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(3) Compensation for labor or personal services performed without the United States;

(4) Rentals or royalties from property located without the United States or from any interest in such property, including rentals or royalties for the use of or for the privilege of using without the United States, patents, copyrights, secret processes and formulas, good will, trade-niarks, trade brands, franchises, and other like property; and

(5) Gains, profits, and income from the sale of real property located without the United States.

(d) From the items of gross income specified in subdivision (c) there shall be deducted the expenses, losses, and other deductions properly apportioned or allocated thereto, and a ratable part of any expenses, losses, or other deductions which can not definitely be allocated to some item or class of gross income. The remainder, if any, shall be treated in full as net income from sources without the United States.

(e) Items of gross income, expenses, losses and deductions, other than those specified in subdivisions (a) and (c), shall be allocated or apportioned to sources within or without the United States under rules and regulations prescribed by the Commissioner with the approval of the Secretary. Where items of gross income are separately allocated to sources within the United States, there shall be deducted (for the purpose of computing the net income therefrom) the expenses, losses and other deductions properly apportioned or allo cated thereto and a ratable part of other expenses, losses or other deductions which can not definitely be allocated to some item or class of gross income. The remainder, if any, shall be included in full as net income from sources within the United States. In the case of gross income derived from sources partly within and partly without the United States, the net income may first be computed by deducting the expenses, losses or other deductions apportioned or allocated thereto and a ratable part of any expenses, losses or other deductions which can not definitely be allocated to some items or class of gross income; and the portion of such net income attributable to sources within the United States may be determined by processes or formulas of general apportionment prescribed by the Commissioner with the approval of the Secretary. Gains, profits and income from (1) transportation or other services rendered partly within and partly without the United States, or (2) from the sale of personal property produced (in whole or in part) by the taxpayer' within and sold without the United States, or produced (in whole or in part) by the taxpayer without and sold within the United States, shall be treated as derived partly from sources within and partly from sources without the United States. Gains, profits and income derived from the purchase of personal property within and its sale without the United States or from the purchase of personal property without and its sale within the United States, shall be treated as derived entirely from sources within the country in which sold.

(f) As used in this section the words “ sale” or sold" include exchange or “exchanged” ; and the word “ produced ” includes “ created,” “ fabricated," “ manufactured,” “ extracted,"

,” “processed,” “ cured,” or “aged.” (g) (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) a nonresident alien individual or a citizen entitled to the benefits of section 262 shall receive the benefit of the deductions and credits allowed in this title only by filing or causing to be filed with the collector a true and accurate return of his total income received from all sources in the United States, in the manner prescribed in this title; including therein all the information which the Commissoner may deem necessary for the calculation of such deductions and credits.

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(2) The benefit of the credits allowed in subdivisions (d) and (e) of section 216, and of the reduced rate of tax provided for in subdivision (b) of section 210, may, in the discretion of the Commissioner and under regulations prescribed by him with the approval of the Secretary, be received by a nonresident alien individual entitled thereto, by filing a claim therefor with the withholding agent.

ART. 311. Definition.-A “nonresident alien individual” means an individual (a) whose residence is not within the United States and (b) who is not a citizen of the United States. An alien actually present in the United States who is not a mere transient or sojourner is a resident of the United States for purposes of the income tax. Whether he is a transient or not is determined by his intentions with regard to the length and nature of his stay. A mere floating intention, indefinite as to time, to return to another country is not sufficient to constitute him a transient. If he lives in the United States and has no definite intention as to his stay, he is a resident. One who comes to the United States for a definite purpose which in its nature may be promptly accomplished is a transient; but if his purpose is of such a nature that an extended stay may be necessary for its accomplishment, and to that end the alien makes his home temporarily in the United States, he becomes a resident, though it may be his intention at all times to return to his domicile abroad when the purpose for which he came has been consummated or abandoned. A foreign corporation is one which is not domestic. See article 1509. As to when a citizen or domestic corporation is entitled to the benefits of section 262, see articles 1135–1137. For the treatment of foreign life insurance companies, see section 245(c) and article 687.

ART. 312. Alien seamen, when to be regarded as residents. In order to determine whether an alien seaman is a resident within the meaning of the income tax law, it is necessary to decide whether the presumption of nonresidence is overcome by facts showing that he has established a residence in the territorial United States, which consists of the States, the District of Columbia, and the Territories of Hawaii and Alaska, and excludes other places. Residence may be established on a vessel regularly engaged in coastwise trade, but the mere fact that a sailor makes his home on a vessel flying the United States flag and engaged in foreign trade is not sufficient to establish residence in the United States, even though the vessel, while carrying on foreign trade, touches at American ports. An alien seaman may acquire an actual residence in the territorial United States within the rules laid down in article 313, although the nature of his calling requires him to be absent for a long period from the place where his residence is established. An alien seaman may acquire such a residence at a sailor's boarding house or hotel, but such a claim

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should be carefully scrutinized in order to make sure that such residence is bona fide. The filing of Form 1078, or taking out firstcitizenship papers is proof of residence in the United States from the time the form is filed or the papers taken out, unless rebutted by other evidence showing an intention to be a transient. The fact that a head tax has been paid on behalf of an alien seaman entering the United States is no evidence that he has acquired residence, because the head tax is payable unless the alien who is entering the country is merely in transit through the country. As to when the wages of alien seamen are subject to tax, see article 93.

Art. 313. Proof of residence of alien.--The following rules of evidence shall govern in determining whether or not an alien within the United States has acquired residence therein within the meaning of the Revenue Act. An alien, by reason of his alienage, is presumed to be a nonresident alien. Such presumption may be overthrown (1) in the case of an alien who presents himself for determination of tax liability prior to departure for his native country, by (a) proof that the alien, at least six months prior to the date he so presents himself, has filed a declaration of his intention to become a citizen of the United States under the naturalization laws, (6) proof that the alien, at least six months prior to the date he so presents himself, has filed Form 1078 or its equivalent, or (c) proof of acts and statements of the alien showing a definite intention to acquire residence in the United States or showing that his stay in the United States had been of such an extended nature as to constitute him a resident; (2) in other cases by (a) proof that the alien has filed a declaration of his intention to become a citizen of the United States under the naturalization laws, (6) proof that the alien has filed Form 1078 or its equivalent, or (c) proof of acts and statements of an alien showing a definite intention to acquire residence in the United States or showing that his stay in the United States has been of such an extended nature as to constitute him a resident. In any case in which an alien seeks to overcome the presumption of nonresidence under (1) (c) or (2) (c) above, if the officer who examines the alien is in doubt as to the facts, such officer may, to assist him in determining the facts, require an affidavit or affidavits setting forth the facts relied upon, executed by some credible person or persons, other than the alien and members of his family, who have known the alien at least six months prior to the date of execution of the affidavit or affidavits.

ART. 314. Loss of residence by alien.-An alien who has acquired residence in the United States retains his status as a resident until he abandons the same and actually departs from the United States. An intention to change his residence does not change his status as a

resident alien to that of a nonresident alien. Thus an alien who has acquired a residence in the United States is taxable as a resident for the remainder of his stay in the. United States. The status of an alien on the last day of his taxable year or period determines his liability to tax for such year or period as a resident or nonresident. See article 305.

ART: 315. Duty of employer to determine status of alien employee.If wages are paid to aliens without withholding the tax, except as permitted in article 316, the employer should be prepared to prove the status of the alien as provided in the foregoing articles. An employer may rely upon the evidence of residence afforded by the fact that an alien has filed Form 1078, or an equivalent certificate of the alien establishing residence. An employer need not secure Form 1078 from the alien if he is satisfied that the alien is a resident alien. An employer who seeks to account for failure to withhold in the past, if he had not at the time secured Form 1078 or its equivalent, is permitted to prove the former status of the alien by any competent evidence. The written statement of the alien employee may ordinarily be relied upon by the employer as proof that the alien is a resident of the United States.

ART. 316. Allowance of personal exemption to nonresident alien employee.--A nonresident alien employee may claim the benefit of the personal exemption (section 216(e)) by filing with his employer Form 1115 duly filled in and executed under oath. If the alien employee is a resident of Canada or Mexico, he may also obtain the benefit of the credit for dependents (section 216(d)) and the benefit of the reduced rates of tax (section 210(b)) by filing Form 1115 with his employer. On the filing of such a claim the employer shall examine it. If on such examination it appears that the claim is in due form, that it contains no statement which to the knowledge of the employer is untrue, that such employee on the face of the claim is entitled to credit, and that such credit has not yet been exhausted, such employer need not until such credit is in fact exhausted withhold any tax from payments of salary or wages made to such employee. Every employer with whom affidavits of claim on Form 1115 are filed by employees shall preserve such affidavits until the following calendar year, and shall then file them, attached to his annual withholding return on Form 1042, with the collector on or before March 15. In case, however, when the following calendar year arrives such employer has no withholding to return, he shall forward all such affidavits of claim directly to the Commissioner, with a letter of transmittal, on or before March 15. Where any tax is withheld the employer in every instance shall show on the pay envelope or shall furnish some other memorandum showing the name of the employee,

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the date and the amount withheld. This article applies only to payments of compensation by an employer to an employee. See further section 221 and articles 361-376.

ART. 317. Income from sources within the United States.- Nonresident alien individuals, foreign corporations, and citizens of the United States or domestic corporations entitled to the benefits of section 262 are taxable only upon income from sources within the United States. See sections 213(c), 233(b), and 262.

The statute divides the income of such taxpayers into three classes: (1) Income which is derived in full from sources within the United States; (2) income which is derived in full from sources without the United States; and (3) income which is derived partly from sources within and partly from sources without the United States. The taxable income includes that derived in full from sources within the United States and that portion of the income which is derived partly from sources within and partly from sources without the United States which is allocated or apportioned to sources within the United States.

ART. 318. Interest.-- There shall be included in the gross income from sources within the United States, of nonresident alien individuals, foreign corporations and citizens of the United States or domestic corporations which are entitled to the benefits of section 262, all interest received or accrued, as the case may be, on bonds, notes, or other interest-bearing obligations of residents of the United States, whether corporate or otherwise, except:

(a) Interest paid on deposits with persons, including individuals, partnerships, or corporations carrying on the banking business, to persons (nonresident alien individuals, foreign corporations, and citizens of the United States or domestic corporations entitled to the benefits of section 262) not engaged in business within the United States, and not having an office or place of business therein; and

(6) Interest received from a resident alien individual, a resident foreign corporation, or a domestic corporation, when it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that less than 20 per cent of the gross income of such resident payor or domestic corporation has been derived from sources within the United States (as determined under the provisions of articles 317 to 331, inclusive) for the three-year period ending with the close of the taxable year of the payor which precedes the payment of such interest, or for such part of that period as may be applicable.

Any taxpayer who excludes from gross income from sources within the United States income of the type specified in (a) or (6) above shall file with his return a statement setting forth the amount of such income and such information as may be necessary to show that the income is of the type specified in those paragraphs.

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