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53 Fanicie. Dat 34 Bunch, Common Vine...35 Cabur Rose..36 lorella Rose.37 Nentury, lankshoed. 38 Stamen Lily
39 Pistil Lilla 40 capsule Datury 1 Siliqua Stock. 12 legume Pea. 43 Drupa. Cherry. 44 Pomum, Apple
46 Bacea, Gooseberry 16 Strobrius Fr. 17 Seed Bean land open. 18 Receptude. Davy

Cooper culp

London. Preblished Fet 11o8 by Longman Hurst heas & Orme Paternoster Row.


paws serving for the mouth of the vessel. tion thus furnished, serves also to keep the Calmet.

water cool. He says, that the disagreeaBottles of this kind are mentioned in ble taste of the leather is taken off, by scripture, and they were used for carrying causing it to imbibe rose-water when it is water through the deserts of Arabia and new, and before it is applied to use. other countries, where springs and streams Formerly, it is said, the Persians perare scarce. Such bottles, indeed, have been fumed these leathern vessels with mastic, or in common use both in ancient and modern with incense. From him also we learn, times. The word used by Job (ch. xxxii. that they put into these goat-skin and kid19) signities, in the original, to swell or skin vessels every thing which they want distend; it is properly used to express a to carry to a distance in the East, whether skin bottle, which would be made to swell dry or liquid; they are thus preserved by the liquor poured into it, and which fresher than if they were conveyed in boxes would be more distended and enlarged, or pots : the ants and other insects are till they would at last burst, if they had no prevented from getting among them, and vent, by the fermentation of the liquor as it they are thus kept free from dust ; and for advanced towards ripeness. Hence we these reasons butter, honey, cheese, and perceive the propriety of putting new wine other such aliments, are inclosed in vessels into new bottles, &c. according to the ap- made of the skins of these animals. Aepropriate allusion in the gospels, which cordingly the things, particularly the balm being moist and strong, would resist the and honey, which were somewhat liquid expansion, and preserve the wine to dne that were carried to Joseph as a present, maturity; whereas old bottles of this kind, were probably inclosed in little vessels being dry and more brittie, would be in made of kid-skins. Homer also refers to danger of bursting, and were best adapted this mode of preserving various kinds of to receive old wine, the fermentation of provision in leathern vessels. Glass bottles which had ceased.

are better for cider than those of stone. These leather bottles are supposed, by a Foul glass bottles are cured by rolling sacred historian, not only to be frequently sand or small shot in them; musty bottles rent, when grown old and much used, but by boiling them. Bottles are chiefly made also to be capable of being repaired (Josh. of thick coarse glass ; though there are ix. 4.) Modern travellers, as well as an likewise bottles of boiled leather made and cient authors, frequently take notice of sold by the case-makers. Fine glass botthese leathern bottles. The Arabs, says Sir tles, covered with straw or wicket, are John Chardin, and all those who leada wan called flasks. The quality of the glass has dering life, keep their water, milk, and other been sometimes found to affect the liquor liquors, in these bottles, the manner of re in the bottle. pairing which he also describes. They serve, BOTTOM, in navigation, is used to deaccording to this writer, to preserve their

note as well tl:e channel of rivers and harcontents more fresh than in any other way. bours, as the body or hull of a ship : thus, They are made, he says, of goat-skins: when in the former sense, we say, a gravelly botthe animal is killed, they cut off its feet

tom, clayey bottom, sandy-bottom, &c. and and its head, and in this manner they draw

in the latter sense, a British bottom, a it out of the skin without opening the

Dutch bottom, &c. belly. They afterwards sew np the places where the legs were cut off, and the tail, in foreign bottoms, pay a duty called petty

By statute, certain commodities imported and when it is filled, they tie it abont the neck. These nations, and the country peo- liable to, if'imported in British bottoms.

customs, ovor and above what they are ple of Persia, never go a journey without a small leathern bottle of water hanging by

BOTTOMRY, in commerce, a marine their side like a scrip. The great leathern

contract for the borrowing of money upon bottles are made of the skin of an he-goat, the keel or bottom of a ship; that is to say, and the small ones, that serve instead of a when the master of a ship binds the ship bottle of water on the road, are made of a itself, that if the money be not paid by the kid's skin. In speaking of the Persians, time appointed, the creditor shall have the the same traveller says, that they use lea- said ship. thern bottles, and find them useful in keep BOTTOMRY is also where a person lends ing water fresh, especially if people, when money to a merchant, who wants it in traffic, they travel, take care to moisten them, and the lender is to be paid a greater sum at wherever they find water. The evapora the return of the ship, standivg to the hazard

of the voyage. On which account, though 1731, the place of associate geometrician, the interest be greater than what the law vacant by the promotion of Maupertuis to commonly allows, yet it is not usury, be that of pensioner; and in 1735 he was procause the money being furnished at the moted to the office of pensioner-astronolender's hazard, if the ship perishes, he shares mer. The same year he was sent on the in the loss.

commission to South America, along with BOTTONY, a cross bottony, in heraldry, Messieurs Godin, Condamine, and Jussien, terminates at each end in three buds, knots, the meridian, and the figure of the earth.

to determine the measure of the degrees of or buttons, resembling, in some measure, the

In this painful and troublesome business, three-leaved grass.

of ten years duration, chiefly among the BOTTS. See Oestris.

lofty Cordelier mountains, our author deterBOUCHE of court, the privilege of mined many other new circumstances, behaving meat and drink at court, scot-free. side the main object of the voyage ; such as This privilege is sometimes only extended the expansion and contraction of metals to bread, beer, and wine ; and was anci. and other substances, by the sudden and alently in use as well in the houses of noble- ternate changes of heat and cold among men as in the king's court.

those mountains ; observations on the reBOUGUER (Peter), in biography, a the same, with the singular phenomenon of

fraction of the atmosphere from the tops of celebrated French mathematician, born at Croisci in, Lower Bretagne, in February, the star can be observed below the line of

the sudden increase of the refraction, when 1698. His father, John, was professor of the level; the laws of the density of the air hydrography, and author of “A Complete Treatise on Navigation.” Young Bouguer

at different heights, from observations made

at different points of these enormous mounlearnt mathematics of his father, from the time he was able to speak, and thus be- tains ; a determination that the mountains

have an effect upon a plummet, though he came a proficient in those sciences while he was yet a child. He was sent very early method of estimating the errors committed

did not assign the exact quantity of it; a to the Jesuits' college at Vannes, where he had the honour to instruct his regent in the by navigators in determining their route; a mathematics, at eleven years of age. Two

new construction of the log for measuring a years after this he had a public contest ship’s way; with several other useful imwith a professor of mathematics, upon a


Other inventions of Bouguer, made upon proposition which the latter had advanced erroneously; and he triumphed over him; liometer, being a telescope with two object

different occasions, were as follow: the heupon which the professor, unable to bear the disgrace, left the country. Upon the glasses, affording a good method of meadeath of his father, he was appointed to suring the diameters of the larger planets

with ease and exactness: his researches succeed in his office of hydrographer, after a public examination of his qualifications ; long ranges of parallel trees appear: his

on the figure in which two lines or two being then only fifteen years of age; an occupation which he discharged with great tion of the pendulum; and those upon

experiments on the famous reciprocarespect and dignity at that early age. In 1727, at the age of twenty-nine, he obtain

the manner of measuring the force of the ed the prize proposed by the Academy of

light; &c. &c. Sciences, for the best way of masting of

The close application which Bouguer ships. This first success of Bouguer was

gave to study, undermined his health, and

terminated his life the 15th of August, 1758, soon after followed by two others of the same kind; he successively gained the prizes have been published, are, 1. “The Figure

at 60 years of age. His chief works, that of 1729 and 1731 ; the former, for the best

of the Earth, determined by the observamander of observing at sea the height of the

tions made in South America;" 1749, in stars, and the latter, for the most advantageous way of observing the declination of lotage;" Paris, 1752, in 4to. This work

4to. 2. “ Treatise on Navigation and Pithe magnetic needle, or the variation of the

bas been abridged by M. La Caille, in one compass.

volume, 8vo. 1768. 3. “A Treatise on In 1730, he was removed from the port Ships, their Construction and Motions ;" in of Croisci to that of Havre, which brought 4to., 1756. 4. “An Optical Treatise on him into a nearer connection with the Aca- the Gradation of Light;" first in 1729; then demy of Sciences, in which he obtained, in a new edition in 1760, in 4to. and a great

number of papers inserted in the Memoirs a trade, of which the expense


supposed of the Academy.

tó be greater than the returns, of which BOUNTY, a bounty in political econo every operation eats up a part of the camy, is a sum of money paid by the state for pital employed in it, and which is of such a the raising or the exporting of some species nature that if all other trades resembled it, of rude produce or manufacture. In this there would soon be no capital left in the country every person who raises a certain country. See DRAWBACK, PREMIUM. quantity of flax is entitled to a bounty; and BOW, a weapon of offence made of steel, when corn is below a eertain price, a boun- wood, horn, or other elastic matter, which, ty of so much per bushel is paid on its ex after being bent by means of a string fasportation.

tened to its two ends, in returning to its naThe intention of bounties is to encourage tural state, throws out an arrow witli prodi. the production of those articles on which gious force. they are paid, by securing a profitable re

The use of the bow is, without all doubt, turn to the producer. The effect of a bounty on the production been the most universal of all weapons,

of the earliest antiquity. It has likewise of any article is to render it cheaper in the home market-thus, if the fair or customary and remote people, who had the least com

having obtained among the most barbarous profit on the capital employed be 10 per munication with the rest of mankind. cent., and the bounty amount to 5 per cent.

The figure of the bow is pretty much the on the capital, it is evident the grower can afford to sell the article 5 per cent cheaper used; for it has generally two inflexions

same in all countries, where it has been than he otherwise could. The effect of a bounty on the exportation where the arrow is drawn, is a right line.

or bendings, between which, in the place of any article is to render it dearer in the home market-for by means of it the surplus which form we meet with many, and gene

The Grecian bow was in the shape of a 2, of of the home market can be removed on easier terms than could otherwise be possible Scythian bow was distinguished from the

rally adorned with gold or silver. The to the foreign market, and thus a reduction

bows of Greece and other nations by its of price is prevented.

incurvation, which was so great, as to form But if the redundance of the home

an half-moon or semicircle. market could not be exported, and the

The matter of which bows were made, as price consequently was reduced, production would be discouraged, and the supply well as their size, differed in different coun

tries. The Persians had very great bows being more scanty, the price might be as

made of reeds; and the Indians had also, high or higher than it is rendered by the bounty. For a

not only arrows, but bows made of the more particular inquiry into the effects of a bounty on exportation reeds or canes of that country; the Lycian

bows were made of the cornel tree;

and see Corn Laws.

The objection to all bounties is the fol- those of the Æthiopians, which surpassed all lowing : “ that every branch of trade in

others in magnitude, were made of the which the merchant can sell his goods for a

palm-tree. price which replaces to him, with the ordi Though it does not appear that the Ronary profits of stock, the whole capital em mans made use of bows in the infancy of ployed in preparing and sending them to their republic, yet they afterwards admitted market, can be carried on without a boun them as hostile weapons, and employed ty. Every such branch is evidently upon a auxiliary archers in all their wars. level with all the other branches of trade In drawing the bow, the primitive Grewhich are carried on without bounties, and cians did not pull back their hand towards cànnot therefore require one more than their right ear, according to the fashion they. Those trades only require bounties of modern ages, and of the ancient Perin which the merchant is obliged to sell his sians, but placing their bow directly before goods for a price which does not replace to them, returned their land upon their him his capital together with the ordinary ght breast. This was also the custom of profit, or in which he is obliged to sell the Amazons. them for less than it really costs him to

The bow is a weapon of offence amongst send them to market. The bounty is given the inhabitants of Asia, Africa, and Ameriin order to make np this loss, and to encou

ca, at this day; and in Europe, before the rage him to continue, or perhaps to begin

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