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estate or trust shall be allowed the credits provided in subdivisions (a) and (b) of section 216, in respect of certain dividends, and of interest upon certain obligations of the United States.

(c) If any part of the income of the estate or trust is included in computing the net income of any legatee, heir, or beneficiary, he is allowed for the purpose of the normal tax, in addition to his individual credits, his appropriate share of such dividends as are described in article 301 and of such interest not entirely exempt from tax upon obligations of the United States as are received by the estate or trust. Any remaining portion of such amounts will be allowed for the purpose of the normal tax to the estate or trust. Each beneficiary is entitled to but one personal exemption, no matter from how many trusts he may receive income. See section 216 of the statute and articles 301-306.

Art. 346. Stock bonus or profit-sharing trust.-Subdivision (f) of section 219 provides that a trust created by an employer as a part of a stock bonus or profit-sharing plan for the exclusive benefit of some or all of his employees, to which contributions are made by such employer, or employees, or both, for the purpose of distributing to such employees the earnings and principal of the fund accumulated by the trust in accordance with such plan, shall not be taxable under this section, but the amount actually distributed or made available to any distributee shall be taxable to him in the year in which so distributed or made available to the extent that it exceeds the amounts paid in by him. Such distributees shall for the purpose of the normal tax be allowed as credits that part of the amount so distributed or made available as represents the dividend and interest items specified in subdivisions (a) and (b) of section 216.

Art. 347. Income of trusts taxable to grantor. In the case of certain trusts which are in whole or in part subject to revocation by the grantor, or which are for the benefit of the grantor, the income of the trust is to be included in computing the net income of the grantor. The income of such trusts must be so included, whether or not the trust was created before the enactment of this Act. The cases in which the income of the trust is to be included, in whole or in part, in computing the net income of the grantor are as follows:

(1) Where the grantor of the trust has, at any time during the taxable year, either alone or in conjunction with a person not a beneficiary of the trust, the power to revest in himself title to any part of the corpus of the trust, the income of such part of the trust for that taxable year shall be included in computing the net income of the grantor. The grantor shall include in his income the entire gross income of such part of the trust, and shall be entitled to such deductions with reference to such income as he would have been en

titled to if the trust had not been created. Where the grantor relinquishes during the taxable year his power to revest in himself title to the corpus of the trust, the income of the trust shall be taxable to the grantor only for the period during which he had such power.

(2) Where any part of the income of the trust may, in the discretion of the grantor of the trust, either alone or in conjunction with any person not a beneficiary of the trust, be distributed to the

grantor or be held or accumulated for future distribution to him; and

(3) Where any part of the income of the trust is or may be applied to the payment of premiums upon policies of insurance on the life of the grantor, other than policies irrevocably payable for the purposes and in the manner specified in section 214 (a) (10), such part of the income of the trust shall be included in computing the net income of the grantor.

The term “beneficiary” as used in this article includes any person entitled to an interest in the income or the principal of a trust, but does not include one having merely a nominal interest in the income or principal.

EVASION OF SURTAXES BY INCORPORATION

SEC. 220. (a) If any corporation, however created or organized, is formed or availed of for the purpose of preventing the imposition of the surtax upon its shareholders through the medium of permitting its gains and profits to accumulate instead of being divided or distributed, there shall be levied, collected, and paid for each taxable year upon the net income of such corporation a tax equal to 50 per centum of the amount thereof, which shall be in addition to the tax imposed by section 230 of this title and shall (except as provided in subdivision (d) of this section) be computed, collected, and paid upon the same basis and in the same manner and subject to the same provisions of law, including penalties, as that tax.

(b) The fact that any corporation is a mere holding or investment company, or that the gains or profits are permitted to accumulate beyond the reasonable needs of the business, shall be prima facie evidence of a purpose to escape the surtax.

(c) When requested by the Commissioner, or any collector, every corporation shall forward to him a correct statement of such gains and profits and the names and addresses of the individuals or shareholders who would be entitled to the same if divided or distributed, and of the amounts that would be payable to each.

(d) As used in this section the term “net income means the net income as defined in section 232, increased by the sum of the amount of the deduction allowed under paragraph (6) of subdivision (a) of section 234, and the amount of the interest on obligations of the United States issued after September 1, 1917, which would be subject to tax in whole or in part in the hands of an individual owner.

ART. 351. Taxation of corporation utilized for evasion of surtax.Section 220 of the statute is designed to discourage the formation or use of a corporation for the purpose of preventing the imposition of surtaxes upon its shareholders, through the device of permitting its gains and profits to accumulate instead of being distributed. If a domestic or foreign corporation is so formed or availed of after January 1, 1924, it is subject to a tax at the rate of 50 per cent upon its net income in addition to the tax imposed by section 230 of the statute.

ART. 352. Purpose to escape surtax.-Prima facie evidence of a purpose to escape the surtax exists where a corporation is a mere investment company, where a corporation has practically no business except holding stocks, securities or other property and collecting the income therefrom or investing therein, or where a corporation other than a mere holding or investment company permits its gains and profits to accumulate beyond the reasonable needs of the business. The statutory presumption that a mere holding or investment company is subject to the additional tax imposed by section 220 may be overcome if the corporation can show, either by reason of the fact that it distributed a large portion of its earnings for the year in question, or that its stock was held not by the members of a family or of a small group but by a large number of persons and in comparatively small blocks, or by other evidence, that it was not availed of for the purpose of preventing the imposition of the surtax upon its stockholders.

The business of a corporation is not merely that which it has previously carried on, but includes in general any line of business which it may legitimately undertake. However, a radical change of business when a considerable surplus has been accumulated may afford evidence of a purpose to-escape the surtax. When one corporation owns the stock of another corporation in the same or a related line of business and in effect operates the other corporation, the business of the latter may be considered in substance the business of the first corporation. Gains and profits of the first corporation put into the second through the purchase of stock or otherwise may therefore, if a subsidiary relationship is established, constitute employment of the income in its own business. To establish that the business of one corporation can be regarded as including the business of another it is ordinarily essential that the first corporation own substantially all of the stock of the second. Investment by a corporation of its income in stock and securities of another corporation is not without anything further to be regarded as employment of the income in its business.

ART. 353. Unreasonable accumulation of profits.--An accumulation of gains and profits is unreasonable if it is not required for the purposes of the business, considering all the circumstances of the case. It is not intended, however, to penalize reasonable accumulations of sur

plus for the needs of the business. No attempt can be made to enumerate all the ways in which gains and profits of a corporation may be accumulated for the reasonable needs of the business. Distributions made by a corporation shortly after the close of its taxable year shall be taken into consideration in determining the reasonableness of the amount of earnings and profits of the corporation retained by it for the year in question. Undistributed income is properly accumulated if invested in increased inventories or additions to plant reasonably needed by the business. It is properly accumulated if retained for working capital required by the business or in accordance with contract obligations placed to the credit of a sinking fund for the purpose of retiring bonds issued by the corporation. In the case of a banking institution the business of which is to receive and loan money, using capital, surplus, and deposits for that purpose, undistributed income actually represented by loans or reasonably retained for future loans is not accumulated beyond the reasonable needs of the business. The nature of the investment of gains and profits is immaterial if they are not in fact needed in the business. It is an unreasonable accumulation of gains and profits by corporations, after the effective date of this Act, with the purpose of enabling their shareholders to escape surtaxes on such gains and profits, which subjects such corporations to the additional tax imposed by section 220. The financial condition of the corporation at the close of the taxable year in question, the manner in which its funds are invested at that date, determines the reasonableness of the accumulations.

For the purpose of section 220 the term “net income means the net income of the corporation as defined in section 232 increased by the sum of (1) the amounts received as dividends and allowed as a deduction by section 234 (a) (6), plus (2) the amount of interest on obligations of the United States issued after September 1, 1917, which would be subject to tax in whole or in part in the hands of an individual owner. The Commissioner or any collector may require any corporation to furnish a statement of its gains and profits, the names and addresses of and number of shares held by each of its shareholders, and the amounts that would be payable to each, if the income of the corporation were distributed.

PAYMENT OF INDIVIDUAL'S TAX AT SOURCE

SEC. 221. (a) All persons, in whatever capacity acting, including lessees or mortgagors of real or personal property, fiduciaries, employers, and all officers and employees of the United States having the control, receipt, custody, dis: posal, or payment of interest (except interest on deposits with persons carrying on the banking business paid to persons not engaged in business in the United States and not having an office or place of business therein), rent, salaries, wages, premiums, annuities, compensations, remunerations, emoluments, or other fixed or determinable annual or periodical gains, profits, and income, of any nonresident alien individual, or of any partnership not engaged in trade or business within the United States and not having any office or place of business therein and composed in whole or in part of nonresident aliens, (other than income received as dividends of the class allowed as a credit by subdivision (a) of section 216) shall (except in the cases provided for in subdivision (b) and except as otherwise provided in regulations prescribed by the Commissioner under section 217) deduct and with hold from such annual or periodical gains, profits, and income a tax equal to 6 per centum thereof: Provided, That the Commissioner may authorize such tax to be deducted and withheld from the interest upon any securities the owners of which are not known to the withholding agent.

(b) In any case where bonds, mortgages, or deeds of trust, or other similar obligations of a corporation contain a contract or provision by which the obligor agrees to pay any portion of the tax imposed by this title upon the obligee, or to reimburse the obligee for any portion of the tax, or to pay the interest without deduction for any tax which the obligor may be required or permitted to pay thereon, or to retain therefrom under any law of the United States, the obligor shall deduct and withhold a tax equal to 2 per centum of the interest upon such bonds, mortgages, deeds of trust, or other obligations, whether such interest is payable annually or at shorter or longer periods and whether payable to a nonresident alien individual or to an individual citizen or resident of the United States or to a partnership: Provided, That the Commissioner may authorize such tax to be deducted and withheld in the case of interest upon any such bonds, mortgages, deeds of trust, or other obligations, the owners of which are not known to the withholding agent. Such deduction and withholding shall not be required in the case of a citizen or resident entitled to receive such interest, if he files with the withholding agent on or before February 1 a signed notice in writing claiming the benefit of the credits provided in subdivisions (c) and (d) of section 216; nor in the case of a nonresident alien individual if so provided for in regulations prescribed by the Commissioner under subdivision (g) of section 217.

(c) Every person required to deduct and withhold any tax under this section shall make return thereof on or before March 15 of each year and shall on or before June 15 pay the tax to the official of the United States Government authorized to receive it. Every such person is hereby made liable for such tax and is hereby indemnified against the claims and demands of any person for the amount of any payments made in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(d) Income upon which any tax is required to be withheld at the source under this section shall be included in the return of the recipient of such income, but any amount of tax so withheld shall be credited against the amount of income tax as computed in such return.

(e) If any tax required under this section to be deducted and withheld is paid by the recipient of the income, it shall not be re-collected from the withholding agent; nor in cases in which the tax is so paid shall any penalty be imposed upon or collected from the recipient of the income or the withholding agent for failure to return or pay the same, unless such failure was fraudulent and for the purpose of evading payment.

ART.' 361. Withholding tax at source.-In general, withholding is required (a) of a tax of 6 per cent in the case of fixed or determinable annual or periodical income payable to a nonresident alien

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