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Triandria Digynia class and order. Natural pickle, is frequently the support of the order of Gramina or Grasses. Essential cha- negroes and poorer sort of white people racter : calyx two-valved ; spikelet oblong, in times of scarcity, and is a wholesome and columnar, distich ; awn below the top. not unpleasant food: when roasted, it eats There are twenty-five species.

something like our chesnuts, and is called The several species of this genus of bread-nut. B. spanjum, is called milkyrasses are numerous, and have not yet been wood, and is common in St. Mary's parish, well distinguised. They have a loose panicle Jamaica. It rises to a considerable height like the oat, hence they have been called in the woods, is reckoned among the timber the oat-grasses ; the awn or beard proceeds trees, and is sometimes used as such, though from the back of the glume or chaff, or is not much valued. an elongation of the keel or mid-rib, as in BROSSÆA, in botany, so named from the genus Avena; but in that the awn is Guy de la Brosse, a genus of the Pentancommonly twisted, whereas in this it is dria Monogynia class and order. Natural straight; modern writers, therefore, distin- order of Bicornes. Ericæ, Jussieu. Essenguish them by the name brome-grasses. The tial character: calyx feshy; corolla trun. festuca is scarcely different from bromus as cate; capsule five-celled, many-seeded. a natural genus ; in that, however, the chaff There is but one species : viz B. coccinea. is either very much pointed, or terminates in An obscure plant, and the character doubtan awn; but that of bromus always comes ful, except what Plumier has said of it. In to the tip. The genus triticnm, or wheat, stature it is something like the codon. agrees with it in this respect; and, there Branches alternate ; leaves alternate, ovate, fore, some have thought there is no mark of serrate, petiolate; flowers few, terminating distinction between them ; it is, however, the branches, alternate. It is a native of distinct in the inflorescence or manner of South America. flowering in a spike; whereas bromus, fes BROTERA, in botany, a genus of the tuca, and avena, bear their flowers in a Didynamia Gymnospermia. Calyx five. panicle.

awned; middle segment of the lower lip of BRONCHIA, in anatomy, the ramifica- the corolla hodded, involving the stamina tions of the trachea. See ANATOMY. and style, and protruding them with a jerk.

BRONZE, in the arts, a compound me. One species, B. persica, found in Persia. tal, composed of from 8 to 12 parts of tin BROWALLIA, in botany, given by combined with 100 parts of copper. It is Linnæus in honour of Job. Browallins, of a greyish yellow colour, harder than cop- Bishop of Aboa, a genus of the Didynamia per, less liable to rust, and more fusible, so Angiospermia class and order. Natural as to run thin, and be easily cast in a mould. order of Lunidæ. Scrophulariæ, Jussieu. Hence its use in casting statues. The Essential character: calyx five-toothed; metal of which the artillery is cast is of a corolla border five-cleft, equal, spreading, similar composition, containing rather less with the navel closed ; anthers two larger; tin. An alloy similar to bronze was much capsule one-celled. There are two species : in use among the ancients, as well for war. B. demissa, spreading Browallia ; and B. like weapons as for medals, coins, &c. elata, upright Browallia. These are herbaBROOM. See GENISTA.

ceous annual plants, with alternate leaves. BROSIMUM, in botany, a genus of the The flowers are either axillary or terminatDioecia Monandria class and order. Essen- ing. They have the habit of the solanaceous tial character: male, ament globular, co- plants, and like them have the peduncle vered all round with orbiculate, peltate inserted either over against or at the side of scales; corolla none; filament solitary, be- the peticles. The former is a native of tween the scales : female, ament as in the Panama, the latter of Peru. They both male; corolla none; style bifid; berry one flower from July to September. seeded. There are but two species. B. BROWNEA, in botany, from Dr. Patrick alicastrum is a tree frequent in the island of Browne, a genus of the Monadelphia DeJamaica. It is computed to make up about candria. Natural order of Lomentaceæ. a third part of the woods in the parishes of Leguminosæ, Jussien. Essential character: St. Elizabeth and St. James. The timber calyx unequally bifid: corolla double ; is not much esteemed; but the leaves and onter five-cleft ; inner five-petalled: legume young branches are more useful, being fat- two-celled. There are two species: B. tening fodder for all sorts of cattle. The coccinea is a small tree, growing to the fruit boiled with salt-fish, pork, beef, or height of eighteen feet. When in flower it

has a beautiful appearance.

The flowers four, one seeded. There is but one species., grow about ten together, and are pendu- B. ferruginea is a shrub of a middling size, lous. The calyx is ferruginous, the corolla with an upright stem; the bark is ash-coscarlet, the stamens yellowish. This species loured, branches few, alternate, round, pagrows in hilly and woody places in America. tulous, and thick. Leaves alternate, spreadB. rosa is also an American shrub, or small ing unequally pinnate, consisting of six pairs tree, with an ash-coloured bark, opposite of opposite lobes, one foot in length. Spikes leaves, which are entire and smooth on both of male flowers solitary; the flowers are sides. The flowers are borne in a kind of crowded together, either sessile or on very aggregate manner, so as to form heads or short pedicles, of an herbaceous colour, bunches of the size of one's fist. They are tinged with red or russet. It is a native of red, and make a very beautiful appearance. Abyssinia, where it is known by the name The stamers are extremely long. It grows

of wooginoos. The root is a specific in the chiefly in hilly situations.

dysentery. It is a plain, simple, bitter,withBROWNISTS, a sect of Christians, the out any aromatic or resinous taste, leaving name given for some time to those who were in the throat and palate a disagreeable afterwards known in England and Holland roughness. under the denomination of Independents. BRUCHUS, in natural history, a genus It arose from a Mr. Robert Brown, whose of insects of the order Coleoptera. Generic parents resided in Rutlandshire, though he character: antennæ filiform; feelers equal, is said to have been born at Northampton; filiform ; lip pointed. Gmelin enumerates and who from about 1571 to 1590 was a 27 species. This genus consists in general teacher amongst them in England, and at of small insects. The B. granarius is found Middleburgh, in Zealand. He was a man among beans, vetches, and other seeds, the of family, of zeal, of some abilities, and lobes of which it devours. It is not the had a university education. The separa

fourth part of an inch in length : black, with tion, however, does not appear to have

the wing-shells freckled by white specks : originated in him; for by several publica. the two fore-legs are reddish ; and the antions of those times, it is clear that these sen tennæ of a similar colour at the base : the timents had, before his day, been embraced thighs of the hind-legs are armed with a and professed in England, and churches tooth or process. The exotic species are gathered on the plan of them.

chiefly of America :: one of the most reThis denomination did not differ in point markable is B. bactris, found in the nuts of of doctrine from the church of England, or

the palm of that name. from the other Puritans; but they appre

BRUMALES, in botany, an epithet aphended that, according to scripture, every plied to plants which flower in our winter. church ought to be confined within the These are common about the Cape. limits of a single congregation, and have the BRUNFELSIA, in botany, so named in complete power of jurisdiction over its honour of Otho, or Otto Brunfelsus, a genus members, to be exercised by the elders of the Didynamia Angiospermia. Natural within itself, without being subject to the order of Personatæ. Solapeæ, Jussieu. authority of bishops, synods, presbyteries, Essential character: five-toothed, narrow; or any ecclesiastical assembly, composed of corolla with very long tube; capsule onethe deputies from different churches. Under celled, many-seeded, with a very large this name, though they always disowned it, fleshy conceptacle. There are two species, were ranked the learned Henry Ains- of which B. Americana is a tree growing worth, author of the “ Annotations on the from ten to fifteen feet in height. The trunk Pentateuch,”' &c.; the famous John Robin- is smooth and even, and the branches loose. son, a part of whose congregation from Ley. Leaves alternate, entire, smooth, and shinden, in Holland, made the first permanent ing; corolla yellow, very sweet scented, settlement in North America; and the law having a tube four or five inches in length. borious Canne, the author of the “Marginal It grows naturally in Jamaica, and most of References to the Bible.”

the sugar islands in the West Indies, whence BRUCEA, in botany, in honour of James they call it trumpet flower. B. undulata is Bruce, Esq. the famous traveller, a genus of also a native of Jamaica. the Dioecia Tetrandria class and order. BRUNIA, in botany, a genus of the Essential character: calyx four-parted; Pentandria Monogynia class and order. corolla four-petalled; female, pericarpium Natural order of Aggregatæ. Rhamni,

Jussieu. Essential character: flowers aga ra of this order, enumerated by Gmelin, gregate ; filaments inserted into the claws riz. of the petals ; stigma bifid; seeds solitary, Bradypus Platypus two-celled. There are three species. B. Dasypus Rhinoceros lanaginosa, heath-leaved Brunia, resembles


Sukotyro Levisanus abrotanoides, and has the necta


Trichechus. reous chink, as in that. The stem is about Myrmecophaga a foot high, and shrubby. The leaves BRUTE, or beast, a term generally aplinear-filiform, smooth, short, with black plied to quadrupeds, and also to other anitips. The flowers, which are white, are mals, and implying inferiority of intellect. borne in heads. B. ciliata, ciliate-leaved

Among brutes the monkey kind, both brunia, has the germ superior, and the style in the external shape and internal structure, bifid. B. verticillata, whorled brunia, has bear the nearest resemblance to man. In small heads. They are all shrubs, and in the monkey kind, the highest and the most habitants of the Cape.

nearly approaching the likeness of man is the BRUNNICHIA, in botaný, a genus of orang-outang, or homo sylvestris. Plulosothe Decandria Trigynia class and order. phers are much divided about the essential Calyx swelling, five-cleft; capsule three- characters of brutes. Some define brute as sided, one-celled, many seeded. One spe an animal not risible, or a living creature incies, B. cirrhosa, a native of Bahama.

capable of laughter; others, a mute animal, BRUSH, an instrument made of bristles, or a living thing destitute of speech ; the hair, wire, or small twigs, to clean cloaths, Peripatetics, an animal endowed with a senrooms, &c. and also to paint with. There sitive power, but without a rational one. are various sorts of them, distinguished by The Platonists allow reason and understandtheir shape or use. In the choice of pain- ing, as well as sense, to brutes, though in a ter's brushes, observe whether the bristles degree less pure and refined than that of are fast bound in the stocks, and if the hair men. Indeed, the generality of the ancient be strong and lie close together ; for if they philosophers thought that brutes reasoned: sprawl abroad, such will never work well; this among the heathens, was the opinion of and if they are not fast bound in the stock, Anaxagoras, Porphyry, Celsus, Galen, Pluthe bristles will come out when you are tarch, as well as Plato and others. using them, and spoil your work, as may be That brutes possess reflection and sentiseen where the loose hairs of the brush have ment, and are susceptible of the kind as lain up and down in the colours laid on, to well as the irascible passions, independevtly the great detriment of the work. Brushes of sexual attachment and natural affection, in which the hairs are fastened with silver is evident from the numerous instances of wire are very superior to those in which iron affection and gratitude daily observable in wire is used, especially where they are different animals, particularly the dog. used in or with water. Brushes are used Of these, and other sentiments, such as for medical purposes, in rheumatic affec- pride, and even a sense of glory, the eletions of the joints, paralysis, &c. Mr. Tho- phant exhibits proofs eqSally surprising and mason, of Birmingham, has a patent for unquestionable; for which we refer to the hearth brusles, so constructed as to conceal article ELEPHAS. the hair, by means of rack-work, in a metal The brute creation manifests also a won

derful spirit of sociality, independent of Brush, in electricity, denotes the lumi- sexual attachment. It is well-known that nous appearance of the electric matter horses, which are perfectly quiet in company, issuing in a parcel of diverging rays from a cannot be kept by any fences in a field by point. Beccaria ascribes this appearance themselves; oxen and cows will not fate to the force with which the electric fluid, ten by themselves, but neglect the finest going out of a point, divides the contiguous pasture that is not recommended by society: air, and passes through it to that which is sheep constantly flock together. Nor is a more remote,

propensity to associate restricted to animals BRUTA, in natural history, the second of the same kind and size. Instances to order of animals in the class Mammalia, the this purpose are enumerated in “ White's character of which consists in liaving no fore Natural History of Selborne,” to which we teeth in either jaw; feet with strong hoof refer the reader. like nails; motion slow; food mostly masti- Mr. Locke maintains, that the souls of cated vegetables. There are ninc gene brutes are wholly material; that they do


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not possess the power of abstraction; and BRYONIA, in botany, a genus of the that the having of general ideas is that Monoecia Syngenesia class and order. Na. which puts a perfect distinction between tural order of Cucurbitaceæ. Essential men and brutes. Accordingly, he supposes character; calyx five-toothed; corolla fivethat they have no use of words, or any gene- parted: male, filaments three: female, style ral signs, by which to express their ideas. quadritid. Berry subglobular, many seeded. It has, however, been a subject of dispute, There are nineteen species, of which B. whether brute animals have any language alba, black berried white bryony, seems to intelligible to one another. Some have pre- differ from the red in little else besides the tended, that they have a kind of jargon, by colour of the berries. Native of Sweden, which they can niake a mutnal communica Denmark, Cariola, and probably other tion of their senliments. There is at least parts of Europe, in hedges. B. dioica, red a similitude of speech in brutes; for they berried white bryony, is easily distinguished know each other by their voices, and have by its prodigious root, its stems climbing by their signs whereby they express anger, joy, tendrils, leaves resembling those of the vine and other passions. Thus, a dog assaults in in shape, not smooth as they are, but harsh one strain, fawns in another, howls in an and rugged, and of a paler colour, and hy other, and cries when beaten in another. its bunches of small berries, which are red

Dr. Hartley has investigated the intellec when ripe, and produced on a different tual faculties of brutes, and applied his plant from the male flowers. B. palmata, theory of vibrations and association in ac palmated bryony, has leart-shaped leaves, counting for the inferiority of brutes to

the side divisions shortest; the upper surface mankind, with regard to intellectual capa- is marked with dots, very close, but scarcely cities. He ascribes the difference subsist visible: there are callous tubercles on the ing between them to the following circum- veins and peduncles. The berries are stances, which he has taken occasion to il round and large. It is a native of the Island lustrate on the principles of this theory of Ceylon. The first of these is the small proportionate BRYUM, in botany, a genus of moss size of their brains, whence brutes have a distinguishred by a capsule covered with a far less variety of ideas and intellectual af- lid, and over that a smooth veil. But these fections than men. The second cause of characters it has in common with Mnium this difference is the imperfection of the and Hypnum, two other genera much rematter of their brains, whereby it is less sembling this. The peculiar mark of the fitted for retaining a large number of mi. bryum is, that the thread or little stem supniatures, and combining them by associa- porting the fructification, grows from a tution, than man's. The third canse is their bercle at the ends of the stem and branches. want of words, and such like symbols. BUBALUS, the buffalo, in zoology. See Fourthly, the instinctive powers which they Bos. bring into the world with them, or which BUBBLE, in philosophy, small drops or rise up from internal causes, as they ad- vesicles of any fluid filled with air, and eivance towards adult age, is another cause ther formed on its surface, by an addition of this difference; and, fifthly, it is partly of more of the fluid, as in raining, &c. or in owing to the difference between the exter. its substance, by an intestine motion of its nal impressions made on the brute creation, component particles. and on mankind. This ingenious writer sup

Bubbles are dilatable or compressible, poses, with Des Cartes, that all the motions i. e. they take up more or less room, as the of brutes are conducted by mere mechanism; included air is more or less heated, or more yet he does not suppose them to be destitute

or less

pressed from without, and are of perception; but that they have this in a round, becanse the included aura acts equalmanner analagous to that which takes place in ly from within, all round; their coat is us; and that it is subjected to the same me formed of minute particles of the fluid, re. chanical laws as the motions. He adds, that tained either by the velocity of the air, or it ought always to be remembered, in by the brisk attraction between those mispeaking on this subject, that brutes have nute parts and the air. more reason than they can show, from their 'The little bubbles rising up from fluids, want of words, from our inattention, and or lianging on their surface, form the white from our ignorance of the import of those scum at top, and these same bubbles form symbols, which they do use in giving inti- the steam or vapour flying from liquors in mations to one another, and to us.


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BUBBLE, in commerce, a cant term, given tandria Digynia. Natural order of Umbelto a kind of projects for raising of money on lateæ. Essential character : fruit ovate, imaginary grounds, much practised in France striated, villose. There are five species, of and England, in the years 1719, 1720, and which B. macedonicum, Macedonian parsley, 1721.

it sends out many leaves from the root, the The pretence of those schemes was the lower growing almost horizontally, spreadraising a capital for retrieving, setting on ing near the surface of the ground; the foot foot, or carrying on some promising and stalk of each leaf divides into several other useful branch of trade, manufacture, ma smaller, garnished with smooth rhombchinery, or the like : to this end propo- shaped leaves, which are of a bright palesals were made out, shewing the advan- green colour, indented on their edges. It tages to be derived from the undertaking, is a native of Greece and Barbary. It and inviting persons to be engaged in it. flowers with us from June to August. In The sum necessary to manage the affair, to warm countries it is biennial, but in Eng. gether with the profits expected from it, land the plants seldom flower till the third were divided into shares or subscriptions, 10 or fourth year from seed; but whenever be purchased by any disposed to adventure they flower they always die. B. galbanum, therein.

lovage-leaved bubon, rises with an upright Bubbles, by which the public have been stalk to the height of eight or ten feet, haytricked, are of two kir viz. 1. Those ing a purplish bark, covered with a whitish which we may properly enough term trad- powder, which comes off when handled; the ing bubbles; and, 2. Stock or fund-bubbles. upper part of the stalk is covered with The former have been of various kinds ; leaves at every joint, the foot stalks half and the latter at different times, the most embracing them at their base, branching remarkable one in this country was that in out into several smaller, like those of the 1720.

common parsley, and set with leaves like BUBO, in ornithology, the name by those of lovage, but smaller and of a grey which zoologists call the great horned-owl, colour. It flowers in August, but has not with a reddish-brown body. See Strix. produced seeds in England. When any part · Bubo, in surgery, a tumour which arises of the plant is broken there issues out a little with inflammation, only in certain or parti- thin milk of a cream colour, which has a cular parts to which they are proper, as in strong scent of galbanum. It is a native of the arm-pits and in the groins.

the Cape of Good Hope. BUBON, in botany, a genus of the Pen



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