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In the whole range of husbandry per such a circumstance as a broken coat in haps the most perplexing point of manage any of these animals, from a cause so danment is the providing for flocks of sheep gerous and fatal where they are neglected. in the months of March and April. Tur When ewes are about to lamb, their keep nips and hay are generally depended up should be of the most nourishing kind, conon; but being frequently inadequate, ryesisting of plenty of turnips or cabbage. is sometimes sown on purpose, and crops of Till this period they may do without them. wheat are also sometimes eaten down by But all cattle that have young require as them. All, however, is too frequently found good keeping as those which are tatting. insufficient, and they are permitted to run The turnips or cabbages shonld be drawn over the clover and pastures of the farm, for them, and given them on dry gronnd. committing great waste and damage. To A standing rack of hay should be left for prevent these evils, burnet should be culti- them on the field, which will be of great vated by the farmer. It is a most hardy advantage to them. plant, and preserves its green leaves through the winter, and under deep snows vegetates with singular luxuriance. This will be an The quick multiplication and growth of admirable feed for sheep in April, when swine render them a species of stock highly tornips ought no longer to remain upon the profitable, and if reared systematically, and ground. But kept grass on dry meadow upon a large scale, none wiil be found to anand pasture, or what is called rouen, swer the purpose of the farmer better. ferable to every other dependance, and Though supposed to be filthier than any other though consisting as it were of hay and animals, they enjoy a clean and comfortable grass in the same mouthful, being the au place for lying down in, and their thriving tumnal growth at top sheltering the more
and feeding are at least as much improved recent vegetation beneath, the sheep eat by cleanly management as those of any both together without the slightest hesita other stock. Their styes should therefore tion, and are found to thrive upon it ex
be constructed sloping, to carry off all tremely. Ten ewes, with their lambs, may moisture. The different sorts of swine be supported throughout April on one acre of should be kept separate in them; and many this rouen, and no cheaper mode of keeping should never be put together, and particu. a full stock in April can possibly be adopted. larly if they be of different size. Too much
In June the washing of the sheep should attention cannot easily be paid to the reargenerally take place, previously to the ing of these animals. The large Chinese shearing. The washing may be best per breed is generally and justly preferred. formed by a stream of water; and those When swine are reared on a comprehensive who are engaged in it, instead of standing plan, crops must be sown purposely for in the water, in which their uncomfortable their support, and the dairy cannot be con. situation leads them to hurry negligently sidered as that resource which it is naturally over the business, should, by means of a regarded in small farms. From October till cask or tub, be freed from snch unpleasant May potatoes, carrots, cabbages, and the and dangerous exposure. The shearing, Swedish turnip, which is a most useful vewhich speedily follows this operation, should getable for this particular purpose, must be be as close as possible, and the circular is provided for the swine and stores from Ocby far preferable to the longitudinal method tober till the end of May, when they may with a view to this object.
be received into luceme, chirory, or clover, Sheep that are kept in inclosures, and on which they will be maintained till the particularly in a woodland country, should clearing of the stubble; and thus, with the be examined twice every day, to guard offal of the barn and the corn fields, and the against injury to them from the fly, which plants and roots just mentioned, the whole in twenty-four hours after having struck year will be amply provided for. In sumsometimes produces incurable disease. The mer meal must be mixed with water for most efficacious treatment on this subject the sows as they pig, and in winter boiled is, after parting the wool wherever the roots, peas, and oats should be given to the maggots are found, and picking them out young ones. Dairy wash is a capital addiwith a knife, to scrape a small quantity of tion to this mixture. The sows should be white lead among the wool, so that it may permitted to pig but twice a year, in April be carried evenly down to the wound. Re- and August. When great with pig, they gular and minute inspection will prevent must be carefully secluded from the boars,
and shut up about a fortnight beforehand in of every species, must have access to gravel the stye; and while pigging, it is of extreme and grass. Their cheapest food consists of consequence that no one approaches them, boiled potatoes, on which it appears that or is even seen looking at them, as in this they can be supported and fattened, withcase they will often devour their farrow, out the aid of any corn. Where numbers After a week from this period, they should of them are kept upon a farm, if permitted for a few hours in the day have the freedom to go at large, they will often do considerof the yard, which will be a great relief able injury both in the fields and barn-yard, from total confinement. Winter pigs, if not besides which they will be extremely exkept with great attention, are found less pro- posed to the attacks of vermin, and will lose fitable than others. Milk and whey may so a considerable number of their eggs. A usefully be applied to them, that perhaps no full-grown hen continues in her prime for other mode of their application is equally ad- three years, and may be supposed in that vantageous; and the best process for wean time to lay 200 eggs, which number, howing them is by giving these articles to them ever, by warmth and nourishment, might be mixed np with peas-soup, though the latter greatly exceeded. alone will answer well. When three or four The quality and size of the Norfolk turmonths old, nothing is better for them than keys are superior to those of any other part clover: turnips alone will not be proper, of the kingdom. They are fed almost enbut corn should be added to them. Carrots tirely with buck-wheat, which, perhaps, may and potatoes will keep them well till their account for their excellence, and are bred full growth. Malt grains, if easily and by almost every little farmer in the county. cheaply to be procured, are highly to be re When young, they demand perpetual attencommended.
tion, and must be fed with alum curds and With a view to fattening hogs, the corn chopped onions, and the expense attending employed should be ground into meal, and their management and food can be compenin the proportion of five bushels to 100 gal- sated only where broods are tolerably suclons of water should be mixed in large cis- cessful, and the prices high. terns: the mixture should for three weeks
THE DAIRY. be well stirred every day, and at the end of that period will have fermented and become In the conduct of a dairy, which, in all acid, before which it should not be given. but the most productive corn countries, is A succession of vessels should be filled with an object of particular consequence to the this fermented food, that some may be al- farmer, it is obviously of the first importance ways ready; and, before it is applied, it to select cows of the best sort, and in judgshould be always stirred. Peas soup is ing of the value of this animal, the best me. perhaps equally wholesome food with the thod of deciding it is by the quantity of above, and especially if made with warm cream produced in a given time, rather than milk. The preparation, however, is more of milk. · The richiest milk known is proexpensive. Fatting hogs should be con- duced by cows of the Alderney breed; but, stantly well littered, and be kept perfectly in all countries, cows yielding a very supeclean.
rior quantity of milk to the generality are to be found, and should be sought for by
those persons to whom their produce is a With respect to poultry, constituting as particular object of attention; and the breed they generally do part of the stock, how of such should be particularly cultivated. ever small, upon farms, a few observations Rough waste lands, when the soil is wet, on them may not be thought superfluous. will do better for cows than sheep, and If kept merely for domestic supply, parti- should be always appropriated to them, not cular attention is needless. When reared indeed because they are the best for cows, with a view to profit, however, and on a but because no stock will so well pay upon somewhat large scale, they will repay, as them. they indeed require, considerable attention. The grand object of keeping cows being A house should be erected for them, con the production of abundance and excellence taining divisions appropriately for roosting, of milk, they must, for this purpose, be supsitting, fatting, and food. The building should plied with food of the same description. be constructed near the farm-yard, having About a month before they calve they clear water contiguous to it. Warmth and should be taken from the straw-yard, and smoke are great cherishers of poultry. All, have green food given them twice a day,
THE SETTLEMENT AND SUCCESS OF A
with the roots, whatever they may happen portion which may be left in the udder to be,which have been raised for their winter seems gradually to be absorbed into the food. Having calved, they should be kept system, and no more is formed than enough perfectly separate from the lean stock, to supply the loss of what is taken away, and whether in the house or in another yard, by the continuance of the same mode a yet and their food should be continued as be- farther diminution of the secretion takes fore. Winter feeding cows with hay, even place, until at length scarcely any is prothough none be given them before they duced. This mode of milking is always calve, breaks greatly upon the profits of practised when it is intended that a cow the dairy. Cabbages will maintain them in should be rendered dry. the cheapest manner, and not give any un The apartments appropriated to dairy pleasant flavour to the milk and butter. The purposes should, if possible, possess a modeheart alone of the cabbage, however, should rate temperature throughout the year, and be given to them, and the refuse leaves be left should be kept perfectly clean and dry. to be picked up by the lean cattle. In the The temperature of about fifty-five degrees month of May they should be kept in parti- is most favourable for the separation of the cularly good feed, for which purpose they cream from the milk. The utensils of the should be turned into the fields of clover, dairy are best made of wood: lead and copwhich had been early eaten off by sheep. per are soluble in acid, and highly pernicious ; Lucerne is, however, perhaps preferable to and though iron is not injurious, the taste of clover, as it is equally nourishing, and gives it might render the produce of the dairy unDo ill flavour. When mown, and given in palatable. racks or cribs, it will go farther than in any
OBJECTS OF ATTENTION, WITH A VIEW TO other way, and yield an increased quantity of the most valuable manure, a circumstance
YOUNG AGRICULTURIST. which has been often insisted upon, and cannot be too frequently suggested. The feed It is an object of extreme importance and ing place should be kept extremely well difficulty to awaken due attention, without littered. The profit of cows, in these cir- exciting useless anxiety. In selecting a sicumstances, will be greater than turning tuation in which to exercise the occupation them into luxuriant fields of these artificial of a farmer, various circumstances are migrasses, although the quantity of their pro- nutely and deliberately to be regarded, and dace might by the latter method probably great consideration is required to form an be increased; but by trampling upon and accurate comparison of advantages and disspoiling considerably more than they would advantages. After these have been fully eat, the little superior milk in richness or ascertained, a balance is to be drawn, and a quantity which might be produced would be decision to be made. More attention than purchased at a most heavy expense, and one time is requisite for this purpose, and hesiacre so managed would be requisite for tating, broken application will often occupy every cow, while, by soiling, it would be a longer period in arriving at an injudicious amply sufficient for three. The clear profit determination than, with persevering and in the comparison of any two modes of ma dispassionate examination, is necessary to nagement is the grand point of the farmer's obtain a correct one. Headlong temerity, consideration, and whatever the farmer finds which diminishes, or even annihilates to the most profitable will eventually, it must be mind substantial evils, and minute, appreremembered, most benefit the public. hensive prudence, by which every ant-hill of Whatever green meat be thus used in soil- difficulty is made to swell into a mountain, ing, should be fresh mown every two days, are both to be carefully avoided ; and a firm the quantity being, as nearly as may be confidence in human exertion should unite adapted to the number to be so fed, not on this critical occasion with keen and comonly of cows, but of other stock. Lucerne, prehensive observation. The soil is an obif well managed, will bear four mowings for ject of particular consideration, in reference this purpose.
to a vast variety of circumstances; as to its Cows should be milked three times a day, stiffness and moisture, levelness or slope; its if fully fed, throughout the summer; and great exposure or its stoniness; the manuring, caution should be exercised by the persons draining, and fencing that may be required; employed to draw the milk from them com the state of the roads; the accessibility of pletely, not only to increase the quantity of markets; the prices of manufactures, of proproduce, bat to preserve its quality. Any duce, and labour; the custom of tithes; the
amount of poor rates; the compactness of usefully observed, that when stiff land is the land, and the covenants concerning dry and crumbling, it is a sure indication of crops, are only a few of the points which its goodness, as the adhesive quality of a demand in such circumstances to be duly sandy soil is, with respect to that species of ascertained and estimated. To fix on good land, an equally decisive symptom in its faland is a prudential general direction. For vour. That which falls flat in powder is a such it is not easy, with ordinary discretion, mere barren sand. The chalk marle runs to pay too much, while for poor soils a small exceedingly to mortar from violent showers, rent very frequently exceeds their worth. after being pulverized, and is a cold and
The most advantageous of all soils are the unprofitable soil. Clay land of great tenamellow, putrid, crumbling, sandy loams: city is usually let for more than it is worth ; those which will admit tillage soon after and, though it will yield abundance of wheat, rain, and, though finely harrowed, will notis attended, in its management and prepaharden, as if baked, in consequence of the ration, with so great expense, that its profit hottest sunshine, after violent rains. The is often trifling, and fortunes are far more stiffloam, which is very nearly approaching frequently made by lands of a directly opto proper brick earth, is, without plenty of posite description, consisting of light and manure, an unfavourable soil. On walking dry sand. The common fault of stiff clays over it, it is found extremely adhesive in is wetness. Where fields are level, and, wet weather, and it requires a long time to even though the furrows are well ploughed, dry. It may be considered as forming a the water stands in the land, the extreme medium between the clods of clay and the tenacity of the soil is obvious. It is also crumblings of loam. In stubble, a small broken up by the plough only by a very green moss is frequently seen to cover it. powerful draught of cattle, and in pieces of By farmers, poverty and hunger are meta vast size and extreme hardness. In winter, phorically, and most expressively applied to soils approaching to this character are most this land, which has a great number of va to be distinguished. They will yield large rieties. It requires a large quantity of ma crops of beans and wheat, but the sight of nure, and is wonderfully improved by hol these should always be blended with the low ditching. The expense of these opera consideration of the immense expense. at tions must never be forgotten in connection which they are necessarily raised. There with an estimate of their result.
are many variations of peat, bog, and fen, Warm, dry, gravelly loams are, in win. and all may be found exceedingly profitater, easily distinguishable. Unless in a par ble; and if marl or lime be in the neighticularly wet winter, they may be ploughed bourhood, that circumstance is a most imduring almost any part of it, and will break portant inducement to undertake the maup in a state of crumbling, running mould. nagement of them, A very bad soil is constantly formed by wet, With regard to grass lands they are to be cold gravel, which, in winter, is always in- best examined at several seasons, in order dicated by its wetness, and in spring is to ascertain their character. If they be too known by the binding effects produced upon wet, this is shewn by walking over them in it by short and violent showers. It can be winter, and by rushes, flags, and moisture, fertilized only by very extraordinary quan- which, in a greater or less degree, are altities of manure; and draius fully and neatly ways observable upon them. The grass is completed in it, will considerably improve generally blue at the points, and always it. Some gravels are of so particularly sharp coarse. Draining may correct stiff loams, and burning a nature, that, unless the sum. but the stiff tenacious clay is scarcely susmer be particularly wet, they will produce ceptible of cure. Grass, on gravelly soils, absolutely nothing. At any season this soil will inevitably burn in hot summers, but is obviously distinguishable. With respect will extremely abound on loams in wet ones. to sands, the rich, red sand possesses On the banks of brooks and rivers, meadow always a dry soundness, and a temperate of almost any soil may be considered good, moisture, and will, in the driest summer, but the circumstance of their liability to secure a crop. Its excellence and protita- summer inundations ought never to be forbleness can scarcely be exceeded. Another gotten. admirable soil is formed of the light, sandy The herbage on many fields is sometimes loam. It may be ploughed during the whole composed of weeds and the coarsest and winter. The degree of its adhesion is pre- worst of grasses, which are at all times dis. cisely that of its perfection. It may be cernible, and indeed glaring. Under a pro
hibition of arable, which is sometimes, and The increase of rents and of rates, the not unfrequently, the case, fields of this de- higher composition for tithes, the advance scription are worth little or nothing. A ri. upon all implements of husbandry, and upver, well restrained within its banks, run on every species of sheep and cattle, may ning through a farm, is a circumstance de- be justly considered as having raised the cidedly favourable. The grass-lands may sum necessary for the above purpose to thus be presumed to have water for the ac- seven or eight pounds. To form calculacommodation of cattle.
tions upon this subject as accurately as posThe quantity, as well as the nature of the sible, and ascertain that the requisite capi. soil, is likewise to be considered, and no tal is possessed, for the due management of larger quantity should be occupied than can the land to be occupied, cannot be too emconveniently be stocked. The bad manage-phatically insisted upon. The profit atment, and the perpetual embarrassment oc- tending an increased expense in stocking curring in the contrary situation, are often will, in some cases, more than double the ruinous to the health and to the fortunes ratio of profit before that increase, and if of those who are involved in it.
the farmer be incapable of availing biniselt The disjoined situation of the various of striking opportunities for improvement, fields of a farm, is a circumstance attended by the purchase of litter or of manure, and with great vexation and expense. Com- indeed by a variety of circumstances which pactness of estates will always render them may easily be suggested, for want of capifar more valuable; and opportunities of pro- tal, his situation must be highly disadvanducing this compactness, by purchasing at tageous. a fair valuation, will never be neglected The choice of servants is a point requirby vigilant and wealthy landlords.
ing extreme attention. Where the assistance To estimate the rent correctly, it has of a bailiff is required, as in all farms of been judiciously recommended to connect very considerable extent, he should be of it with tithes and poor rates. Whatever sum a somewhat superior description to those be intended to be invested in the farm, its whom he must be authorized to command. interest may be fairly calculated at not less The making of contracts and receiving mothan ten per cent. A valuation of the ex- ney, which afford agents great temptation pense and the produce should, for the next to dishonesty and to excess, should, whenstep, be carefully made ; and after the for ever practicable, be performed by the prinmer is deducted from the latter, what re- cipal. Of the inferior servants, the ploughmains will be the sum which can be allowed men are of inost consequence, and skill and for the demand of rent, in the three different docility are their grand recommendations. forms above mentioned. If the amount of It is desirable that all the servants should tithes and rates be deducted from this, what be under the master's eye. His constant remains will be the sum which the occu- superintendence will have great effect in pier can afford to pay the landlord. promoting their sobriety and regularity, and
The nature of the covenants required, not only will their permanent happiness be which are sometimes only absurd, and there- improved by this plan, a circunstance to a fore admissible without difficulty, but some man of humanity of no light consideration, times equally absurd and mischievous, ought but their greater tractability and obedience ever to be considered in connection not will render the practice of this domesticatonly with general but local and peculiaring method in a selfish point of view, more circumstances. The unreasonableness of useful to him, than that according to which, the conditions proposed will sometimes be on many extended estates, the men and boys a valid objection to that occupancy which are all committed to the boarding and marent aud situation, and all other circum- nagement of the bailiff. It may be consistances might render highly eligible, and dered as in general preferable to keep many compensation in diminished rent will be servants and few day-labourers in the prenecessary to indemnify for tying down the sent times. The certainty of commanding farmer trom modes of cultivation uninju- lands at all seasons is an object of prime rious to the land, and inexpressibly the most importance, and the difficulty of procuring beneficial to the occupier.
additional ones when they are most wanted, From three to five pounds per acre was, is often upon the other plan insuperable. abont forty years since, considered adequate It will be always eligible and expedient to the stocking of any farm, partly grass to pursue a system of management, comand partly tillage, of the average fertility. prehending every department of business