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into account. The net income of corporations is determined in general in the same manner as the net income of individuals, but the deductions allowed corporations are not precisely the same as those allowed individuals. See sections 206, 233, 234, and 235 of the statute. The net income of corporations is to be computed on the same basis as to accounting periods as the net income of individuals. See sections 212 and 226 and articles 21-26 and 431; see also sections 217 and 262 and articles 311-331 and 1135-1137.

GROSS INCOME OF CORPORATIONS DEFINED

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SEC, 233. (a) In the case of a corporation subject to the tax imposed by section 230 the term

gross income

means the gross income as defined in sections 213 and 217, except that mutual marine insurance companies shall include in gross income the gross premiums collected and received by them less amounts paid for reinsurance.

(b) In the case of a foreign corporation gross income means only gross income from sources within the United States, determined (except in the case of insurance companies subject to the tax imposed by sections 243 or 246) in the manner provided in section 217.

Art. 541. Gross income.—The gross income of a corporation for the purpose of the tax, in general, includes and excludes the same things

as the gross income of an individual. It embraces not only the operating revenues, but also gains, profits, and income from all other sources such as rentals, royalties, interest, dividends from stock in other corporations, and profits from the sale of capital assets, As to the basis for determining gain or loss on disposition of property see sections 202–204 and articles 1561-1603. The proceeds of life insurance policies paid upon the death of the insured to any beneficiary (corporate or otherwise) are not to be included in the beneficiary's gross income. See section 213(b) (1). In the case of mutual insurance companies and of foreign corporations there are special provisions. See articles 549 and 550. As to domestic corporations deriving 80 per cent of their gross income from sources within possessions of the United States see section 262. As to life insurance companies see section 244 and article 671; as to other insurance companies (except life or mutual) see section 246 and article 692. Mutual insurance companies (other than life) are included within the provisions of section 233 and this article.

ART. 542. Creation of sinking fund.-If a corporation, in order solely to secure the payment of its bonds or other indebtedness, places property in trust, or sets aside certain amounts in a sinking fund under the control of a trustee who may be authorized to invest and reinvest such sums from time to time, the property or fund thus set aside by the corporation and held by the trustee is an asset of the corporation, and any gain arising therefrom is income of the corporation and shall be included as such in its annual return. The trustee, however, is not taxable as such on account of the property or fund so held. See section 219 and articles 341-347.

ART. 543. Sale of capital stock. The proceeds from the original sale by a corporation of its shares of capital stock, whether such proceeds are in excess of or less than the par value of the stock issued, constitute the capital of the company. If the stock is sold at a premium, the premium is not income. Likewise, if the stock is sold at a discount, the amount of the discount is not a loss deductible from gross income. If, for the purpose of enabling a corporation to secure working capital or for any other purpose, the shareholders donate or return to the corporation to be resold by it certain shares of stock of the company previously issued to them, or if the corporation purchases any of its stock and holds it as treasury stock, the sale of such stock will be considered a capital transaction and the proceeds of such sale will be treated as capital and will not constitute income of the corporation. A corporation realizes no gain or loss from the purchase or sale of its own stock. See article 563.

Art. 544. Contributions by shareholders.-Where a corporation requires additional funds for conducting its business and obtains such needed money through voluntary pro rata payments by its shareholders, the amounts so received being credited to its surplus account or to a special capital account, such amounts will not be considered income, although there is no increase in the outstanding shares of stock of the corporation. The payments in such circumstances are in the nature of voluntary assessments upon, and represent an additional price paid for, the shares of stock held by the individual shareholders, and will be treated as an addition to and as a part of the operating capital of the company: · See articles 49 and 292.

Art. 545. Sale and retirement of corporate bonds.—(1) (a) If bonds are issued by a corporation at their face value, the corporation realizes no gain or loss. (b) If thereafter the corporation purchases and retires any of such bonds at a price in excess of the issuing price or face value, the excess of the purchase price over the issuing price or face value is a deductible expense for the taxable year. See section 234 of the statute and article 563. (c) If, however, the corporation purchases and retires any of such bonds at a price less than the issuing price or face value, the excess of the issuing price or face value over the purchase price is gain or income for the taxable year.

(2) (a) If bonds are issued by a corporation at a premium, the net amount of such premium is gain or income which should be prorated or amortized over the life of the bonds. (6) If thereafter the corporation purchases and retires any of such bonds at a price in excess of the issuing price minus any amount of premium already returned as income, the excess of the purchase price over the issuing price minus any amount of premium already returned as income (or over the face value plus any amount of premium not yet returned as income) is a deductible expense for the taxable year. (c) If, however, the corporation purchases and retires any of such bonds at a price less than the issuing price minus any amount of premium already returned as income, the excess of the issuing price minus any amount of premium already returned as income (or of the face value plus any amount of premium not yet returned as income) over the purchase price is gain or income for the taxable year.

(3) (a) If bonds are issued by a corporation at a discount, the net amount of such discount is deductible and should be prorated or amortized over the life of the bonds. (6) If thereafter the corporation purchases and retires any of such bonds at a price in excess of the issuing price plus any amount of discount already deducted, the excess of the purchase price over the issuing price plus any amount of discount already deducted (or over the face value minus any amount of discount not yet deducted) is a deductible expense for the taxable year. (c) If, however, the corporation purchases and retires any of such bonds at a price less than the issuing price plus any amount of discount already deducted, the excess of the issuing price plus any amount of discount already deducted (or of the face value minus any amount of discount not yet deducted) over the purchase price is gain or income for the taxable year.

Art. 546. Sale of capital assets.—Where property is acquired and later sold for a higher price the gain on the sale is income. Where, then, a corporation sells its capital assets in whole or in part it shall include in its gross income for the year in which the sale was made the amount of the excess of the sales price over the cost or other basis determined as provided in sections 202–204. In every case, however, in ascertaining the gain, the cost of the assets, including any expenditures properly charged to capital account, or the fair market value as of March 1, 1913, of the assets acquired prior thereto, should first be reduced by the amount of depreciation, obsolescence, amortization, and depletion allowed as a deduction in computing net income. If the purchaser takes over all the assets and assumes the liabilities, the amount so assumed is part of the purchase price. See also sections 202–204 and articles 1561-1603.

ART. 547. Income from leased property.- Where a corporation has leased its property in consideration that the lessee shall pay in lieu of other rental an amount equivalent to a certain rate of dividend on the lessor's capital stock or the interest on the lessor's outstanding indebtedness, together with taxes, insurance, or other fixed charges, such payments shall be considered rental payments and shall be returned by the lessor corporation as income, notwithstanding the fact

a

that the dividends and interest are paid by the lessee directly to the shareholders and bondholders of the lessor. The fact that a corporation has conveyed or let its property and has parted with its management and control, or has ceased to engage in the business for which it was originally organized, will not relieve it from liability to the tax. While the payments made by the lessee directly to the bondholders or shareholders of the lessor are rentals as to both the lessee and lessor (rentals paid in one case and rentals received in the other), to the bondholders and the shareholders such amounts are interest and dividend payments received as from the lessor and as such shall be accounted for in their returns.

ART. 548. Gross income of corporation in liquidation.—When a corporation is dissolved, its affairs are usually wound up by a receiver or trustees in dissolution. The corporate existence is continued for the purpose of liquidating the assets and paying the debts, and such receiver or trustees stand in the stead of the corporation for such purposes. Any sales of property by them are to be treated as if made by the corporation for the purpose of ascertaining the gain or loss. No gain or loss is realized by a corporation from the mere distribution of its assets in kind upon dissolution, however they may have appreciated or depreciated in value since their acquisition. See, further, articles 622 and 1545.

ART. 549. Gross income of mutual insurance companies. The gross income of mutual insurance companies (other than life) consists of their total revenue from the operation of the business and of their income from all other sources within the taxable year, except as otherwise provided by the statute. Gross income includes net premiums (that is, gross premiums less returned premiums on policies canceled and premiums on policies not taken), investment income, profits from the sale of assets, and all gains, profits, and income reported to the State insurance departments, except income specifically exempt from tax. Premiums received by mutual marine insurance companies which are paid out for reinsurance should be eliminated from gross income and the payments for reinsurance from disbursements. Deposit premiums on perpetual risks received and returned by mutual fire insurance companies should be treated in the same manner, as no reserve will be recognized covering liability for such deposits. The earnings on such deposits, including such portion, if any, of the deposits as are not returned to the policyholders upon cancellation of the policies, must be included in the gross income. A net decrease in reserve funds required by law within the taxable year must be included in the gross income to the extent that such funds are released to the general uses of the company and increase its free assets. Any net decrease in reserves shall be added to the gross income, unless the company shall show that such decrease resulted from the application of reserves to the purposes for which they were established. See articles 541 and 568_571.

206°—24-12

ART. 550. Gross income of foreign corporations.—The gross income of a foreign corporation, including a mutual insurance company, means its gross income from sources within the United States, as defined and described in section 217 and articles 317–331 relating to nonresident alien individuals. As to other foreign insurance companies, see article 687. See also article 541.

DEDUCTIONS ALLOWED CORPORATIONS

SEC. 234. (a) In computing the net income of a corporation subject to the tax imposed by section 230 there shall be allowed as deductions:

(1) All the ordinary and necessary expenses paid or incurred during the taxable year in carrying on any trade or business, including a reasonable allowance for salaries or other compensation for personal services actually rendered, and including rentals or other payments required to be made as a condition to the continued use or possession of property to which the corporation has not taken or is not taking title, or in which it has no equity;

(2) All interest paid or accrued within the taxable year on its indebtedness, except on indebtedness incurred or continued to purchase or carry obligations or securities (other than obligations of the United States issued after September 24, 1917, and originally subscribed for by the taxpayer) the interest upon which is wholly exempt from taxation under this title;

(3) Taxes paid or accrued within the taxable year except (A) income, warprofits, and excess-profits taxes imposed by the authority of the United States, (B) so much of the income, war-profits and excess-profits taxes imposed by the authority of any foreign country or possession of the United States as is allowed as a credit under section 238, and (C) taxes assessed against local benefits of a kind tending to increase the value of the property assessed. In the case of obligors specified in subdivision (b) of section 221 no deduction for the payment of the tax imposed by this title, or any other tax paid pursuant to the tax-free covenant clause, shall be allowed, nor shall such tax be included in the gross income of the obligee. The deduction allowed by this paragraph shall be allowed in the case of taxes imposed upon a shareholder of a corporation upon his interest as shareholder, which are paid by the corporation without reimbursement from the shareholder, but in such cases no deduction shall be allowed the shareholder for the amount of such taxes. For the purpose of this paragraph, estate, inheritance, legacy, and succession taxes accrue on the due date thereof except as otherwise provided by law of the jurisdiction imposing such taxes;

(4) Losses sustained during the taxable year and not compensated for by insurance or otherwise. No deduction shall be allowed under this paragraph for any loss claimed to have been sustained in any sale or other disposition of shares of stock or securities where it appears that within thirty days before or after the date of such sale or other disposition the taxpayer has acquired (otherwise than by bequest or inheritance) or has entered into a contract or option to acquire substantially identical property, and the property so acquired is held by the taxpayer for any period after such sale or other disposition, unless such claim is made by a dealer in stock or securities and with respect

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