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prove the constant source of improvement. of this liquor will be of little less value With a view to turn his means of manure eventually than a heap of dung of the same most advantageously to account, he should size. draw into his farm-yard, at the most leisurely If the dung remains under water, putra season of the year, before the time of con- faction is stopped; this therefore should be fining his cattle to fodder, as much marl, carefully guarded against. Stirring the dung turf, dry mud, loam, and other applicable ar- should also be avoided, as the oils and alkaticles, as will cover its surface to the depth of line salts are thus carried off into the atmostwelve inches. If there be many hog-houses, phere, and it is not merely rottenness that stables, and cow-stalls, that are cleaused into is wanted, and particularly that dry rottenthe yard, on such spots these materials ness thus produced, but such as exhibits a should be spread more thickly. Bog peats, fat, oily, mucelaginous appearance. It will if near at hand, should be never neglected. he advisable, if practicable, to let it remain These peats may be regarded as vegetable in the yard unmoved till the ground it is dmghills, and their easy accessibility in this destined for is completely ready for its reconnexion will be regarded as of extreme ception. If, for want of room in the yard, utility and consequence. Before foddering it must be carted off into the field, let the is begun, the whole yard should be well lit- litter and the marl be well mixed in filling tered, for which stubble, fern, and leaves, the cart, and let the whole form, under the are well adapted. No money laid ont by shade of trees, if an opportunity be afforded the farmer is more wisely and successfully for it, a heap about four feet in thickness. expended than that which he employs in The dung raised even by a few sheep in a procuring, at a reasonable rate, great quan- standing fold, under a shed constructed extities of litter, by which his cattle are pressly for the purpose, (for the trouble and enabled to lie dry and warm, and the mass expence of one composed of hurdles will of manure which he raises is much larger over balance its protits, unless upon a very and cheaper than he could procure in any large scale) is a considerable object, while other mode. Fern abounds in alkaline the sheep under it are at the same time salts, and must therefore obviously produce warm and comfortable, instead of being exvery valuable dung: it requires, however, to posed to driving rains and snow. be rotted well, and is more difficult to be so Animal substances are very far preferable than straw. In woodlands leaves may be as manures to fossil or vegetable ones. Woolcollected at slight expense, and will make len rags, hog's hair, born shavings, the offal of admirable litter and dung. In the neigh- butcher's and fishmonger's stalls may be obbourhood of marshes, rushes, flags, and tained in large cities, and wlienever reasoncoarse grass may all be easily procured, and ably to be procured, should be eagerly caught will be exceedingly serviceable. After at. With regard to the dung of animals, these exertions and preparations, the farmer that of sheep is unquestionably the best. must strictly confine his cattle during the That of horses fed upon corn and hay is winter, not by tying them, as some have justly preferred to that of fatting cattle, done, but so as completely to prevent their which, however, is greatly superior to that roaming in the adjoining pastures. By thus of lean cattle, and particularly of cows, confining all the cattle upon straw, and thongh they inay feed upon turnips. turnips, and hay, as may be requisite, the The practice of paring and burning is necessary quantity of animal manure will be pronounced by men of great pbilosophical obtained to make the compost of the several sagacity and research, and who have justly ingredients ferment, rot, and turn to rich deferred more to practical results than to manore, while without these animal mate theoretical reasonings, to be of the most derials the heap might be large, but would be cided advantage in the preparation of land. of little value. The draining from the yard It may be considered as a practice safe on should never run towaste, and nnless in extra- any soil, as in some it is essentially necesordinary cases, such as extremely violent sary. That which most of all requires it, rains, this may be easily prevented. An and which it is impossible by any other excellent method for this purpose is the means to pulverize, is what consists of moss, sinking a well in the lower part of the yard rushes, aud all kinds of coarse grass. It to fix a pump in; by which the water may should be exercised on moor and heathbe conveyed along a trough to a large heap. •field, on account of the roots of the grass of marl, turf, chalk, and other appropriate remaining in it, which are very stubborn and materials, which, by the daily application durable, and 'which check the growth of
corn, turnips, and other vegetables, by de- The method of doing it by fallow is compriving them of a certain portion of nourish- pletely abandoned by all persons of this ment. They serve likewise as a harbour for description, after the most regular and deworms, the only effectual way to clear the cided experiments of its results. In Camground from which is to burn it; the old bridgeshire the work is performed by a and the young, together with their eggs, plough, purposely constructed, and admirabeing thus destroyed or smothered. The bly adapted for it, which reduces the expense ashes procured by paring and burning will considerably. With respect to meadow and furnish manure for several crops. The les- pasture land, it is performed by what is desening of the soil by this husbandry was nominated a breast plough, which requiring long apprehended; such a consequence, great strength and labour in its application, however, may be safely and positively de much increases the cost. With regard to the nied, unless perhaps in cases in which the general practice, it may be observed, that the practice is carried to great excess. In poor heaps should not consist of more than twenty soils, peat, and sedyy bottoms, the process bushels, as, if they are much larger, the is universally admitted to be a proper one. turts will be too much burnt. Their size With respect even to clay lands; it produces must be regulated in a great degree by the not only the common manure found in vege- nature of the weather, and the thickness of table ashes, but a substance which acts me the paring. When the ashes are spread, chanically to the utmost advantage, loosen which should be completed as soon as posing and opening the stubborn adhesion of sible, the land, as is usually the case, should the soil. In loam itself, the ploughing of be thinly ploughed. In almost all circumrough pastures to the depth of eight or nine stances, the ashes should be left ploughed inches, and burning the whole furrow in in for sowing turnips upon lands burnt in heaps of about thirty bushels each, has been the months of March and April. If potaattended with most decided and durable toes are desired, this preparation is excelimprovement; and even though this depth lently adapted to them, and they should be be nearly twenty times the depth of com planted in April on lands burut in March. mou paring, the soil has not been supposed to be wasted eventually by the practice. Its texture has been rendered less stiff: the re A close and sound turf may be considered dundance of water has been expelled; and as the best manure yet discovered, on which the immediate fertility attending this me account it is justly remarked, that those thod of treatment fills it speedily with far who have grass can at any time have corn, more vegetable particles tiran it previously the reverse of which is by no means true. possessed. Sandy grounds are as improve. Excellent grass lands therefore are valuable, able by this method as those of a different not only directly, for the food of cattle, but description, and chalk lands in every part indirectly, as containing ample means of of England have been so treated, and most raising grain, never failing, upon being profitably been brought into culture. In broken up, to produce for a time a succes. Gloucestershire, Yorkshire, and Lincoln- sion of valuable crops, whether of grain or shire; in Hampshire, Wiltshire, and Kent, roots. The small degree of labour and the consequent crops of wheat, barley, oats, hazard attending the pasture of land, re, and sainfoin, have been of sufficient value commends it to many; and also the opporto buy the land at more than forty years' tunity it supplies of laying out considerable purchase, at a fairly estimated rent before property to great advantage in stock. Lands these improvements were applied. But are preserved by it in good condition, and whatever difference may exist with respect large estates may be managed under it with to the practice on such lands as have been peculiar ease. just mentioned, and which is rapidly vanish Grass lands, designed to be cut for hay, ing before obvious and impressive facts, no are to be distinguished from those on which one, as already observed, doubts the pro- the herbage is intended to be consumed by priety of it on peat. From the fens of cattle upon the spot. In fields of the latter Cambridgeshire to the bogs of Ireland, the kind, properly called pastures, manure is moors of the north, or the sedgy bottoms supplied by the cattle; in the others it must abounding in almost every part of the united be applied artificially, as large crops of hay kingdom, paring and burning are universally exhaust the land, and always in proportion employed, on their being broken up, by to the maturity which the herbage is suffered men of real experience and observation. to attain before cropping, while nothing is
THE CULTURE OF GRASSES.
returned to the soil for all that is thus de- promoted. Weeds are likewise cleared by tached from it. In consequence, moreover, sheep, as every thing young and tender of depasturing lands, the plants, being un- (even heath and broom) is readily eaten by able to propagate themselves by seed, do it them. By means also of the dung necesby root, forming a compact and matted sarily arising, an amelioration of the soil as turf, incapable of sending forth strong and well as produce takes place, of extreme and powerful stems to form a good crop of hay, surprizing importance. The sweetness of but abounding in slender and delicate the feed on the downs of Wiltshire arises, shoots, such as the closeness of the turf will not so much from any natural and characalone permit to pass, and which constitute teristic excellence of the grass grown on a most nourishing and pleasing food for them, as from its being kept close, and cattle. These two modes of employing land eaten as rapidly as it vegetates. It has therefore should not be intermixed. What been remarked, that on certain poor soils it has for some time been applied to either requires much more time to produce the purpose, should by all means be permitted second inch of vegetation than the first, to remain so; and to attempt to alternate making allowance for the fuller develope. the application of grass lands between pas ment and size accompanying the second ; a ture and cropping, is an effectual method of circumstance indicating that the preference completely defeating both objects.
should in such cases be given to the feeding The difficulty of restoring old, rich, and by sheep rather than by cattle. The former clean pastures to their original state, after remarks, however, on this subject, concerntheir being broken up, should ever preventing the inapplicability of land thus depastheir being so, unless in very extraordinary tured for rearing crops of hay, must never cases. In common times they can be ap- be forgotten. plied to no better purpose than their actual Quicklime, spread in powder over the one : whenever it is expedient to direct surface of pastore lands, will scarcely fail to them to the raising of grain, they will be improve, not only the poor, but the more certain to produce it in immense abundance. valuable ones. The moss plants, which are
With respect to the improvement of so particularly pernicious, are thus destroywhich grass lands are generally susceptible, ed, and converted into valuable manure. those, of course, should in the first instance Upon impoverished and worn-out lands, be applied to them wbich are connected about 270 bushels per acre on the sward, in with draining and inclosure, which hap-. summer, will be found of great and durable pily coincide with each other, as the ditch efficacy in cleaning and improving them. serves at once for dividing and defending Mixing lime with earth taken from ditches the land, and for clearing off the redundant or ponds is superior to using it alone, and, moisture. Irrigation also, which, as well in as a general rule, double the quantity of deed as the last-mentioned topics, has been earth should be mixed with that of lime. The already adverted to, from its obvious and requisite proportions vary, however, with admirable utility to pasture, will derive the nature of the soils; but are easily ascer. every attention in this connection. In tained by attentive workmen. spring a heavy wooden roller should be ap Paring and burning may be applied to plied, when the weather is moist, as it will pasture with great success in a partial manthen make the greater impression. The ner, by grubbing up rushes and bushes with roots of the plants will thus be fixed in the which it may be encumbered, burning them soil. The mould will be crushed, and the after they are dried, and before the autumworm-casts levelled, by this practice; and nal rains come on spreading their ashes on the ground is prepared by it for the applica- the surface. In some instances this hustion of the scythe, which will in conse bandry inay be successfully exercised on pasquence of this operation cut deeper, and ture over the whole surface, as particularly with more facility.
on a poor worn-out ley, which, by such a The stocking of poor pastures with sheep, process, attended with the harrowing in of rather than black cattle, is of particular white clover and several other grass seeds, consequence to their improvement, and the at the time of spreading the ashes, has been perseverance in this practice for years, the improved into very fine meadow. Where sheep being folded upon the spot, has been suitable, such a practice may be regarded more recruiting to poor soils than any other as one of the cheapest of all improvements. practice. A habit of matting its roots is From whatever cause land may be overgiven to the grass by the close bite of these run with moss plants, or covered with fern, animals, and a growth of delicate herbage is rushes, and ant hills, it should be subjected
for some time to the plough, as no other is great, and the distinguishing and selectmethod is equally useful to prepare for per. ing them cannot be too fully attended to. manently ameliorating its pasture.
By this care the best grasses, and in the To prepare arable land for grass, it must greatest abundance that the land admits of, be cleaned from weeds, and well manured, are secured; while, for want of this attenjust in the same manner as that which is re tion, pastures are either filled with weeds, quired for a crop of grain. Excepting upon or bad and inappropriate grasses.
The stiff clays, the most eligible preparation for number of grasses fit, or at least necessary grass is a crop of turnips, consumed by cattle for the purposes of culture, is but small, in the field : the ground being thus at once scarcely exceeding half a score, and by the manured and cleaned. Where lands are careful separation and sowing of the seeds broken up expressly for the purpose of im- of these, the husbandmau would soon be proving the pasture, the turnips scarcely enabled to accommodate the varieties of fail to succeed, throngh the manure afforded his soil, each with the herbage best adapted so abundantly by the fresh turf; and the to it, the advantage of which would infinitely cattle deriving from the abundant crop con exceed the trouble necessary for its accomsequent on this circumstance a plentiful plishment. Were a great variety of grain food, are thus enabled the more extensively to be sown in the same inclosure, the abto improve the soil by dung. On clay land surdity would be universally ridiculed; and the soil should be very liberally manured in scarcely less absurd and ridiculous is the spring or autumn, it ought to be ploughed common practice of indiscriminately sowing once in autumn, and three or four times more grass seeds from tlie foul hay rack, including in summer, previously to the period of sow a mixture of almost every species of grass ing the seeds, which should take place in Au- seeds and rubbish. gust. As to the much agitated question of The species of grass appropriated to any sowing grass seeds with or without a crop of particular soil or application being deter. com, it may be observed, that it is impos- mined upon, its seeds cannot be sown too sible for lands intended for grass crops, or plentifully, and no economy less deserving meadow, to possess too high a state of rich- the name can possibly exist than the being ness, and that, after the soil is improved sparing of grass seeds. The seeds of grain with a view to its permanent fertility in may easily be sown too thickly; but with grass, to weaken it by a crop of corn appears respect to those of grass, it is scarcely calittle better than blind or infatuated counter- pable of occurring. The smaller the stem, action. If, however, the practice be perse, the more acceptable it is to cattie; and vered in which has so generallybeen followed when the seeds, particularly of some grasses, in this respect, barley should be the grain are thinly scattered, their stens tend, as it preferred, as springing up with a slight stalk, is called, to wood, and not overshadowing and smothering the The most valuable grass to he cut green grass plants, and also as being the incum- for summer's food is red clover, which also brance to those plants more speedily re is an admirable preparation for wheat. To moved than any other.
have it in perfection, the weeds must be Whether grass seeds be sown in Augnst cleared, and the land harrowed as finely after a fallow, or with corn in spring, all as possible. The surface should also be trampling by horses or cattle should be ef- smoothed with a slight roller. The seeds fectually prevented. Every thing therefore should likewise be well covered with earth, should be kept out from it both during as should all small seeds, notwithstanding autumn and winter. Not only is the tender the common opinion to the contrary. From soil, which is extremely susceptible of injury the middle of April to that of May is the thus secured from it, but the pasturage in proper season for sowing it. Although it the spring is of proportionally more value will last three years if cut down green, the for not having been eaten off in autumn, safest course is to let it stand but one. It and affords a most valuable early bite for is luxuriant upon a rich soil, whether of the ewes and lambs.
clay, loam, or gravel, and will grow even The proper treatment of leys during the upon a moor, For a wet soil it is totally first year is to feed them with sheep, unless, unfit. It may be sown with grain with less after a crop of hay be taken from them, impropriety than perhaps any other grass, vast quantities of manure be spread over and particularly with flax. When land, their surface.
left unploughed, spontaneously produces The chief food of cattle consisting of this plant, the soil may decidedly be prograsses, their importance is as obvious as it nonnced good.
Those who lay down land permanently tion for it is a turnip or cabbage crop. No to grass, may best depend on white, or manure should be allowed after the sowing Dutch clover, for all rich and dry loams and till the crop is two years old. Its improving sands, and for rich clays that have been pro- effect upon the soil is particularly great. perly drained.
Burnet is a grass peculiarly adapted to Rye grass will flourish on any land but poor land, and is so hardy, as to flourish stiff clays. It is well adapted for perma when all other vegetation fails. Its cultivanent pasture, and if properly managed, is tion is pot hazardous or expensive. It is one of the best spring grasses. There are best sown in the beginning of July. It affew so early, or more palatable and nutri- fords rich pleasant milk, and in great plenty. tive to cattle. It is less subject to injury in For moist loams and clays there cannot be critical hay seasons than any other, and the a better grass than the meadow fox-tail, seeds of none are collected with greater fa which is not only early, but remains for nine cility. It should be cut for hay some time or ten years, and is little injured by frost. previonsly to its being ripe, as the stalks To these remarks on a few of the grasses will otherwise be converted into a species it may be added, that, in connection with of straw, and its nutritive qualities be pro soils, the principal grass plants have been portionably weakened.
thus arranged by one of the most distinSainfoin is preferred by many agricoltu- guished agriculturists of the day: rists to clover, as less likely to injure cattle
Loam. Sand. when they eat it green, producing larger
White clover White clover crops, making better hay, and continuing Cock’s-foot Rye Rye four times longer in the ground. It is se Dog's-tail York white York white veral years in arriving at its full strength. Fescue Fescue Yarrow The quantity of milk yielded by means of Fox-tail Fox-tail Burnet it from cows is nearly double of what is
Dog's-tail Trefoil produced by any other green food, and the Trefoil Poa
kib quality also of the milk is proportionally York white Timothy better. It is much cultivated on chalky Timothy Yarrow soils, and succeeds best where its roots run
Lucerne deep. Cold and wet clay is extremely ill
Peat, adapted for it, and the dryness of land is of
White clover more consequence to its growth than even
Dog's-tail the richness of it. It is best cultivated by
Trefoil Cock's-foot the drill husbandry, after repeated plough
White clover Rib ing, harrowing, and rolling; and while care
Sainfoin York white is taken not to leave the seeds uncovered,
Rye they must also not be buried deeper than
Fox-tail about an inch. They should be sowed in
Fescue the latter end of March. An acre of very
Timothy. ordinary land will maintain four cows for eight months, and afford the greatest part INSTRUMENTS AND OPERATIONS OF of their food in hay for the rest of the year.
Lucerne remains at least above twelve The instruments used in husbandry are years producing very large crops, and yield so numerous, and, under tlie same denomiing the most excellent hay, to the amount nation, often so differently constructed, with of about seven tons per acre. It has ob a view to varieties of the same operation, tained the highest praises from all agricultu- that it would be impossible in a sketch like ral writers. With a view to its successful the present to detail their structure and apcultivation, the soil must be kept open and plication. In the process for which they free from weeds, which is most effectually
are respectively intended, every agriculturist done by horse-hoing. It is transplanted will of course avail himself of those, the with extreme advantage, if the tap root be utility of which is best decided by expecut off, by which it is fitted for a shallow rience, soil, and its roots shoot out laterally and near the surface. The culture of this plant is a principal distinction of French hus. In almost all lands there is a fixed depth bandry, and is in that country a source of for the plough to go to, which is the stratum almost nniform profit, The best prepara. between the fertile and unfertile moulds