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other dimensions in 30ths of that diameter sorts of stuffs, the one of silk and the other, will be thus:
crossed, of cotton.
BOMBAX, in botany, English silk cotDiameter of the bore or mortar...30
ton, a genus of the Monadelphia Polyandria. Diameter of the shell.................294
Natural order of Columniferæ; Malvaceve Diameter of the hollow sphere..... 21
Jussieu. Essential character; calyx fiveThickness of metal at the fuze hole sy
cleft ; stamina five or more; capsule woody, Thickness at the opposite pert..... 5 five-celled, five-valved; seeds woolly; reDiameter of the fuze hole.....
ceptacle five-cornered. There are four Weight of shell empty................
species, of which we shall notice the B. Weight of powder to fill it.....
ceiba as being the most interesting: it grows Where d denotes the cube of the diameter
to a great size in both Indies; it is one of
the tallest trees in those countries; the of the bore in inches. But shells have also lately been made with the metal all of the
wood is very light and not much valued ex
cept for canoes; their trunks are so large same thickness quite around. In general, the windage or difference be
as, when hollowed, to make very large ones.
In Columbus's first voyage it was related tween the diameter of the shell and mortar
that a canoe was seen at the island of Cuba is noth of the latter; also the diameter of the
made of one of these trees, which was hollow part of the shell is gth of the same. Bombs are thrown out of mortars or
ninety-tive palins long, of a proportional howitzers ; but they may also be thrown dred and fiftyinen. The canoes now made
width, and capable of containing one hunout of cannon; and a very small sort are
in the West Indies from this tree frequently thrown by the land, which are called
carry from fifteen to twenty hogsheads of granados. Bomb chest, a kind of chest filled usually each, the average about twenty-five tons
sugar, from six to twelve hundred weight with bombs, sometimes only with gunpow
burthen. When sawn into boards, and then der, placed under ground to tear and blow
well saturated with lime-water, the wood it up into the air with those who stand upon
bears exposure to the weather many years ; it. It was formerly set on fire by means
it is also formed into laths for roofs, curing of a saucisse fastened at one end, but is
pots, and hogshead heading. When the tree now much disused.
decays it becomes a nest for the macaca BOMB ketch, a small vessel built and beetie, the caterpillar of which, gutted and strengthened with large beams for the use
fried, is esteemed by many persons one of of mortars at sea.
the greatest delicacies. BOMBARD, a piece of ordnance an
BOMBIC acid, in chemistry. The silkciently in use, exceedingly short and thick,
worm forms an acid liquor which was sup. and with a very large mouth. There have posed to be an acid of a peculiar nature, been bombards which have thrown a ball of and accordingly received, in the new no300 pound weight. They made use of menclature, the name of bombic acid; but cranes to load them.
Mr. Murray thinks that this and some other BOMBARDIER, a person employed acids formed by insects, as that by the ant, about a mortar. His business is to drive which is named formic acid, are acetic acid the fusec, fix the shell, load and fire the · slightly disguised. mortar, and to work with the fire-workers
BOMBYLIUS, in natural history, a geon all sorts of fire-works, whether for war or
nus of insects of the order Diptera: the recreation.
generic character is, mouth furnished with a BOMBARDMENT, is the act of assault
very long porrected, setaceous, bivalve ing a city or fortress by throwing shells into trunk, with horizontal valves, including it, in order to set it on fire, or otherwise
setaceous piercers. The insects of this demolish it. As one of the effects of the genus have somewhat the appearance of shell results from its weight, it is never dis the smaller kinds of humble-bees; thickly charged as a ball from a cannon, that is, by covered with erect downy hair; they tly pointing it at a certain object: the mortars with much rapidity, and may sometimes be in England are fixed at an elevation of 45°.
observed to hang, as if suspended, over a BOMBARDO, a musical instrument of flower, in the manner of some of the the wind kind, much the same as the bas- spinges, rapidly vibrating their wings and 800n, and used as a base to the hautboy. darting off on the least disturbance to a
BOMBASINE, a name given to two considerable distance. There are forty
eight species according to Gmelin. The self to another to pay a certain sum of mo. arost common and therefore the most worthy ney, or perform some certain acts; as that attention are the B. medius, B. major, and the obligor shall make a release, execute B aureus. The medins may be seen in the a sufficient conveyance of his estate, save early periods of spring in the gardens and the obligee harmless, perform the covenants the fields, and is easily distinguished by its of a deed, &c. downy bee-like body, and its straight sharp A bond contains an obligation with a pointed proboscis. Its colour is pale ches- penalty, and a condition generally written nut-brown, with whitish yellow hair; and under it, which expressly mentions the sum the wings are blackish along the whole that is to be paid, or other thing to be per. length of the upper half, the remainder be- formed, and to whom, with the limited time ing transparent and marked with numerous thereot, for which the obligation is perempblack spots. The major resembles the torily binding. medius, but the wings are said to be without The condition of a bond must be to do spots, being only marked by the black up- something lawfiil; for if it be to perform an per division. The Linnæan characters of act malum in se, as to kill a person, &c. it these two species are not, according to is void : likewise bonds not to use trades, Shaw, sufficiently distinct: B. aureus is &c. are unlawful and void : so also are hairy ; thorax brown; abdomen golden, bonds made by compulsion, by infants, and from which it derives its name. It is found feme coverts, &c. bat if a drunken man in Barbary. The head is covered with voluntarily gives his bond, it shall bind liim; golden-coloured hairs; the sides of the tho- and a bond, though it be without any conrax are lined with golden-colourert hairs; sideration, is binding. Where a boud has no abdonien withi tufts of hairs; wings brownish date, or a false one is inserted therein, if it be at the base, the tip whitish, with six black scaled and delivered, it is a good bond;
and dots; legs testaceous.
a person shall not be charged by any bond, This genus is separated into three divi- though signed and sealed, without delivery or sions, riz. A. distinguished by two hairy words, or other thing, amounting to it. Notfeelers; antennæ united at the base: B. withstanding a bond be made to pay money sucker with three incumbent bristles: no on the soth of February, and there be no feelers; antennæ approximate: C. antenna such day, the bond is good, and the monet distant, the last joint subulate, and two shall be paid presentiy. It is the same if feeters.
no time is limited; in that case it must be BOMBYX. See PHALÆNA.
immediately paid, or in convenient time. BONA fides, or bona fide, among lawyers,
If a bond be of twenty years standing, is as much as to say, such a thing was done and no demand is proved to be made therereally, without either fraud or deceit. on, or good cause shown for so long for.
A man is said to possess any thing bona bearance, upon pleading the payment at the fide, who is ignorant of that thing's being the day, it shall be intended paid. property of another; on the contrary, he is BOND, post obit, is one that becomes said to possess a thing mala fide, who is payable after the death of some person, conscious of its being the property of an whose name is specified in it. The life of othier.
a person being uncertain, the risk attached Bona notabilia, are such goods as á per.
to sach bonds frees them from the slackles son dying has in another diocese besides of the common law of asury. that wherein he dies ; amounting to the Bond, in carpentry, a term among workvalue of 51. at least ; in which case the will men; as, to make good bond, mcans that of the deceased must be proved, or ad- they should fasten the two or more piéces ministration granted in the court of the together, either by tenanting, mortising, or archbishop of the province, unless by com dovetailing, &c. position, or custom, any dioceses are au BONE. By bones are meant those thorised to do it, whiện rated at a greater Jard, solid, well-known substances, to which
the firmness, shape, and strength of animal · Boxa patria, an assise of countrymen, or bodies are owing ; which, in the larger anigood neighbours, where twelve or more are mals, form, as it were, the ground-work chosen out of the country to pass upon an upon which all the rest is built. In man, assise, being sworn judicially in the presence in quadrupeds, and many other animals, the of the party.
bones are situated below the other parts, BOND, an obligatory instrument, or and scarcely any of them are exposed to deed, in writing, whereby one binds him- view; but shellfish and snails have a larte
covering on the outside of their bodies, in making glue. When bones are deprived evidently intended for defence.
of their gelatine by boiling them in water, The bones are the most solid part of ani- and of their earthy salts by steeping them mals. Their texture is sometimes dense, in diluted acids, there remains a soft white at other times cellular and porous, accord- elastic substance, possessing the figure of ing to the situation of the bone. They the bones, and known by the name of carare white, of a lamelar structure, and not tilage. From the experiments of Hatflexible nor softened by heat. Their spe- chett, it appears that this substance has the cific gravity differs in different parts. That properties of coagulated albumen. This of adults' teeth is 2.27 : the specific gravity cartilaginous substance is the portion of of children's teeth is 2.08. It must have the bone first formed. Hence the softness been always known that bones are combus- of these parts at first. The phosphate of tible, and that when sufficiently burnt, lime is afterwards gradually deposited, and they leave behind them a white porous sub- gives the bone the requisite firmness, The stance, which is tasteless, absorbs water, gelatine and fat, especially the first, gave and has the form of the original bone. The the bone the requisite degree of toughness nature of this substance embarrassed the and strength; for when they are removed, earlier chemists. But in 1771, Scheele the bone becomes brittle. The relative mentioned, in his dissertation on fluor spar, proportion of phosphate of lime and cartithat the earthy part of bones is phosphate lage differ exceedingly in different bones of lime. This discovery was the first and and in different animals. Ox bones, aç: the great step towards a chemical know. cording to the analysis of Fourcroy and ledge of the composition of bones. The Vauquelin, are composed of component parts of bones are chiefly four ; Solid gelatine ..............51 namely, the earthy salts, fat, gelatine, and Phosphate of lime..........$7.7 cartilage. The earthy salts may be ob Carbonate of lime.... .. ..10 lained either by calcining the bone to
Phosphate of magnesia... 1.3 whiteness, or by steeping it for a sufficient length of time in acids. In the first case the salts remain in the state of a brittle See ANATOMY. „white substance; in the second, they are BONIS non amovendis, in law, is a writ dissolved, and may be thrown down by the directed to the Sheriffs of Londou, &c. proper precipitants. These earthy salts changing them, that a person, against whom are four in number: 1. Phosphate of lime, judgment is obtained, and prosecuting a which constitutes by far the greatest part writ of error, be not suffered to remove his of the whole. 2. Carbonate of lime. 3. goods until the error is determined. Phosphate of magnesia, lately discovered BONNET, in fortification, a small work, by Fourcroy and Vauquelin. It occurs in consisting of two faces, having only a parathe bones of all the inferior animals exa pet with two rows of palisadoes, of about mined by these indefatigable chemists, but ten or twelve feet distance: it is generally could not be detected in human bones. raised before the saliant angle of the coun. 4. Sulphate of lime, detected by Mr. terscarp, and has a communication with the Hatchett in a very minute proportion. The covered way, by a trench cut through the proportion of fat contained in bones is va glacis, and palisadoes on each side. rious. By breaking bones in small pieces, BONNET, in the sea-language, denotes an and boiling them for some time in water, addition to a sail : thus they say, lace on Mr. Proust obtained their fạt swimming the bonnet, or shake off the bonnet. on the surface of the liquid. It weighed, BONNETIA, in botany, so called in he says, one-fourth of the weight of the honour of M. Charles Bonnet, a genus of bones employed. This proportion appears the Polyandria Monogynia class and order. excessive, and can scarcely be accounted Essential character: calyx five-parted, two for without supposing that the fat still re parts larger; corol five-petalled, three tained water. The gelatine is separated by smaller upright, two longer declinate; capthe same means as the fat, by breaking the sules oblong, three-celled, three-valved, bones in pieces and boiling them long enough many seeded. There is only one species, in water. The water dissolves the ge viz. B. mahuria grows in marsly places işi latine, and gelatinizes when sufficiently Cayenne and Guiana, a tree about fifteen concentrated. Hence the importance of feet high, branching chiefly towards the bones in making portable soups, the basis top. The flowers are borne on terminal of which is concrete gelatine, and likewise spikes, and are of a purple colour.
BONTIA, in botany, so called from Ja By Stat. 34 Geo. III. c. 20, and 41 Geo. cobus Bontius, a genus of the Didynamia III. c. 107, persons importing for sale books Angiospermia class and order. Natural first printed within the united kingdom, order of Personatæ. Essential character : and reprinted in any other, such books shall calyx five-parted; corol two-lipped; lower be seized and forfeited ; and every person lip three-parted, revolute; drupe ovate, so exposing such books to sale, for every one-seeded, with the end oblique. There such offence shall forfeit the sum of ten is but one species riz. B. daphnoides, the pounds. The penalties not to extend to leaves of which are thick and rather stiff, books not having been printed for twenty very smooth and green on both sides; co-' years. rolla yellowish, with a line of dusky purple By the act of union, 40 Geo. III. c. 67, along the middle of the lower lip; birds all prohibitions and bounties on the export grow fat upon the fruits, but unless the of articles (the produce and manufacture entrails are taken out as soon as the bird of either country) to the other shall cease; is killed, it becomes too bitter to be eaten, and a countervailing duty of two-pence for
BOOK, liber, the composition of a man every pound weight avoirdupois of books, of wit and learning, designed to communi- bound or unbound, and of maps or prints, cate somewhat he has invented, expe- imported into Great Britain directly froin rienced, or collected, to the public, and Ireland, or which shall be imported into thence to posterity ; being withal of a com- Ireland from Great Britain, is substituted. petent length to make a volume.
Books, materials of Several sorts of In this sense, a book is distinguished materials were used formerly in making from a pamphlet, by its greater length; books : plates of lead, and copper, the bark and from a tome or volume, by its contain- of trees, bricks, stone, and wood were the ing the whole writing. According to the first materials employed to engrave such ancients, a book ditfered from an epistle, things upon, as men were willing to have not only in bulk, but in that the latter was transmitted to posterity. Josephus speaks folded, and the former rolled up; not but of two columns, the one of stone, the other that there are divers ancient books now of brick, on which the children of Seth extant, under the names of epistles.
wrote their inventions and astronomical disBy 8 Anne, c. 19, the author of any coveries : Porphyry makes mention of some book, and his assigns, shall have the sole li pillars, preserved in Crete, on which the berty of printing and reprinting the same ceremonies, practised by the Corybantes for fourteen years, to commence from the in their sacrifices, were recorded : Hesiod's day of the first publication thereof, and works were originally written upon tables no longer ; except that if the author be of lead, and deposited in the temple of the living, at the expiration of the said term, Muses, in Bæotia : the ten commandments, the sole copyright shall return to him for delivered to Moses, were written upon other fourteen years : and if any other per- stone; and Solon's laws, upon wooden son shall print, or import, or shall sell or planks. Tables of wood, box, and ivory, expose it to sale, he shall forfeit the same, were common among the ancients : when and also one penny for every sheet thereof, of wood, they were frequently covered with found in his possession. But this shall not wax, that people might write on them with expose any person to the said forfeitures, more ease, or blot out what they had writunless the title thereof shall be entered in ten. The leaves of the palm-tree were the register book of the Company of Sta- afterwards used instead of wooden planks, tioners,
and the finest and thinnest part of the bark By statute eleven copies of each of such trees, as the lime, the ash, the mabook, on the best paper shall, before pub- ple, and the elm; from hence comes the lication, be delivered to the warehouse- word liber, which signifies the inner bark keeper of the Company of Stationers, for of the trees; and as these barks were the nse of the Royal Library, the libraries rolled up, in order to be removed with of the two universities in England, the four greater ease, these rolls were called rouniversities in Scotland, the library of Sion lumen, a volume ; a name afterwards given College, the library belonging to the Col- to the like rolls of paper or parchment. lege of Advocates in Edinburgh, the library Thus we find books were first written on of Trinity College, Dublin, and the King's stones, witness the decalogue given to Inn, Dublin, on pain of forfeiting the value Moses: then on the parts of plants, as thereof, and also five pounds,
leaves chiefly of the palm tree; the rind
and bark, especially of the tilia, or phillyrea, to the method of double entry, are the and the Egyptian papyrus. By degrees waste-book, the journal, and the ledger; wax, then leather, were introduced, espe- but besides these three, which are abso. cially the skins of goats and sheep, of which lutely necessary, there are several others, at length parchment was prepared: then to the number of thirteen, or even more, lead came into use; also linen, silk, horn, called subservient or auxiliary books, which and lastiy, paper itself.
are used in proportion to the business a · Books, form of. The first hooks were man has, or to the nature of the business a in the form of blocks and tables : but as man carries on. These books are the cash. flexible matter came to be wrote on, they book, the debt-book, the book of numeros, found it more convenient to make their the book of invoices, the book of accounts books in the form of rolls: these were com current, the book of commissions, orders, posed of several sheets fastened to each or advices, &c. other, and rolled upon a stick, or umbilicus; The wasle-Book may be defined a rethe whole making a kind of column, or gister, containing an inventory of a mercylinder, which was to be managed by the chant's effects and debts, with a distinct umbilicus as a handle, it being reputed a record of all his transactions and dealings, crime to take hold of the roll itself: the in a way of trade, related in a plain simple outside of the volume was called frons ; the stile, and in order of time as they succeed ends of the umbilicus, cornua, horns, which one another. were usually carved, and adorned with sil. The waste-book opens with the invenver, ivory, or even gold and precious tory, which consists of two parts ; first, the stones; the title ovaac6`, was struck on effects, that is, the money a merchant has the outside; the whole volume, when ex by him, the goods he has in hand, his part tended, might make a yard and a half wide, of ships, houses, farms, &c. with the debts and tifty long. The form which obtains due to him ; the second part of the inven. among us is the square, composed of sepa- tory is the debis due by him to others: the rate leaves; which was also known, though difference between which, and the effects, little used by the ancients.
is what the merchants call neat stock. When Books, in a mercantile sense, or Book a man begins the world, and first sets up to keeping, the several registers wherein mer- trade, the inventory is to be gathered from chants and other dealers keep their ac a survey of the particulars that make up his counts.
real estate; but ever a!ter is to be collected A merchant's books should exhibit the from the balance of his old books, and cartrue state of his atiairs. They shouid shew ried to the new. the particular success of each transaction, After the inventory is fairly related in as well as the general result of the whole; the waste-book, the transactions of trade and should be so arranged as to afford cor come next to be entered down; which is a rect and ready information upon every sub- daily task to be performed as they occur. ject for which they may be consulted. The narrative ought to exhibit transactions
Merchants' books are kept either by single, with all the circumstances necessary to be or according to the method of double entry known, and no more. It should contain They who keep them in the fornier method the names of persons with whom the mer. have occasion for few books, as a journal, chant dea's upon trust, the conditions of or day-book; and a ledger, or post book: bargains, the terms of payment, the quanthe former to write all the articles follow- tity, quality, and prices of goods, with every ing each other as they occur in the course thing that serves to make the record disof their business; and the other to draw tinet, and nothing else. The waste-book, out the accounts of all the debtors and cre if no subsidiary books are kept, should ditors on the journal. This method is only contain a record of all the merchant's transproper for retail dealers, or at least for tra actions and dealings in a way of trade; and ders who have but very little business : but that not only of such as are properly and as for wholesale dealers and great mer- prirely mercantile, but of every oecurrence chants, who keep their books aceording to that atfeets his stock, so as to impair or inthe double entry, or Italian method, as is crease it, such as private expences, servants now most commonly done, their business fees, house-rents, movey gained, &er requires several other books, the usefulness The journal, or day-tool, is the book of which will be seen from what follows. wherein the transactions recorded in the
The most cousiderable books, according waste book are prepared to be carried ta