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to a transaction made in the ordinary course of its business. If such acquisition or the contract or option to acquire is to the extent of part only of substantially identical property, then only a proportionate part of the loss shall be disallowed. The basis for determining the amount of the deduction for losses sustained shall be the same as is provided in section 204 for determining the gain or loss from the sale or other disposition of property ;

(5) Debts ascertained to be worthless and charged off within the taxable year (or in the discretion of the Commissioner, a reasonable addition to a reserve for bad debts); and when satisfied that a debt is recoverable only in part, the Commissioner may allow such debt to be charged off in part;

(6) The amount received as dividends (A) from a domestic corporation other than a corporation entitled to the benefits of section 262, and other than a corporation organized under the China Trade Act, 1922, or (B) from any foreign corporation when it is shown to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that more than 50 per centum of the gross income of such foreign corporation for the three-year period ending with the close of its taxable year preceding the declaration of such dividends (or for such part of such period as the foreign corporation has been in existence) was derived from sources within the United States as determined under section 217;

(7) A reasonable allowance for the exhaustion, wear and tear of property used in the trade or business, including a reasonable allowance for obsolescence;

(8) In the case of mines, oil and gas wells, other natural deposits, and timber, a reasonable allowance for depletion and for depreciation of improvements, according to the peculiar conditions in each case; such reasonable allowance in all cases to be made under rules and regulations to be prescribed by the Commissioner with the approval of the Secretary. In the case of leases the deductions allowed by this paragraph shall be equitably apportioned between the lessor and lessee;

(9) In the case of insurance companies (other than life insurance companies), in addition to the above (unless otherwise allowed): (A) The net addition required by law to be made within the taxable year to reserve funds (including in the case of assessment insurance companies the actual deposit of sums with State or Territorial officers pursuant to law as additions to guarantee or reserve funds); and (B) the sums other than dividends paid within the taxable year on policy and annuity contracts. This paragraph shall apply only to mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies;

(10) In the case of mutual marine insurance companies, there shall be allowed, in addition to the deductions allowed in paragraphs (1) to (9), inclusive, unless otherwise allowed, amounts repaid to policyholders on account of premiums previously paid by them, and interest paid upon such amounts between the ascertainment and the payment thereof;

(11) In the case of mutual insurance companies (including interinsurers and reciprocal underwriters, but not including mutual life or mutual marine insurance companies) requiring their members to make premium deposits to provide for losses and expenses, there shall be allowed, in addition to the de. ductions allowed in paragraphs (1) to (9), inclusive, unless otherwise allowed, the amount of premium deposits returned to their policyholders and the amount of premium deposits retained for the payment of losses, expenses, and reinsurance reserves.

(b) In the case of a foreign corporation or of a corporation entitled to the benefits of section 262 the deductions allowed in subdivision (a) shall be allowed only if and to the extent that they are connected with income from sources within the United States; and the proper apportionment and allocation of the deductions with respect to sources within and without the United States shall be determined as provided in section 217 under rules and regulations prescribed by the Commissioner with the approval of the Secretary.

ART. 561. Allowable deductions.-In general the deductions from gross income allowed corporations are the same as allowed individuals, except that corporations may deduct dividends as provided in paragraph (6) of section 234(a) and may not deduct contributions or gifts. See section 214 of the statute. Particularly, as to business expenses, see articles 101–112; as to interest paid see article 121; as to taxes paid see articles 131-135; as to losses see articles 141-146; as to bad debts see articles 151–155; as to depreciation see articles 161–171; as to depletion see articles 201–239; as to involuntary conversion of property into cash or its equivalent see sections 203(a) (5) and 204(a) (10) and articles 1579, 1580, and 1600; as to life insurance companies see articles 681–687; and as to other insurance companies see articles 568, and 691-693.

ART. 562. Donations.—Corporations are not entitled to deduct from gross income contributions or gifts which individuals may deduct under paragraph (10) of section 214(a). Donations made by a corporation for purposes connected with the operation of its business, however, when limited to charitable institutions, hospitals, or educational institutions conducted for the benefit of its employees or their dependents, are a proper deduction as ordinary and necessary expenses. Donations which legitimately represent a consideration for a benefit flowing directly to the corporation as an incident of its business are allowable deductions from gross income. For example, a street railway corporation may donate a sum of money to an organization intending to hold a convention in the city in which it operates, with the reasonable expectation that the holding of such convention will augment its income through a greater number of people using the cars. Sums of money expended for lobbying purposes, the promotion or defeat of legislation, the exploitation of propaganda, including advertising other than trade advertising, and contributions for campaign expenses, are not deductible from gross income.

ART. 563. Sale of capital stock, bonds, and capital assets.—A corporation sustains no deductible loss from the sale of its capital stock. See article 543. If it sells its bonds at a discount, the amount of such discount is treated in the same way as interest paid, and if it retires its bonds at a price in excess of the issuing price, such excess may usually be deducted as expense. See article 545. Any loss sustained by a corporation upon the sale of its capital assets, computed as provided in sections 202–204, subject to the limitation provided in section 234(a) (4) as to the purchase and sale of stock or securities is deductible.

ART. 564. Interest.-Interest paid by a corporation on scrip dividends is an allowable deduction. So-called interest on preferred stock, which is in reality a dividend thereon, can not be deducted in computing net income. In the case of banks and loan or trust companies, interest paid within the year on deposits or on moneys received for investment and secured by interest-bearing certificates of indebtedness issued by such bank or loan or trust company may be deducted from gross income.

ART. 565. Effect of tax-free covenant in bonds.-Corporations may deduct taxes from gross income to the same extent as individuals, except that in the case of corporate bonds or obligations containing a tax-free covenant clause, the corporation paying a Federal tax, or any part of it, for some one else pursuant to its agreement is not entitled to deduct such payment from gross income on any ground. In the case, however, of corporate bonds or obligations containing an appropriate tax-free covenant clause, the corporation paying for some one else, pursuant to its agreement, a State tax or any tax other than a Federal tax may deduct such payment as interest paid on indebtedness.

ART. 566. Tax on bank or other stock.-Under the Revenue Act of 1924 banks or other corporations paying taxes assessed against their shareholders on account of their ownership of the shares of stock issued by such corporations without reimbursement from such shareholders may deduct the amount of taxes so paid. The statute specifically provides, however, that in such cases the shareholders may not deduct the amount of the taxes.

ART. 567. Depositors' guaranty fund.-Banking corporations, which pursuant to the laws of the States in which they are doing business are required to set apart, keep, and maintain in their banks the amount levied and assessed against them by the State authorities as a “Depositors' guaranty fund,” may deduct from their gross income the amount so set apart each year to this fund, provided that such fund, when set aside and carried to the credit of the State banking board or duly authorized State officer, ceases to be an asset of the bank and may be withdrawn in whole or in part upon demand by such board or State officer to meet the needs of these officers in reimbursing depositors in insolvent banks, and provided further that no portion of the amount thus set aside and credited is returnable under the laws of the State to the assets of the banking corporation. If, however, such amount is simply set up on the books of the bank as a reserve to meet a contingent liability and remains an asset of the bank, it will not be deductible except as it is actually paid out as required by law and upon demand of the proper State officers.

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ART. 568. Deductions allowed mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies.—Mutual insurance companies (other than life insurance companies) are entitled to the same deductions from gross income as other corporations, and also to the deduction of the net addition required by law to be made within the taxable year to reserve funds and of the sums other than dividends paid within the taxable year on policy and annuity contracts. As to life insurance companies, see sections 242-245 and articles 661-687. Other insurance companies, except mutual and life companies, are entitled only to the deductions allowed by section 247. See article 693. Mutual insurance companies (other than life) are not entitled to the deductions allowed by section 247, but are entitled to the deductions allowed by section 234. See articles 569–572. “Paid ” includes “ ac

” crued” or “incurred” (construed according to the method of accounting upon the basis of which the net income is computed) during the taxable year, but does not include any estimate for losses incurred but not reported during the taxable year.

ART. 569. Required addition to reserve funds of mutual insurance companies.-Mutual insurance companies, other than life insurance companies, may deduct from gross income the net addition required by law to be made within the taxable year to reserve funds, including in the case of assessment insurance companies the actual deposit of sums with State or Territorial officers pursuant to law as additions to guarantee or reserve funds. Reserve funds “required by law' include not only reserves required by express statutory provisions but also reserves required by the rules and regulations of State insurance departments when promulgated in the exercise of an appropriate power conferred by statute, but do not include assets required to be held for the ordinary running expenses of the business, such as taxes, salaries, reinsurance, and unpaid brokerage. Only reserves commonly recognized as reserve funds in insurance accounting are to be taken into consideration in computing the net addition to reserve funds required by law. In the case of a fire insurance company the only reserve fund commonly recognized is the “unearnedpremium” fund. Casualty companies may deduct losses incurred within the taxable year; but unless the net addition to the unpaid loss reserve required by law exceeds such losses incurred, no deduction for the net addition to the unpaid loss reserve may be taken. In any event only the excess of such net addition over such losses may be deducted. Mutual hail and mutual cyclone insurance companies are entitled to deduct from gross income the net addition which they are required to make to the "guarantee surplus” fund or similar fund.

ART. 570. Special deductions allowed mutual marine insurance companies.-Mutual marine insurance companies should include in gross

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income the gross premiums collected and received by them less amounts paid for reinsurance. See section 233 of the statute and article 549. They may deduct from gross income amounts repaid to policyholders on account of premiums previously paid by them, together with the interest actually paid upon such amounts between the date of ascertainment and the date of payment thereof. The remainder of the premiums accordingly form part of the net income of the company, except to the extent that they are subject to the deductions allowed such insurance companies and other corporations.

ART. 571. Special deductions allowed mutual insurance companies.Mutual insurance companies (including interinsurers and reciprocal underwriters, but not including mutual life and mutual marine insurance companies), which require their members to make premium deposits to provide for losses and expenses, are allowed to deduct from gross income the aggregate amount of premium deposits returned to their policyholders or retained for the payment of losses, expenses, and reinsurance reserves. In determining the amount of premium deposits retained by a mutual fire or mutual casualty insurance company for the payment of losses, expenses, and reinsurance reserves, it will be presumed that losses and expenses have been paid out of earnings and profits other than premiums to the extent of such earnings and profits. If, however, any portion of such amount is applied during the taxable year to the payment of losses, expenses, or reinsurance reserves, for which a separate allowance is taken, then such portion is not deductible; and if any portion of such amount for which an allowance is taken is subsequently applied to the payment of expenses, losses, or reinsurance reserves, then such payment can not be separately deducted. The amount of premium deposits retained for the payment of expenses and losses, and the amount of such expenses and losses, may not both be deducted. A company which invests part of the premium deposits so retained by it in interest-bearing securities may nevertheless deduct such part, but not the interest received on such securities. A mutual fire insurance company which has a guaranty capital is taxed like other mutual fire insurance companies. A stock fire insurance company, operated on the mutual plan to the extent of paying dividends to certain classes of policyholders, may make a return on the same basis as a mutual fire insurance company with respect to its business conducted on the mutual plan.

ART. 572. Deductions allowed foreign corporations.--Foreign corporations and corporations entitled to the benefits of section 262, are allowed the same deductions from their gross income arising from sources within the United States as are allowed to domestic corporations, to the extent that such deductions are connected with

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