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AGE cold in autumn, a succession of new flowers the leaves are more expanded than in this will be produced for nearly three months, genus. in favourable seasons. It has been a com AGE, in horsemanship, makes a consimon error, that this plant does not flower derable point of knowledge; the horse betill it is 100 years old: the truth is, that the ing an animal that remarkably shews the flowering depends on its growth; so that in progress of his years, by correspondent alhot countries it will flower in a few years ; terations in his body. We have the chief but in colder climates the growth is slower, characteristics from his teeth. The first and it will be much longer before it shoots year he has only small grinders and gatherop a stem. The first that flowered in Eng- ers, of a brightish colour, which are called land is said to have been Mr. Cowell's, at foal's teeth. The second year he changes Hoxton, in 1729, but they lave occurred his four foremost teeth, viz. two above and so often since that time, that they are now two below, and they appear browner and scarcely considered as rarities. Few of the bigger than the rest. The third year he variety with yellow-edged leaves have yet changes the teeth next these, leaving no apblossomed. There are hedges of the com- parent foal's teeth before, but two above, mon agave in Spain, Portugal, Sicily, and and two below, on each side, which are all Calabria ; it flourishes also about Naples, bright and small. The fourth year he and in other parts of Italy. The juice of changes the teeth next these, and leaves no the leaves, strained, and reduced to a thick more foal's teeth before, but one above and consistence, by being exposed to the sun, below on each side. The fifth year his fore. may be made up into balls, by means of lye- most teeth are all changed, and the tushes ashes. It will lather with salt water, as well on each side are complete; and those which as fresh. The leaves, instead of passing be. succeed the last foal's teeth are hollow, tween the rollers of a mill, may be pounded with a small black speck in the middle, in a wooden mortar, and the juice brought which is called the mark in a horse's mouth, to a consistence by the sun, or by boiling and continues till he is eight years old. The A gallon of juice will yield about a pound of sixth year there appear new tushes, near soft extract. The leaves are also used for which is visible some young flesh, at the botscouring pewter, or other kitchen utensils, tom of the tush ; the tushes being white, and floors. In Algarvia, where pasture is small, short, and sharp. The seventh year scarce, they are cut in thin transverse slices, his teeth are at their full growth, and the and given to cattle. The inward substance mark in his mouth appears very plain. At of the decayed stalk will serve for tinder. eight all his teeth are full, plain, and smooth, The fibres of the leaves, separated by and the black mark but just discernible; bruising and steeping in water, and after the tushes looking more yellow than ordiwards beating them, will make a thread for nary. The ninth, his foremost teeth shew common uses. Varieties of the common longer, broader, yellower, and fouler than American agave, with gold and silver striped before, the mark quite disappearing, and leaves, are not now uncommon in the Eng the tushes bluntish. At ten no holes are lish gardens. The Karatto agave is a va- felt on the inside of the npper tushes, which, riety brought from St. Christopher's, and till then, are easily felt. At eleven his teeth the name is given to other species of this are very long, yellow, black, and foul, and genus, and has leaves from 24 to 3 feet stand directly opposite each other. At long, and about 3 inches broad, ending in a twelve the teeth of his upper jaw lang over black spine, and more erect than those of those of his under. At thirteen his tushes the others. This sort has not flowered in are worn almost close to his chaps, if he England. Linnæus has separated this genus has been much ridden ; otherwise they will from the aloe, because the stamina and be long, black, and foul. style are extended much longer than the Age likewise denotes certain periods of corolla, and the corolla rests upon the germ.
the duration of the world. Thus, among Besides, all the agaves have their central christian chronologers, we meet with the leaves closely folding over each other, and age of the law of nature, which compreembracing the flower-stem in the centre; hends the whole time between Adam and 80 that these never flower till all the leaves Moses; the age of the Jewish law, which are expanded, and when the flower is past takes in all the time from Moses to Christ; the plants die. Whereas the flower-stem and lastly, the age of grace, or the number of the aloe is produced on one side of the of years elapsed since the birth of Christ. centre, annually from the same plant, and Among ancient historians, the duration of
the world is also subdivided into certain pe- nated flower; and an oblong membranariods, called ages; of which they reckon ceous fruit, divided into two cells, which three : the first, reaching from the creation contain a number of minute seeds, affixed to the deluge, which happened in Greece, to a placenta. There are two species. during the reign of Ogyges, is called the AGGREGATE, in botany, is a term obscure or uncertain age; the history of used to express those flowers which are mankind, during that period, being altoge- composed of parts or florets, so united or ther uncertain. The second, called the fa- incorporated by means either of the recepbulous or heroic, terminates at the first tacle or calyx, that no one them can be olympiad; where the third, or bistorical taken away without destroying the form of age, commences.
the whole. They are opposed to simple The ancient poets also divided the dura- flowers, that have no such common part, tion of the world into four ages, or periods; which is either the receptacle or the calyx, the first of which they called the golden age, and are usually divided into seven kinds, the second the silver age, the third the bra- viz. the aggregate, properly so called, whose zen age, the fourth the iron age. Not un- receptacle is dilated, and whose forets are like these are the four ages of the world as supported by foot-stalks ; such are the blue computed by the East Indians, who extend daisy, thrift, or sea-pink, &c.: the com. them to a monstrous length.
pound, which consist of several florets, that AGE, in law, signifies certain periods of are placed, without partial peduncles, on a life, when persons of both sexes are en common dilated receptacle, and within a abled to do certain acts, which for want of common perianthium; and where each floret years and discretion they were incapable of hath its proper calyx; it is also a perianbefore. Thus, a man at twelve years of thium: umbellate, when the flower consists age ought to take the oath of allegiance to of many florets placed on fastigate pedunthe king, in a leet: at fourteen, which is cles, proceeding from the same stem or rehis age of discretion, he may consent to ceptacle; and which, though of different marriage, choose his guardian, and claim his lengths, rise to such a height as to form a lands held in socage.
regular head or umbel, flat, convex, or conTwenty-one is called full age, a man or eave : cymous, when several fastigate pewoman being then capable of acting for duncles proceed from the same centre, like themselves, of managing their affairs, mak. the umbel, and rise to nearly an even height; ing contracts, disposing of their estates, and but unlike the umbel, the secondary or parthe like; which before that age they could tial peduncles proceed without any regular not do. A woman is dowable at nine years order, as in sambucus, viburnun, &c. : of age, may consent to marry at twelve, amentaceous, which have a long common and at fourteen choose her guardian, and at receptacle, along these are disposed squatwenty-one may alienate her lands.
mæ or scales, which form that sort of calyx Age, in military affairs. A young man called the Amentum: glumose, which promust be fourteen years of age, before he ceed from a common husky calyx belonging can become an officer in the line, or be en to grasses, called Gluma, many of which tered as a cadet at Woolwich. Persons may flowers are placed on a common receptacle be enlisted as soldiers from sixteen to forty- called Rachis, collecting the forets into the five ; after the latter age every inhabitant spike, as triticum, hordeum, bolium, &c. : is exempted from serving in the militia. and spadiceous, which have a common re
AGENT, in law, a person appointed to ceptacle, protruded from within a common transact the business of another. It is a calyx, called Spatha, along which are disprinciple of law, that whenever a man has posed several florets. Such a receptacle is a power, as owner, to do a thing, he may, called a Spadix, and is either branched, as as consistent with his right, do it by deputy, in phenix; or simple, as in narcissus, &c. either as agent, factor, or servant. If a In this last case, the florets may be disposed person be appointed a general agent, the all around it, as in calla, draconitum, &c.; principal is bound by all his acts.
But an on the lower part of it, as in arum, &c.; or agent, specially appointed cannot bind his on one side, as in zostera, &c. These flowprincipal by an act whereby he exceeds his ers have generally no partial calyx. authority.
AGGREGATE, in the Linnæan system AGERATUM, maudlin, in botany, a ge- of botany, is one of the natural methods of nus of the Syngenesia Polygamia Æqualis classing plants, and comprehending those class of plants, with a monopetalous perso. which have aggregate flowers.
AGGREGATION, in chemistry, denotes their native spot all the requisites for easy the adhesion of parts of the same kind. and vigorous subsistence. Thus, pieces of sulphur united by fusion Not only to raise vegetables for the use of form an aggregate.
man, but those animals also which are used AGIO, in commerce, a term chiefly used for food, is obviously therefore part of the in Holland and at Venice, where it denotes occupation of the husbandman; and to assist the difference between the value of bank him in his operations, other animals are to stock and the current coin. Money in bank be reared and fed by him, to relieve his is commonly worth more than specie: thus, labours by their strength and endurance of at Amsterdam, they give 103 or 104 florins exertion. In cold and comparatively infor every 100 florins in bank. At Venice, the fertile climates the services of these creaagio is fixed at 20 per cent. See ExCHANGE. tures are particularly important, if not abso. Agio is also used for the profit arising from lutely indispensable, and their health and the discounting a note, bill, &c. Agio of multiplication become, consequently, objects assurance, is the same with what we call of great and unremitted attention. policy of assurance. See AssURANCE. The period of the introduction of agricul
AGREEMENT, in law, signifies the ture into Britain is unknown. Pliny observes consent of several persons to any thing done that at the time of the Roman invasion, or to be done.
the inhabitants were acquainted with certain There are three kinds of agreement. manures, particularly marl. During the First, an agreement already executed at possession of the island by the Romans, great the beginning, as when money is paid, or quantities of grain were exported from it, other satisfaction made for the thing agreed and it cannot be doubted that, as in various to. Secondly, an agreement after an act other respects, the rude inhabitants derived done by another, to which a person agrees: advantage from their enlightened conquer. this is also executed. Thirdly, an agree. ors; they were eniinently benefited by their ment executory, or to be executed in time to agricultural experience. Amidst the series come.
of contests and confusions which followed An agreement put in writing does not the final abandonment of Britain by the change its nature, but if it be sealed and Romans, the art and practice of husbandry delivered, it becomes still stronger, nay, must be presumed to have become retroany writing under hand and seal, or a pro- grade. From the Norman conquest, how. viso amounting to an agreement, is equiva- ever, it derived fresh vigour, as a consider lent to a covenant.
able number of Flemish farmers, by this AGRICULTURE is the science which ex- revolution, became proprietors of British plains the means of making the earth produce, estates, and introduced that knowledge of in plenty and perfection, those vegetables the means of cultivation for which their own which are necessary to the subsistence or country had been long distinguished. convenience of man. Its practice demands Before the sixteenth century few data a considerable knowledge of the relations are afforded with respect to the details of sabsisting between the most important ob- agricultural practice in this island. At this jects of nature. It is eminently conducive period it derived a valuable impulse from to the advantage of those actively engaged the exertions of Fitzherbert, a judge of the in it, by its tendency to promote their health, common pleas, whose treatises on the sub. and to cherish in them a manly and ingenuous ject were read with avidity, and, while they character; and every improvement made in abounded in instruction, excited a taste and the art must be considered as of high utility, emulation for the pursuits of husbandry. as it facilitates the subsistence of a greater Sir Hugh Platt followed this path of genuine proportion of rational and moral agents; or, patriotism with great assiduity, modesty, and if we suppose the number to be unincreased, public advantage, treating particularly on the furnishes them with greater opportunities subject of manuring. Gabriel Plattes held than could be possessed before, of obtaining out to his countrymen the light of genius, that intellectual and moral enjoyment which guided by experience. Capt. Blyth, in 1652, is the most honourable characteristic of their published a judicious treatise, containing nature. The strength of nations is in pro- directions for watering lands. And Hartlib, portion to their skilful cultivation of the the friend of Millan, in a work called the soil; and their independence is secured, and Legacy, suggested the establishment of a their patriotism animated, by obtaining from national institution for the encouragement
of husbandry, and stimulated to the practice many excellent individuals, and some valuof it a number of country gentlemen, whom able institutions, a practice so impolitic and the violence and changes of the times had injurious; and although our intercourse with reduced to a situation in which they found that country, since this event, has scarcely it requisite to avail themselves of all means been such as to afford accurate and detailed and resources to extricate themselves from information of the present state of its huscomparative impoverishment. Evelyn and bandry, it cannot easily be doubted that the Jethro Tull were, at a somewhat later repeated transfers of landed property, the period, of eminent service in directing the annihilation of partial burdens upon cultivaattention of their contemporaries from the tion, the researches of ingenious chemists, grossness and pollutions of voluptuousness, and the general view of government to the to this most valuable department of art; productiveness of its territory, and to the the former by his treatise on plants, the promotion of its arts and sciences, must be latter by his recommendation of the practice connected with considerable improvement of drill husbandry. Since their successful in this most valuable of national concerns. and ingenions efforts, a series of valuable In Germany lectures have for many years experimentalists and writers have performed been given on this subject, in various states to their country very essential service, by of it; and several princes in the empire, communicating the most usefal information, particularly the present King of Bavaria, and exciting a spirit of acute research and have directed to it their particular attention unwearied exertion.
and patronage. In Russia the late Empress In France the political expedience of gave it every facility which could be applied guarding against that scarcity which, in time in the semibarbarous state of her dominions, of war, either necessitated the yielding to and sent gentlemen into this and other harsh terms from the enemy, or exposed to countries, with a view to acquire informathe miseries and horrors of famine, by con tion on rural economy, for the benefit of tinued hostilities, induced the government, their own. In the Dutchy of Tuscany the in the late reigns, to bestow on the subject Archduke Leopold recently diffused the of agriculture considerable attention, and to active spirit of improvement by which he hold out numerous encouragements to it. was himself animated, and an academy was The court was present at various experi- endowed for the promotion of agriculture, ments in husbandry. Prize questions were A society for the same purpose was instiproposed at Lyons, Bourdeaux, and Amiens, tuted about the year 1759 at Berne, in for its promotion, and no less than fifteen Switzerland, consisting of men of great societies for the express purpose of advanc- political influence, and also of great pering agriculture were established with the sonal experience in rural economics. The approbation, probably at the suggestions, of Stockholm Memoirs sufficiently evince that the governing powers. But, notwithstand- Sweden, under the influence of the great ing all those efforts, which, however, can by Linnæus, applied to this science with exno means be presumed to have been totally traordinary success and advantage. Even useless, French husbandry continued in a the indolence and pride of Spain were very deplorable state, ascribable in a great roused to exertion on this interesting subdegree to that tenure of lands, by which ject, and the government of that country through the greater part of the kingdom the made overtures to the Swedish Philosopher landlord contributed the stock, and the for the superintendance of a college directoccupier the labour; dividing the profits in ed to the advance of natyral history and the certain proportioned shares. This circum- art of husbandry. stance, with several others, operated to In our own country, however, from a keep the cultivation of this country in an happy combination of circumstances, the extremely low state, and a comparative exertions of individuals, societies, and goestimate of the produce of an English and vernment, have been directed, within the of a French estate, of precisely similar natu- last thirty years, to the subject under conral advantages, at the period when this sideration, with more energy and effect than practice prevailed, would shew that, in con have been displayed in any other part of sequence, principally, of so absurd and per- Europe. The gentry and nobility have verse a regulation, the superiority of the liberally patronized, and many of them juformer to the latter was at least in the ratio diciously and successfully practised it. The of 36 to 25. But the revolution of France, Royal Society, the Society of Arts, and changing every thing, has swept away, with various others, have been of distinguished
service in collecting and diffusing informa- variety of soil, and situation to which they tion, and in promoting a spirit of emulation, are applied. To prevent, however, the sides with respect to the management and pro. from falling in, they must at top be three ductions of their dative soil. The names of times the width they have at bottom; while Kaims and Hunter, of Anderson and Mar- their direction must obviously, and of neces. shall, of Sinclair and Young, are celebrated sity, be descending, it should at the same by publications, exhibiting a union of philo- time not be steep, as this would form insophical sagacity and patient experiment; equalities, and bear down their sides by the results of which have been of incalcula- the rapid rush of the water. ble advantage; and to the efforts of these drains should be cleared, at least, once in and other individuals, it may be ascribed every year; which regular repairs may, in that a board of agriculture was established some cases, render them in the end more by the government in 1793, whose exertions expensive than those denominated hollow, in procuring and publishing intelligence on which will sometimes last for several genethe objects of its establishment have intitled rations unimpaired, but demand originally a it to the highest credit. By its agricultural far greater sum for their completion. surveys, by its diffusion of rewards for im
The practice of hollow draining was portant discoveries, and of premiums for known by the Roman writers on agriculsaluable treatises, and by its exertions at ture, and is particularly mentioned by them. critical periods of scarcity, its utility and In stiff clays it is of little service, and it is merit may be considered not only as decid- practised with desired effect only where the ed, but distinguished. It has the power of soil is of that porous substance which easily directing public attention to any topics admits the passage of the water through it
. particularly requiring practical research or Opinions differ with regard to the season for illustration, and possesses the means of most carrying these works into execution, some advantageously diffusing its collections, cir- with plausible reason preferring the sumcumstances of high importance to the utility mer, and others having nearly as much to of the establishment. It must be regarded state in recommendation of winter for the as its privilege as well as duty, to suggest, purpose. The depth of the drain from the from time to time, to the legislature means surface of the land should generally be from for removing various impediments still ex
twenty-six inches to thirty-two; and the isting to the perfection of the art, for the principal rule for their depth is, that they promotion of which it is expressly instituted. should be secured from receiving injury
ON INCLOSING AND DRAINING. from the feet of horses or cattle ploughing Inclosing of lands must be considered as on the spot under which they are made. It the grand foundation of all improvements. is desirable to constitute the drain in such a When remaining open, litigations between
manner that the stones may lean towards neighbours are perpetually occurring, and
each other, so as to form a triangle, of which the ingenuity of any individual proprietor the bottom of the drain forms the base ; in is of little use to him, as be is obliged to
which case the width of a foot may be follow the practice pursued by the ignorant regarded as sufficient for them. The ditches and obstinate occupiers of the common
constructed for these drains must be exeproperty in which he shares. In connection cuted with great neatness and care; and with inclosures may be considered the prac- with respect to filling them up, which they tice of draining lands, which is the next should be about ten inches deep, if stones step in rendering them productive. The are plentifully at hand they should be apsuperabundance of water is no less injurious plied for this purpose. But in many places to vegetation than the absolute want of it; faggot-wood, horns, bones, straw, fern, and and, whether arising from rain stagnating even turf, laid in like a wedge, are all used on the surface, or from springs in the interior in different situations, and drains construct. of the earth, it is one of the most important ed of these materials, thirty years ago, are objects of the farmer to prevent its pernici- found in several places effectually to answer ous consequences. For this purpose open their purpose still. By many persons, straw or visible drains are in many cases adopted, twisted into a very lar rope, has been while in others, hollow ones, so called from successfully laid in the bottom of the ditch; their being concealed in covered trenches and by others, after twenty years experience, are preferred. The width and depth of the white thorn has been recommended as open drains must be regulated by the answering better than all other materials.