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Zinc adheres to mercury with a
30 feet deep, with an area of 20 feet square, force equal to ......... 204 grains. in wbich the shells containing the bodies are Copper..........
closely packed in rows over each other, Antimony (regulus)
without any intermediate earth, and with Iron .....
only a slight supertirial covering of soil, not Cobalt.
more than a foot thick : each pit contained The striking differences in the above from 1200 to 1500 bodies, and may be contable shew that the pressure of the atmos- sidered as a mass of animal matter of the phere has no share in them, since in this re dimensions above-mentioned. M. M. Fourspect the circumstances of each were pre- croy and Thouret were present at the opencisely similar ; nor do they depend on the ing of several of these receptacles; and it is respective specific gravities ; tor if so, silver from a memoir by the former of these, that should rank atter lead, cobalt before zinc, the principal part of this article is composed. and iron before tin. The only order which the first pit that was examined had been agrees with the above is that of the chemical filled and closed up 15 years before: on athinity of these metals, or the respective de- opening some of the coffins (for the wood grees of their solubility in mercury. It is was still quite sound, only tinged of a yellow highly probable, therefore, that at least the colour) the bodies were found within shrunk, principal part of the adhesive force thus so as to leave a considerable vacant space found by experiment owing to chemical in the upper part of the coffin, and flattened, affinity; and that the above numerical series as if they had been subject to a strong com4416, 429, 418, 397, &c. is an approximation pression; the linen which covered them adtowards the ratio of the relative affinities of hered firmly, and upon being removed, pregold, silver, tin, lead, &c. for mercury.
sented to view only irregular masses of a ADIANTHUM, Maidenhair, in botany, soft, ductile, greyish-white matter, appathe name of a genus of plants of the rently intermediate between fat and wax : Cryptogamia Filices class and order, the the bones were enveloped in this, and were characters of which are, that the fructifica- found to be very brittle. The bodies thus tions are collected in oval spots at the ends changed, being but little offensive to the of the leaves, which are folded back. There smell, a great number were dug up and miare forty-four species, of which one only be putely examined: in some this alteration longs to Great Britain, viz. the A. capillus had, as yet, only partially taken place, the veneris, which is found rarely in Scotland reinains of muscular tibres being still visible; and Wales, on rocks and moist walls, and but where the conversion had been comwhich is a native of the south of Europe and plete, the bones throughout tre whole body the Levant. From this the syrup of capil
were found covered with this grey substance, laire is made.
generally soft and ductile, sometimes dry, ADIPOCIRE, is a term formed of adeps, but always readily separating into porous fat, and cera, wax, and denotes a substance, cavernons fragments, without the slightest the nature and origin of which are thus ex
trace of muscles, membranes, vessels, tenplained. The changes which animal matter dons, or nerves: the ligaments of the artiundergoes in its progress towards total de culations had been in like manner changed ; composition, have been, for many obvious the connexion between the bones was dereasons, but little attended to But an op- stroyed, and these last had become so yieldportunity of this kind was offered at Paris ing, that the grave-diggers, in order to rein 1786 and 1787, when the old burial move the bodies more conveniently, rolled ground of the Innocens was laid out for each upon itself' tiom head to heels, without building upon, in consequence of which, the any difficulty. According to the testimony surface soil, and the animal remains con of these men, to whom the facts just mentained therein,were removed. This cemetery tioned had been long familiar, this converhaving been for ages appropriated to the sion of animal matter is never observed in reception of the dead, in one of the most those bodies that are interred singly, but populous districts in Paris, was eminently always takes place in the fosses communes : well calculated to exhibit the various pro to cffect t'is change, nearly three years are cesses of animal decomposition: another fa- required. The soapy matter of latest forvourable circunstance was, that it contained mation is soft, very ductile, light, and spungy, several of those large pits (fosses communes) and contains water; in 30 or 40 years in which the bodies of the poor are depo- it becomes much dryer, more brittle, and sited by hundreds. These pits are cavities assumes the appearance of dense laminæ,
and where the surrounding earth has been with a very small quantity of soap in soludryer than usual, it is sometimes semitrans- tion: the matter remaining on the filter, parent, of a granulated texture, brittle, and being well washed, was beaten up with wabears a considerable resemblance to wax. ter, but showed no tendency to unite with Animal matter having once passed into this it, subsiding after a time, in the form of a stage of decomposition, appears to resist for white mass; this by drying for a few days in a long time any further alteration: some of the open air, became grey and much rethese pits that had been closed above 40 duced in volume: it was then mixed with years, were, upon examination, found to be
diluted muriatic acid, which immediately Jittle else than a solid mass of soapy matter; decomposed it, and a number of white clots nor is it yet ascertained how long in common rose to the surface of the liquor. This last circumstances it would continue unchanged, being obtained clear by filtration, yielded the burial ground of the Innocens being so crystals of muriat of lime and a slight trace small in comparison to the population of the of phosphoric salt; the white clots being district, as to require each pit in 30 or 40 washed and dried, and afterwards melted in years to be emptied of its contents, in order a water bath, cooled into a dry, combustible, to receive a new succession of bodies: it oily matter, brittle, waxy, crystallizable, appears, however, that the ulterior changes and perfectly insoluble in water, to which depend in a great measure on the quantity the name of adipocire has been appropriated. of moisture draining through the mass. From From this series of experiments with lime, it the history of this singular substance, we appears that the soapy matter is a true amproceed to an examination of its chemical moniacal soap, with a base of adipocire, to properties. It was first, however, purified by which lime has a stronger affinity than amgently heating in an earthen vessel, till it monia; but which last composition is again became of a pasty consistence, and then in its turn decomposed by all the acids, rubbed through a fine hair sieve, by which leaving the adipocire in a state of purity. means the hair, small bones, and remains of Potash and soda produce effects perfectly the muscular fibre were separated with to analogous to those of lime. To the foreJerable exactness. In this state, being ex going experiments of Fourcroy, a few facts posed in an earthen vessel to the naked tire, have since been added by Dr. Gibbes. The it readily became soft, but did not liquify receptacle at Oxford for those bodies which without considerable difficulty, rather frying have been used by the anatomical professor as a piece of soap would do, and disengag. there for his demonstrations, is a hole dug ing at the same time ammoniacal vapours. in the ground to the depth of thirteen or Four pounds being put into a glass retort, fourteen feet, and a little stream is turned and submitted to slow distillation in a water through it, in order to remove all offensive bath, afforded in the space of three weeks
smell: the flesh contained in this was found, eight ounces of a clear watery fluid, with a on examination, to be quite white, and for fætid odour, turning syrup of violets green, the most part changed into the soapy matter and manifestly containing ammonia in solu- above mentioned. From this hint, pieces of tion; the soapy matter remaining in the re
lean beef were enclosed in a perforated box, tort had acquired a greater consistence, was and placed in running water, and at the end become less fusible, of a deeper brown co of a month were found converted into a lour, and upon cooling, was evidently drier mass of fatty matter; this change was obthan before, though not admitting of being served to take place much sooner and more broken. Eight ounces of soapy matter, completely in running than in stagnant wa. white and purified, were mixed with an ter: in order to get rid of the fætid smell, equal weight of powdered quick lime; on nitrous acid was had recourse to, which im. the addition of a little water, the mass heated, mediately had the desired effect; a waxy swelled, and disengaged a very strongly am smell was perceived, and by melting the moniacal vapour, accompanied by a peculiar matter it was obtained nearly pure; the putrescent smell: a sufficiency of water yellow colour, which had been given to it being then added to bring the whole to the by the nitrous acid, was wholly discharged state of an emulsion, it was heated to ebul- by the oxymuriatic acid. A similar conlition, much ammoniacal vapour escaping version of muscular fibre takes place by maat the same time; the liquor being thrown ceration in very diluted nitrous acid. Dr. on a filter, passed perfectly clear and colour Gibbes has not mentioned whether the fatty Jess, and appeared to be only lime-water, matter produced by running water is pure
adipocire, or ammoniacal soap; it appears or sister, and, in general, to the next of kiu, probable, however, that it is in the former as wcle, aunt, cousin; then to a creditor. state; where nitrous acid is the menstruum An action lies for and against an adminisemployed, it is obviously impossible that the trator, as for and against an executor; only adipocire should be combined with an alkali. that he is accountable no farther, than to
ADIT of a mine, the hole or aperture the value of the goods. whereby it is entered and dug, and by which ADMIRAL, in maritime affairs, a great the water and ores are carried away: it is officer, who commands the naval forces of a distinguished from the air-shaft. The adit kingdom or state, and decides all maritime is usually made on the side of a hill, towards causes. For the latter purposes a commisthe bottom, about four or six feet high, and sion lias been instituted in England, who, by eight wide, in form of an arch; sometimes a statute of W. and M. have the same aucut into the rock, and sometimes supported thority as the Lord High Admiral. The with timber, so conducted, as that the sole admirals of England are merely naval com. or bottom of the adit may answer to the manders. Every other business relative to bottom of the shatt, only somewhat lower, the navy at large is directed by the Lords that the water may have a sufficient current Commissioners of the Admiralty, See Preto pass away without the use of the pump. CEDENCE, ADMIRALTY Court, &c.
ADJUTAGE, or AJUTAGE, in hydrau ADMIRALTY, properly signities the oflies, the tube titted to the mouth of a pipe fice of Lord High Admiral, whether disthrough which a fountain plays. See Hy. charged by one or several joint commisDRAULICS.
sioners, called Lords of the Admiralty. ADJUTANT, in the military art, an of ADMIRALTY-Court, or Court of Admi. fieer whose business it is to assist the major, ralty, in the British polity, a sovereign court, and therefore sometimes called the aid held by the Lord High Admiral, or the major.
Commissioners of the Admiralty. ADJUTANT-general, an officer of distinc This court has cognizance in all maritime tion, who assists the general in his labo- affairs, civil as well as criminal. All crimes rious duty: he forms the several details of committed on the high-seas, or in great duty of the army, with the brigade majors, rivers, beneath the bridge next the sea, are and keeps an account of the state of each cognizable only in this court; which, by brigade and regiment. In the day of battle statute, is obliged to try the same by judge he sees the infantry drawn up, after which and jury. But in civil causes it is other he places himself by the side of the general wise, these being all determined according to receive orders. In a siege he visits the to the civil law; the reason whereof is, beseveral posts, gives and signs all orders, and cause the sea is without the jurisdiction of has a serjeant from each brigade to carry the common law. ans orders which he may have to send. In case any person be sued in the ad.
ADMEASUREMENT, in law, a writmiralty-court, contrary to the statutes, he for adjusting the shares of something to be may have the writ of supesedeas to stop divided. Thus, admeasurement of dower farther proceedings, and also an action for takes place, when the widow of the deceased double damages against the person suing. claims more as her dower than what of right Subordinate to this court, there is another belongs to her. And, admeasurement of of equity, called Court-merchant; wherein pasture may be obtained, when any of the all causes between merchants are decided, persons who have right in a common pasture agreeable to the rules of the civil law. puts more cattle to feed on it than he ought. ADOLIA, in botany, a genus of plants
ADMINISTRATOR, in law, the person found among the trees at Malabar, which to whom the goods, effects, or estate of one bear a near relation to the rhamnus. There who died intestate are entrasted; for which are two species, viz. A. alba, with white he is to be accountable, when required. flowers, which grows to the height of seven The bishop of the diocese where the party or eight feet, and bears fruit twice
year: dies, is regularly to grant administration; the berries when ripe are of a purplish black but if the intestate has goods in several dio colour: and A. rubra, with red flowers; but ceses, administration must be granted by the the berries when ripe are of an orange co. archbishop in the prerogative court. The lour, and of an acid taste. persons to whom administration is granted ADONIS, Pheasant's Eye, or Red Maiths, are, a husband, wife, children, whether sons in botany, a genus of the Polyandria or danghters, the father or mother, brother Polygynia class of plants, the calyx of
which is a perianthium composed of five ob was a book of accounts, not unlike our
tion subsisting by itself, belonging to a per-
the diocese. grows naturally in shady places and woods, Advowsons are also presentative, collaas in Hampstead and Charlton woods ; it is tive, or donative. Presentative, where the perennial: flowers in April and May. The patrou hath a right of presentation to the leaves soon after decay, and the fowers · bishop or ordinary ; collative, where the bismell like musk, on which account it has shop is patron; and donative, where the sometimes been called musk-crowfoot. king, or any subject. This licence founds
AD QUOD DAMNUM, in law, a writ a church or chapel, and ordains that it shall which ought to be issued before the king be merely in the gift of the patron. grants certain liberties, as a fair, market, ADZE, a cutting-tool, of the axe kind, or the like; ordering the sheriff to inquire having its blade thin and arching, and its by the country what damage such a grant edge at right angle to the handle; chiefly is like to be attended with.
used for taking thin chips off' timber, &c. ADRIFT, in naval affairs, the state of a It is used by carpenters, but more frequently vessel broken loose from her moorings, and by coopers. driven to and fro by the winds or waves. ÆCIDIUM, in botany, a genus of the
ADVERB, adverbium, in grammar, a Cryptogamia Fungi class and order. Its word joined to verbs, expressing the man characters are, that it has a membranaceous ner, time, &c. of an action : thus, in the sheath, smooth on both sides, and full of phrase, it is conducire to health to rise early; naked separate sides. There are 18 spe. the word early is an adverb; and so of cies, of which, several are found on the leaves others.
of other plants, and one of them is known ADVERSARIA, among the ancients, to agriculturists by the name of red gum.
This species usually grows upon the inside the Pentandria Digynia class of plants; the of the glames of the calyx, and of the ex general corolla whereof is uniform ; the sinterior valvule of the corolla, under their gle flowers consist each of five, oval, conepidermes, which, when the plant is ripe, cave, and nearly equal petals; the fruit is bursts, and emits a powder of a bright naked, ovato-oblong, striated, and separaorange colour. Other species grow on de- ble into two parts; the seeds are two, ovato. caying wood and mosses, and in the leaves oblong and striated, convex on one side, of tussilago, farfara, &c.
and plain on the other. There is but one ÆGICERAS, a genus of the Pentandria species, viz. Æ. podagraria, gont-weed, Monogynia class and order: calyx five-cleft; which is a perennial, creeping weed, witha petals five; capsule curved; one-c:lled; one white flowers, that appear in May or June. valved; one-seeded : two species found in It has been used in cases of gout, whence the Moluccas.
it derives its name. It is boiled for greens, ÆGILOPS, goat's-face, in botany, a and eaten in Sweden ; cows, sheep, and genus of the Triandria Digynia class and goats eat it. It is found among rubbish in order, and of the natural order of grasses: shady places, and in hedges. the characters are, that the hermaphrodite ÆGOPRICON, in botany, a genus of calyx is a large bivalvular glume, sustain the Monandria Trigynia class and order : ing three flowers; the valves are ovate, and the male flowers are small, in an ovate streaked with varions awns: the nectary ament; their calyx one-leafed: no corolla, two-leaved, with very small leaflets: the the stamina of one filament, longer than stamina have three capillary filaments with the calyx, with an ovate anther; the female oblong anthers: the pistillum is a turbinate flowers are on the same plant, and soligermen: no pericardium: the seeds are ob- tary; the calyx and corolla are the same as long, convex on one side, grooved on the the male; the pistillum has an ovate supeother, with the inner valve of the corolla rior germ, three divaricate styles, with simadhering to it, and not opening. There are ple permanent stigmas; the pericardium is six species.
a globular berry; the seeds are solitary, ÆGINETA, in botany, a genus of the and angular on one side. There is but Didynamia Angiosperma class and order: one species, viz. Æ. betulinum, which is a calyx one-leafed, spathaceoils ; corolla cam tree very much branched, with wrinkled panulate, two-lipped; capsule many celled: bark, and alteruate leaves resembling those one species, viz. the Æ. Indica, found at of the myrtle. Malabar.
ÆOLIPILE, a hollow metalline ball, in ÆGIPHILA, goat's-friend, a genus of which is inserted a slender neck, or pipe; the Tetrandria Monogynia class and or. from whence, after the vessel has been der, and the natural order of Vitices: the filled with water, and beated, issues' a blast calyx is a one-leafed permanent perian- of wind with great vehemence. thiun; the corolla is one-petalled, and Great care should be taken that the aperlonger than the calyx; the stamina are ca ture of the pipe be not stopped when the pillary filaments inserted into the mouth of instrument is put on the fire, otherwise the the tube; the pistillum is a roundislı supe. æolipile will burst with a vast explosion, rior germ, style capillary, decply bifid, and and may occasion no little mischief. Dr. stigmas simple: the pericarpium is a round- Plot gives an instance where the æolipile is ish two-celled berry, surrounded with a
actually used to blow the fire; the lord of permanent calyx; and the seed is either in
the manor of Effington is bound by his pairs or solitary. There are seven species, tenure to drive a goose every New-year's natives of the W. Indies, chiefly of Ja- day three times round the hall of the lord maica.
of Hilton, while Jack of Hilton (a brazen ÆGLE, in botany, a genus of the Poly. figure liaving the structure of an æolipile) andria Monogynia class and order : calyx blows the fire. In Italy, it is said, that five-lobed; petals five; berry globular, the æolipile is commonly made use to cure many celled, with numerous seeds in each smoky chinneys; for being hung over the One species, viz. the marmelos, a tree fire, the blast arising from it carries up the with thorny branches ; fruit delicious to
loitering smoke along with it. the taste, and exquisitely fragrant: seeds An æolipile of great antiquity, made of ir bedded in an extremely tenacious trans brass, was lately dug up in the site of the Baparent gluten.
singstoke canal, and presented to the AntiEGQPODIUM, in botany, a genus of quarian Society in London. It is not glo.