching copyrights.
SEC. 4949. The seal provided for the office of the Librarian of Congress shall be the seal thereof, and by it all records and papers issued from the office and to be used in evidence shall be authenticated.
SEC. 4950. The Librarian of Congress shall give a bond, with sureties, to the Treasurer of the United States, in the sum of five thousand dollars, with the condition that he will render to the proper officers of the Treasury a true account of all moneys received by virtue of his office.
SEC. 4951. The Librarian of Congress shall make an annual report to Congress of the number and description of copyright publications for which entries have been made during the year.
SEC. 4952. Any citizen of the United States or resident therein, who shall be the author, inventor, designer, or proprietor of any book, map, chart, dramatic or musical composition, engraving, cut, print,* or photograph or negative
*See Act of 1874, s. 3, post, p. 40.
thereof, or of a painting, drawing, chromo, statue, statuary, and of models or designs intended to be perfected as works of the fine arts, and the executors, administrators, or assigns of any such persons shall, upon complying with the provisions of this chapter, have the sole liberty of printing, reprinting, publishing, completing, copying, executing, finishing, and vending the same; and, in the case of a dramatic composition, of publicly performing or representing it, or causing it to be performed or represented by others. And authors may reserve the right to dramatize or to translate their own works.
SEC. 4953. Copyrights shall be granted for the term of twenty-eight years from the time of recording the title thereof, in the manner hereinafter directed.
SEC. 4954. The author, inventor, or designer, if he be still living and a citizen of the United States or resident therein, or his widow or children, if he be dead, shall have the same exclusive right continued for the further term of fourteen years, upon recording the title of the work or description of the article so secured a second time, and complying with all other regulations in regard to original copyrights, within six months before the expiration of the first term. And such person shall, within two months from the date of said renewal, cause a copy of the record thereof to be published in one or more newspapers, printed in the United States, for the space of four weeks.
SEC. 4955. Copyrights shall be assignable in law, by any instrument of writing, and such assignment shall be recorded in the office of the Librarian of Congress within sixty days after its execution; in default of which it shall be void as against any subsequent purchaser or mortgagee for a valuable consideration, without notice.
SEC. 4956. No person shall be entitled to a
copyright unless he shall, before publication, deliver at the office of the Librarian of Congress or deposit in the mail addressed to the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, District of Columbia, a printed copy of the title of the book or other article, or a description of the painting, drawing, chromo, statue, statuary, or a model or design for a work of the fine arts, for which he desires a copyright, nor unless he shall also, within ten days from the publication thereof, deliver at the office of the Librarian of Congress or deposit in the mail addressed to the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, District of Columbia, two copies of such copyright book or other article, or in case of a painting, drawing, statue, statuary, model, or design for a work of the fine arts, a photograph of the same.
SEC. 4957. The Librarian of Congress shall record the name of such copyright book or other article, forthwith, in a book to be kept for that purpose, in the words following: "Library of Congress, to wit: Be it remembered that on the day of A. B., of hath deposited in this office the title of a book (map, chart, or otherwise, as the case may be, or description of the article,) the title or description of which is in the following words, to wit; (here insert the title or description,) the right whereof he claims as author, (originator, or proprietor, as the case may be,) in conformity with the laws of the United States respecting copyrights. C. D., Librarian of Congress." And he shall give a copy of the title or description, under the seal of the Librarian of Congress, to the proprietor whenever he shall require it.
SEC. 4958. The Librarian of Congress shall receive, from the persons to whom the services designated are rendered, the following fees:
First. For recording the title or description of any copyright book or other article, fifty cents.
Second. For every copy under seal of such record actually given to the person claiming the copyright, or his assigns, fifty cents.
Third. For recording any instrument of writing for the assignment of a copyright, fifteen cents for every one hundred words.*
Fourth. For every copy of an assignment, ten cents for every one hundred words.*
All fees so received shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States.
SEC. 4959. The proprietor of every copyright book or other article shall deliver at the office
of the Librarian of Congress, or deposit in the mail addressed to the Librarian of Congress at Washington, District of Columbia, within ten days after its publication, two complete printed copies thereof, of the best edition issued, or description or photograph of such article as here inbefore required, and a copy of every subsequent edition wherein any substantial changes shall be made.
*See Act of 1874, S. 2, post, p. 40.
SEC. 4960. For every failure on the part of the proprietor of any copyright to deliver or deposit in the mail either of the published copies, or description or photograph, required by sections four thousand nine hundred and fifty-six, and four thousand nine hundred and fifty-nine, the proprietor of the copyright shall be liable to a penalty of twenty-five dollars, to be recovered by the Librarian of Congress, in the name of the United States, in an action in the nature of an action of debt, in any district court of the United States within the jurisdiction of which the delinquent may reside or be found.
SEC. 4961. The postmaster to whom such copyright book, title, or other article is delivered, shall, if requested, give a receipt therefor; and when so delivered he shall mail it to its destination.
SEC. 4962. No person shall maintain an action for the infringement of his copyright unless he shall give notice thereof by inserting in the several copies of every edition published, on the title-page or the page immediately following, If it be a book; or if a map, chart, musical composition, print, cut, engraving, photograph, painting, drawing, chromo, statue, statuary, or model or design intended to be perfected and completed as a work of the fine arts, by inscribing upon some portion of the face or front thereof, or on the face of the substance on which the same shall be mounted, the following words, "Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year by A. B., in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington." *
SEC. 4963. Every person who shall insert or impress such notice, or words of the same purport, in or upon any book, map, chart, musical composition, print, cut, engraving, or photograph, or other article, for which he has not obtained a copyright, shall be liable to a penalty of one hundred dollars, recoverable one half for the person who shall sue for such penalty, and one half to the use of the United States.
*See Act of 1874, s. 1, post, p. 39.
SEC. 4964. Every person who, after the recording of the title of any book as provided by this chapter, shall within the term limited, and without the consent of the proprietor of the copyright first obtained in writing, signed in presence of two or more witnesses, print, publish, or import, or knowing the same to be so printed, published, or imported, shall sell or expose to sale any copy of such book, shall forfeit every copy thereof to such proprietor, and shall also forfeit and pay such damages as may be recovered in a civil action by such proprietor in any court of competent jurisdiction.
SEC. 4965. If any person, after the recording of the title of any map, chart, musical composition, print, cut, engraving, or photograph, or chromo, or of the description of any painting, drawing, statue, statuary, or model or design intended to be perfected and executed as a work of the fine arts, as provided by this chapter, shall, within the term limited, and without the consent of the proprietor of the copyright first obtained in writing, signed in presence of two or more witnesses, engrave, etch, work, copy, print, publish, or import, either in whole or in part, or by varying the main design with intent to evade the law, or, knowing the same to be so printed, published, or imported, shall sell or expose to sale any copy of such map or other article, as aforesaid, he shall forfeit to the proprietor all the plates on which the same shall be copied, and every sheet thereof, either copied or printed, and shall further forfeit one dollar for every sheet of the same found in his possession, either printing, printed, copied, published, imported, or exposed for sale; and in case of a painting, statue, or statuary, he shall forfeit ten dollars for every copy of the same in his possession, or by him sold or exposed for sale; one half thereof to the proprietor and the other half to the use of the United States.
SEC. 4966. Any person publicly performing or representing any dramatic composition for which a copyright has been obtained, without the consent of the proprietor thereof, or his heirs or assigns, shall be liable for damages therefor, such damages in all cases to be assessed at such sum, not less than one hundred dollars for the first, and fifty dollars for every subsequent performance, as to the court shall appear to be just.
SEC. 4967. Every person who shall print or publish any manuscript whatever, without the consent of the author or proprietor first obtained,
if such author or proprietor is a citizen of the United States, or resident therein, shall be liable to the author or proprietor for all damages occasioned by such injury.
SEC. 4968. No action shall be maintained in any case of forfeiture or penalty under the copyright laws, unless the same is commenced within two years after the cause of action has arisen.
SEC. 4969. In all actions arising under the laws respecting copyrights, the defendant may plead the general issue, and give the special matter in evidence.
SEC. 4970. The circuit courts, and district courts having the jurisdiction of circuit courts, shall have power, upon bill in equity, filed by any party aggrieved, to grant injunctions to prevent the violation of any right secured by the laws respecting copyrights, according to the course and principles of courts of equity, on such terms as the court may deem reasonable.
SEC. 4971. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prohibit the printing, publishing, importation, or sale of any book, map, chart, dramatic or musical composition, print, cut, engraving, or photograph, written, composed, or made by any person not a citizen of the United States nor resident therein.
Act of June 18, 1874. An act to amend the law relating to patents, trade-marks, and copyrights, as contained in the Supplement to the Rev. Stat., v. 1, 1881, p. 40.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, [Section 1] That no person shall maintain an action for the infringement of his copyright unless he shall give notice thereof by inserting in the several copies of every edition published, on the title-page or the page immediately follow ing, if it be a book; or if a map, chart, musical composition, print, cut, engraving, photograph, painting, drawing, chromo, statue, statuary, or model or design intended to be perfected and completed as a work of the fine arts, by inscribing upon some visible portion thereof, or of the substance on which the same shall be
mounted, the following words, viz.: "Entered according to act of Congress, in the year by A. B., in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington;" or, at his option the word " Copyright," together with the year the copyright was entered, and the name of the party by whom it was taken out; thus-" Copyright, 18-, by A. B."