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blems of liberty, expedition, readiness, The dough in this state is handed swiftness, and fear. They are more ho over to a second workman, who slices it nourable bearings than fishes, because they with a prodigious knife; and it is then participate more of air and fire, the two in a proper state for the use of those noblest and highest elements, than of earth bakers who attend the oven. These are and water. Birds must be borne in coat. five in number; and their different departarmonr, as is best fitting the propriety of ments are as well calculated for expedition their natural actions of going, sitting, stand and correctness, as the making of pins, or ing, flying, &c. Birds that are either whole other mechanical employments. On each footed, or have their feet divided, and yet side of a large table, where the dough is have no talons, are said to be membered; laid, stands a workman ; at a small table but the cock, and all birds of prey with near the oven stands another; a fourth sharp and hooked beaks and talons, for en. stands by the side of the oven, to receive counter or defence, are termed armed. In the bread; and a fifth to supply the peel. the blazoning of birds, if their wings be not By this arrangement the oven is as regudisplayed, they are said to be borne close ; larly filled, and the whole exercise peras, he beareth an eagle, &c. close.
formed in as exact time, as a military esoBIRTH. See MidwifRY.
lution. The man on the further side of the
large table moulds the dough, having preBirth, or Birthing, in the sea-language, viously formed it into small pieces, till it a convenient place to moor a ship in ; also has the appearance of musfins, although a due distance observed by ships lying at rather thinner, and which he does two toanchor, or under sail ; and a proper place gether, with each hand ; and as fast as he aboard for a mess to put their chests, &c. is accomplishes this task, he delivers his work called the birth of that mess.
over to the man on the other side of the BISCUIT, sea, is a sort of bread much table, who stamps them with a docker on dried, to make it keep for the service of boui sides with a mark. As he rids himself the sea. It was formerly baked twice, or of this work, be throws the biscuits on the oftener, and prepared six months before smaller table next the oven, where stands the embarkation. It will keep good a whole the third workman, whose business is year,
merely to separate the different pieces into The process of biscuit-baking for the two, and place them immediately under British pavy is as follows, and it is equally the hand of him who supplies the oven, simple and ingenious. The meal, and every
whose work of throwing, or rather chuckother article, being supplied with much ing, the bread upon the peel, must be so pertainty and simplicity, large lamps of exact, that if he looked round for a single dough, consisting merely of flour and wa moment, it is impossible he should perform ter, are mixed up together; and as the it correctly. The fifth receives the biscuit qnantity is so immense as to preclude, by on the peel, and arranges it in the oven ; any common process, a possibility of knead. in which duty he is so very expert, that ing it, a man manages, or, as it is termed, though the different pieces are thrown at rides a machine, which is called a horse. the rate of seventy in a minute, the peel is This machine is a lo roller, api ntly
always disengaged in time to receive them about four or five inches in diameter, and separately, about seven or eight feet in length. It has As the oven stands open during the whole a play to a certain extension, by means of time of filling it, the biscuits first thrown a staple in the wall, to which is inserted a in would be first baked, were there not kind of eye, making its action like the ma some counteraction to such an inconvenichine by which they cut chaff for horses, ence. The remedy lies in the ingenuity of The lump of dough being placed exactly in the man who forms the pieces of dough, the centre of a raised platform, the man and who, by imperceptible degrees, proșits upon the end of the machine, and lite portionably diminishes their size, till the rally rides up and down throughout its Joss of that time, which is taken up during whole circular direction, till the dough is the filling of the oven, has no more effect equally indented; and this is repeated till to the disadvantage of one of the biscuits it is sufficiently kneaded ; at which times, than to another. by the different positions of the lines, large So much critical exactness and neat actior small circles are described, according as, vity occur in the exercise of this labour, they are near to or distant from the wall, that it is difficult to decide whether the
palm of excellence is due to the moulder, is bagged out very much at bottom. Native the marker, the splitter, the chucker, or of the south of France and Italy. the depositor ; all of them, like the wheels BISERRULA, in botany, a genus of of a machine, seeming to be actuated by the Diadelphia Decandria class and order. the same principle. The business is to de- Natural order Papilionacæ, or Leguminoposit in the oven seventy biscuits in a mi sæ. Essential character; legume two-cellnute ; and this is accomplished with the ed, flat; partition contrary. There is but regularity of a clock; the clack of the peel, one species ; viz. B. pelecinus, bastard hat. during its motion in the oven, operating chet vetch, an annual plant, which grows like the pendulum.
naturally in Italy, Sicily, Spain, and the The biscuits thus baked are kept in repo. Sonth of France. sitories, which receive warmth from being
BISHOP, a prelate, or person conse placed in drying lofts over the ovens, till crated for the spiritual government of a they are sufficiently dry to be packed into diocese. bags, without danger of getting mouldy;
Whether the distinction of bishops from and when in such a state, they are then mere priests or presbyters was settled in the packed into bags of a hundred weight each, apostolical age, or introduced since, is much and removed into storehouses for immediate controverted. It is certain, that in the New
Testament the names of bisliops and priests The number of bake-houses belonging to
are used indiscriminately ; but tradition, the victualling-office at Plymouth are two,
the fathers, and the apostolical constitutions each of which contains four ovens, which
make a distinction. From this last consiare heated twenty times a day, and in the
deration bishops are conceived as the highcourse of that time bake a sufficient quan
est ecclesiastical dignities, the chief officers tity of bread for 16,000 men.
in the hierarchy, or economy of charch-goThe granaries are large, and well con
vernment, as the fathers and pastors of the structed; when the wheat is ground, the faithful, the successors of the apostles, and,
as such, the superiors of the church of flour is conveyed into the upper stories of
Christ. the bake-houses, whence it descends through
Upon the vacancy of a bishop's see in a trunk in each immediately into the hands
England the king grants his conge d'elire of the workmen.
to the dean and chapter, to elect the person The bake-house belonging to the victualling-office at Deptford consists of two di- whom, by his letters missive, he hath apvisions, and has twelve ovens, each of tion in twenty days they are to incar a pre
pointed; and if they do not make the elecwhich bakes twenty shoots daily (Sundays munire. The dean and chapter having made excepted); the quantity of four used for
their election accordingly, the archbishop, each shoot is two busliels, or 112 ponnds, by the king's direction, confirms the bishop, which baked produce 102 pounds of bis- and afterwards consecrates him by imposicuit. Ten pounds are regularly allowed on
tion of hands, according to the form laid each shoot for shrinkage, &c. The allow
down in the Common Prayer Book. Hence ance of biscuit in the navy is one pound for
we see that a bishop differs from an arclieach man per day, so that one of the ovens
bish in this, that an archbishop with at Deptford furnishes bread daily for 2,040 bishops consecrates a bishop, as a bislop men.
with priests consecrates a priest ; other BISCUTELLA, in botany, a genus of distinctions are, that an archbishop visits a the Tetradynamia Siliculosa class and or province, as a bishop a diocese; that an der. Natural order of Siliquosæ Cruci- archbishop convocates a provincial synod, formes. Essential character; silicle com as a bishop a diocesan one; and that the pressed flat, rounded above and below, archbishop has canonical authority over all two-lobed; calyx, leaflets gibbous at the the bishops of his province, as a bishop has base. There are 6 species ; of which B. auri over the priests of his diocese. culata, in a wild state rises about a foot in The jurisdiction of a bishop of the church height, but, in a garden, grows nearly two of England consists in collating benefices, feet high, dividing into several branches ; granting institutions, commanding inducthe flowers are produced at the end of the tions, taking care of the profits of vacant branches, in loose panicies, and are of a benefices for the nse of the successors, conpile yellow colour; the nectareous gland secrating churches and chapels, ordaining is very large, and, consequently, the calyx priests and deacons, confirming after bap.
tism, granting adıninistrations, and taking dissertation on bismuth every thing respecto probates of wills; these parts of his function ing it contained in the writings of the alchy. depend upon the ecclesiastical law. By mists. Beccher seems to have been the the common law he is to certify to the first chemist who pointed out some of its judges concerning legitimate and illegiti- most remarkable properties. Bismuth is of mate births and marriages; and to his juris a reddish white colour, and almost destitute diction, by the statute law, belongs the both of taste and smell. It is composed of licensing of physicians, surgeons, and school broad brilliant plates adhering to each masters, and the uniting of small parishes, other. The figure of its particles, accordwhich last privilege is now peculiar to the ing to Hauy, is an octahedron, or two fourBishop of Norwich.
sided pyramids, applied base-to base. Its All bishops of England are peers of the specific gravity is 9.82. When hammered realm, except the Bishop of Man, and as cautiously, its density, as Muschenbroeck such sit and vote in the House of Lords; ascertained, is considerably increased. It they are barons in a three-fold manner, riz. is not therefore very brittle: it breaks, how. feudal, in regard to the temporalities an ever, when struck smartly by a hammer, nexed to their bishoprics; by writ, as being and consequently is not maleable. Neither summoned by writto parliament ; and can it be drawn out into wire. Its tenacity, lastly, by patent and creation ; accordingly from the trials of Muschenbroeck, appears they bave the precedence of all other barons, to be such, that a rod hath of an inch in vote as barons and bishops, and claim diameter is capable of sustaining a weight of all the privileges enjoyed by the temporal nearly 29 lbs. When heated to the temperalords, excepting that they cannot be tried ture of 476° it melts; and if the heat be by their peers, because, in cases of blood, much increased it evaporates, and may be they themselves cannot pass upon the trial, distilled over in close vessels. When allowed for they are prohibited by the canons of the to cool slowly, and when the liquid metal is church to be judges of life and death. withdrawn as soon as the surface congeals,
Bishop's court, an ecclesiastical court, it crystallizes in parallelopipeds, which cross held in the cathedral of each diocese, the each other at right angles. When kept judge whereof is the bishop's chancellor, melted at a moderate heat, it becomes co. who judges by the civil and canon law; and vered with an oxide of a greenish grey if the diocese be large he has inis commis or brown colour. In a more violent heat saries in remote parts, who hold what they it is volatile, and may be sublimed in close call consistory courts for matters limited to vessels ; but, with the access of air, it emits them by their commission,
a blue Dame, and its oxide exhales in a yelBISHOPRIC, the district over which a lowish smoke, condensible by cold bodies. bishop's jurisdiction extends, otherwise call. This oxide is very fusible; and is convertible ed a diocese.
by heat into a yellow transparent glass. In England there are twenty-four bishop- Sulphuric acid acts on bismuth, and sulphu. rics and two archbishoprics; in Scotland rous acid is disengaged. A part of the bisnone at all; in Ireland eighteen bishoprics muth is dissolved, and the remainder is and four archbishoprics ; and in Popish changed into an insoluble oxide. Nitric countries they are still more numerous. acid dissolves bismuth with great rapidity.
BISMUTH, one of the brittle and easily To one part and a half of nitric acid, at disfused metals. The ores of this metal are tant intervals, add one of bismuth, broken very few in number, and occur chiefly in into sinall pieces. The solution is crystalGerinany. This, in some measure, accounts lizable. It is decomposed when added to for the ignorance of the Greeks and Ara- water; and a white substance is precipitatbians, neither of whom appear to have been ed, called magistery of bismuth, or pearlacquainted with bismuth. The German white. This pigment is defective, inasmuch miners, however, seem to bave distinguished as it is liable to be changed by sulphuretted it at a pretty early period, and to have given hydrogen, and by the vapours of putrifying it the name of bismuth; for Agricola des. substances in general Muriatic acid acts cribes it under that name as well known in on bismuth. The compound, when deprived Germany, and considers it as a peculiar of water by evaporation, is capable of being metal. "The miners gave it also the name of sublimed, and affords a soft salt, which delitectum argenti; and appear to have consi- quesces into what has been improperly calldered it as silver beginning to form, and noted butter of bismuth. Bismuth is capable yet completed. Mr. Pott collected in his of forming the basis of a sympathetic ink,
The acid employed for this purpose mustrary day in leap years being added at the be one that does not act on paper, such as end of the month February, and called the the acetic. Characters written with this 29th of that month. solution become visible when exposed to BISTOURY, in surgery, an instrument sulphuretted hydrogen.
for making incisions, of which there are difBISSECTION, in geometry, the division ferent kinds, some being of the form of a of a line, angle, &c. into two eqnal parts. lancet, others straight and fixed in the han.
BISSEXTILE, or leap-year, a year dle like a knife, and others crooked with consisting of 366 days, and happening every the sharp edge on the inside. fourth year, by the addition of a day in the BISTRE, or BISTER, among painters, month of February, which that year consists denotes glossy soot, pulverised and made of 29 days. And this is done to recover the into a kind of cakes with gum-water. 6 hours which the sun takes up nearly in BIT, or Birts, in ship-building, the name his course more than the 365 days com of two great timbers usually placed abaft monly allowed for it in other years. the manger in the ship's loof, through which
The day thus added was by Julius Cæsar the cross-piece goes ; the use of it is to appointed to be the day before the 24th of belay the cable thereto while the ship is at February, which among the Romans was anchor. the 6th of the calends, and which on this BITCH, the female of the dog kipd. See occasion was reckoned twice; whence it CANIS. was called the bissextile. By the statute BITTER, a sea term, signifying any turn De anno bissextile, 21 Hen. III. to prevent of the cable about the bits, so as that the misunderstandings, the intercalary day and cable may be let out by little and little. that next before it are to be accounted as And when a ship is stopped by a cable she one day.
is said to be brought np by a bitter. Also To find what year of the period any given that end of the cable which is wound about year is, divide the given year by 4, then if o the bits is called the bitter end of the remains it is leap year; but if any thing cables. remain the given year is so many after leap BITTER principal. The bitter taste of year. But the astronomers concerned in certain vegetables appears to be owing to reforming the calendar in 1582, by order of the presence of a peculiar substance, differPope Gregory XIII, observing that in 4 ing from every other in its chemical proyears the bissextile added 4+ minutes more perties. It may be extracted from the than the sun spent in returning to the same wood of quassia, the root of gentian, the point of the ecliptic; and computing that leaves of the hop, and several other plants, in 133 years these supernumerary minntes by infusing them for some time in cold would form a day; to prevent any changes water. The characters of this substance, being thus insensibly introduced into the originally described by Wether, have been seasons, directed that in the course of 400 attentively examined by Dr. Thomson, who years there should be three sextiles re enumerates them as follows.
1. When trenched; so that every centesimal year, water thus impregnated is evaporated to which is a leap year according to the Julian dryness by a very gentle heat, it leaves a accoont, is a common year in the Gregorian brownish yellow substance which retains a account, unless the number of centuries can certain degree of transparency. For some be divided by 4 without a remainder. So time it continues ductile, but at last becomes 1600 and 2000 are bissextile; but 1700, brittle. Its taste is intensely bitter. 2. When 1800, and 1900 are common years.
heated it softens, swells, and blackens, then The Gregorian computation has been burns away without flaming much, and received in most foreign countries ever leaves a small quantity of ashes. 3. It is since the reformation of the calendar in very soluble in water and in alcohol. 4. It 1582, excepting some northern countries, does not affect blue vegetable colours. 5. It as Russia, &c. And by act of parliament is not precipitated by the watery solution of passed in 1751, it commenced in all the lime, barytes, or strontites; nor is it changdominions under the crown of Great Britain ed by alkalies. 6. ncture of galls, infuin the year following; it being ordered by sion of nut-galls, and gallic acid, produce that act that the natural day next following no effect. 7. Of the metallic salts, nitrate the 2nd of September should be accounted of silver and acetate of lead are the only the 14th ; omitting the intermediate 11 days ones that throw it down. The precipitate of the common calendar. The supernume. by acetite of lead is very abundant; and
that salt, therefore, affords the best test for to themselves. Only two species of bitu. discovering the bitter principle when no minous oils have been hitherto examined other substances are presert, by which also by chemists. Others indeed liave been it is decomposed. From recent experi- mentioned; but their existence has not been ments of Mr. Hatchett, it appears that the sufficjently authenticated. These two species bitter principle is formed, along with tan, are called petroleum, and maltha, or seaby the action of nitric acid on indigo. wax: the first is liquid, the second solid.
BITTER salt, natire, in mineralogy, is of a' See PETROLEUM and MalTha. greenish white, or smoke-grey colour. It oc The true bituminous substances may be curs sometimes in earthy, sometimes in mass, distinguished by the following properties :-and often in capillary crystals. When earthy They are either solid, or of the consistence it is without lustre, but when crystallised of tar: their colour is usually brown or its lustre is between siiky and vitreous. It black: they have a peculiar smell, or at consists of sulphate of magnesia, more or least acquire it when rubbed : this smell is less mixed with iron and allumina, and pro- known by the name of the bituminous odour : bably some sulphat of allumina. It is found they become electric by friction, though on the surface of decomposing argillaceons pot insulated : they melt when heated, and schistus, and sometimes of 'lime-stone. burn with a strong smell, a bright flame, BITTERN. See ARDEA.
and much smoke: they are insoluble in Bittern, in salt-works, the brine remain water and alcchol, but dissolve most coming after the salt is concreted: this they monly in ether, and in the fixed and volaladle off that the salt may be taken out of tile oils : they do not dissolve in alkaline the pan, and afterwards put in again; when leys, nor form soap: acids have little action
on them; the sulphuric scarcely any: the being farther boiled it yields more salt.
nitric, by long and repeated digestion, disBITTERSPATH, in mineralogy, is grey. solves them, and converts them into a yel. ish, or greenish white, passing into aspara. low substance, soluble both in water and gus green. It occurs: 1. disseminated or
alcohol, and similar to the product formed crystallised iu rhomboids, or perfect or
by the action of nitrous acid on resins. The truncated at the solid angles ; 2. short, bitumens at present known may be reduced somewhat oblique, tetrahedral prisms, often to three; namely, asphaltnm, mineral tar, bevelled at the edges; 3. compressed hex- and mineral caoutchouc. Bitumen has been aedrons. It is composed of
found also united to a resinous compound, Carbonate of lime............... 52
in a curious substance first accurately examagnesia........ 45 mined by Mr. Hatchett, to which he has Oxide of iron and manganese 3
given the name of retinasphaltum. United to charcoal in various proportions, it constitutes the numerous varieties of pit-coal, so
much employed in this country as fuel. The BITUMEN, in chemistry. The term asphaltum found in Albania is snpposed to bilumen has often been applied by chemist have constituted the chief ingredient of the to all the inflammable substances that occur Greek fire. Asphaltum is seldoni absolutely in the earth; but this use of the word is noy pure; for when alcohol is digested on it, the so far limited, that sulphur apd millite are colour of the liquid becomes yellow, and by most commonly excluded. It would be gentle evaporation a portion of petroleum proper to exclude amber likewise, and to
is separated. Mineral tar seems to be noapply the term to those fossil bodies only thing else than asphaltum, containing a still which have a certain resemblance to oily greater proportion of petroleum. When and resinous substances, Bituminous sub- alcobol is digested on it, a considerable stances may be subdivided into two classes, quantity of that oil is taken up; but there namely, bituminous oils, and bitumens, pro- remains a black fluid substance, like meltperly so called. The first set possess nearly ed pitch, not acted upon by alcohol, and the properties of volatile oils, and ongbt, in which therefore appears to possess the prostrict propriety, to be classed with these perties of asphaltum, with the exception of bodies ; but as the chemical properties of not being solid. By exposure to the air, it bitumens have not yet been investigated is said gradually to assume the state of as. with much precision, it is deemed rather phaltum. premature to separate them from each other. BIVALVES, one of the three general The second set possess properties peculiar classes of shell-fish, comprehending all those,