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sea-biscuit bakers, and tallow-melters; or Age. 1 Year. 7 Years, Whole Life. on chymists' laboratories; mills, or any
£. $. d. £. 8. d. £. $,' d. other assurances more than ordinarily ha
10......0 17 9......1 1 5......1 17 11 zardous, by reason of the trade, nature of
15......0 17 11......1 2 11......1 18 the goods, narrowness of the place, by the
20......1 7 3......1 9 5......2 use of kilns or stoves in the process of any
25......1 10 7......1 12 1......2 manufactory, or other dangerous circum
30......1 13 3......1 14 11......2 13 5 stances, are made by special agreement, at
35......1 16 4......1 18 10......2 19 a premium proportionate to the risk.
40......2 () 8......2 4 1......3 7 11 Assurances on building and goods are
6 8......2 10 10......3 17 11 deemed distinct and separate adventures,
50......2 15 1...... 0 8......4 10 10 so that the premium on goods is not ad
55......3 5 0......3 12 0......5 6 4 vanced by reason of any assurance on the
60......3 18 1......4 7 1......6 7 4 building wherein the goods are kept, nor
65......4 15 2......5 10 10......7 16 9 the premium on the building by reason of
67......5 5 6......6 5 2......8 12 1 any assurance on the goods ; and any number of dwelling-houses and out-houses, 10
These rates are computed from the progether with the goods therein, may be as
babilities of life, according to the Northsured in one policy, provided the sum to
ampton bills of mortality; the mode of be assured on each is particularly men
calculating them is explained by Dr. Price tioned.
in his Treatise on Reversionary Payments, In 1782 a duty of 18. 6d, was imposed on
and by Mr. Morgan in a very useful work every 1001. assured from loss by fire, which
entitled “The Doctrine of Annuities and was increased in 1797 to 28. per cent., and
Assurances on Lives and Survivorships stat. in 1804 to 28. 6d. per cent., the annual duty
ed and explained.” now payable. From the produce of this
Persons who are engaged in military or duty, an estimate has been formed of the total amount of property assured from fire
naval service, or who have not had the in Great Britain, which appears to have small-pox, or are subject to the gout, are
charged an additional premium, supposed been nearly as follows: In 1785............£125,000,000
to be adequate to the additional risk.
Policies of assurance on lives generally
Conditions of assurance made by persons 1801............ 223,000,000
on their own lives. The assurance to be 1806............ 260,000,000 void if the person whose life is assured shall In the year last mentioned there were 11 depart beyond the limits of Europe, shall die offices for assurance against fire in London, upon the seas (except in his Majesty's packand 21 in other parts of Great Britain. ets passing between Great Britain and Ire
ASSURANCE on lives, secures a sum of land); or shall enter into or engage in any money to be received on the extinction of military or naval service whatever, without any life in consideration of an annual pre
the previous consent of the assurers; or mium paid to the assurer during the conti- shall die by suicide, duelling, or the hand muance of the life. Such assurancez are
of justice; or shall not be, at the time the made for a given term of years, or during
assurance is made, in good health. the whole continuance of the life, or the
Conditions of assurance made by persons joint continuance of two lives ; and as on the lives of others. The assurance to they are of great utility to persous having be void if the person whose life is assured life incomes or life estates, and as collate. shall depart beyond the limits of Europe, ral securities in many cases for money bor. shall die upon the seas (except in his Narowed, this species of assurance, as it has jesty's packets passing between Great Bri. become more generally understood, has tain and Ireland); or shall enter into or enlikewise greatly increased. In 1790 there gage in any military or naval service what. were only three societies in London which ever, without the previous consent of the made assurances on lives ; in 1807 there assurers; or shall not be, at the time the were teu offices for transacting snch busi assurance is made, in good health.. ness. These offices all require nearly the Any person making an assurance on the same annual premiums, of which the fol- life of another, must be interested therein, loving are a recimen.
agreeable to Act of 14th of George III.
chap. 48, which prohibits wagering, or spe- species prefer a shady situation and moist 'culative insurances.
soil. They are apt to spread very much ASTER, in botany, starwort. Class, Syn at the roots, so as to be troublesome, and genesia Polygamia Superflua. Gen. char. the seeds of some are blown about and cal. common, imbricate, the inner scales come up like weeds. The Italian starwort prominent a little at the end, lower ones has not been so much cultivated in England, spreading; cor. compound, radiate; corol- since the great variety of American species lules hermaphrodite, numerous in the disk; has been introduced, though it is by no females ligulate, more than 10 in the ray; means inferior to the best of them. It is proper of the hermaphrodite, funnel-shaped, propagated by parting the roots soon after with a five-cleft spreading border: of the the plant is out of flower. The roots should female ligulate, lanceolate, three-toothed, not be removed oftener than every third at length rolling back; stam, hermaphro- year. Catesby's starwort, not multiplying dite; filaments five; capillary very short; fast by its roots, may be propagated in anthers cylindric, tubulous; pist. germ ob- plenty by cuttings from the young shoots in long; style filiform, the length of the sta- May, which, if planted in light earth, and mens; stigma bifid, spreading; females, shaded from the sun, will flower the same germ and style the same; stigmas two, ob- year. When the annual starwort is once long revolute; per. none; calyx scarcely introduced, the seeds will scatter, and the changed; seeds solitary, oblong, ovate; plants come up without care. The China down capillary; rec. naked, flattish. The aster, being an annual plant, is propagated species from the Cape, together with those by seeds, which must be sown in the spring, not producing seeds in England, are propa on a warm border, or rather on a gentle gated by cuttings, any time during the sum- hot-bed, just to bring up the plants. mer. These should be planted in small ASTERIAS, in natural history, starfish, pots filled with light earth, and plunged into a genus of worms, of the order Mollusca. an old hot-bed, where, if they are shaded Body depressed, covered with a coriaceous from the sun, and gently watered, they will crust, muricate, with tentacula, and grooved put out roots in six weeks, when they may beneath; mouth central, five-rayed. There be placed in the open air; and in about a are more than 40 species, all indiabitants of month afterwards they should be separated, the sea, and are marked with a rough, white, each in a small pot, and filled with light stony spot above: they easily renew parts sandy earth. In October they must be re which have been lost by violence, and fix moved into the green house, and placed themselves to the bottom by swimming on where they may enjoy as much free air as the back and bending the rays. There are possible; but be secured from frosts or three divisions ; viz. A. lunate; B. stellate; damps ; so that they are much easier pre- and C. radiate. A. pulvillus is lubricous, served in a glass.case, where they will have with an entire simple margin, and is found more light and air than in a green-house ; in the North seas; body above convex, cobut they must not be placed in a stove, for vered with a smooth sanguineous skin, transartificial heat will soon destroy the plants. versely striate, beset towards the margin The North American species, which make with soft, obtuse, white spines about the at least three-fifths of the genus, together size of a millet seed, and divided into 10 arwith the Alpine and Italian asters, are ea cæ; the margin not articulate, but rough in sily propagated by parting the roots in au the angles, with about 10 acute papillæ ; tumn; they are most of them hardy, and beneath concave, smooth, whitish, with a will thrive in almost any soil and situation; rosy tinge, and hollowed by five grooves, for these reasons, and because they adorn each side covered with horizontal batons : the latter season with the abundance and it tinges warm water with a tawny colour. variety of their specious flowers, they are A. caput medusæ has five divided and subvaluable plants, especially among shrubs, divided rays; the disk and rays granulate; and in large ornamental plantations, pro- month depressed. This is a most curious perly mixed with golden rods, and other animal, and inhabits the northern seas : the perennial, autumnal, hardy plants. The five rays dividing into two smaller ones, sorts most cultivated, are the grandiflorus, and each of these dividing again into two linifolius, linarifolius, tenuifolius, ericoides, others; which mode of regular subdivision is dumosus, serotinus, alpinus, novæ angliæ, continued to a vast extent, gradually de. and puuiceus or altissimus. Some of the creasing in size, till at length the ramifica
tions amount to many thousands, forming a other care, but to draw the plants out when beautiful net-work. Its colour is sometimes they come up too thick, leaving them at pale or reddishi white, sometimes brown. least eighteen inches asunder.
ASTERISM, in astronomy, the same ASTRAGALUs, in anatomy, called also the with constellation. See CONSTELLATION. talus, is the superior and first bone of the
ASTEROIDS, in astronomy, a name foot, according to its natural situation and given by Dr. Herschell to the new planets, connection with the leg, being articulated Ceres, Juno, Pallas, and Vesta, lately dis- with the tibia and fibula, and with the calcovered ; and which he defines as celestial caneum; having its head formed for the arbodies, which move in orbits either of little ticulation with the os naviculare. or of considerable eccentricity round the ASTRAL, something belonging to, or sun, the plane of which may be inclined to connected with the stars : thus, astral year the ecliptic in any angle whatsoever. This is the same with siderial year. motion may be direct or retrograde; and ASTRANTIA, black master-wort, in bothey may or may not have considerable at- tany, a genus of umbelliferous plants, bemospheres, very small comas, disks, or nu. longing to the Pentandria Digynia class of clei. According to the definitions which Linnæus, the flower of which is rosaceons, he premises, planets are celestial bodies of and collected into a sort of head; and its a considerable size and small eccentricity fruit is oval, obtuse, coronated, and striof orbit, moving in planes that do not de- ated. viate many degrees from that of the earth, ASTROLABE, an instrument for takin a direct course, and in orbits at consi- ing the altitude of the sun or stars at sea, derable distances from each other, with at being a large brass ring, the limb of which, or mospheres of considerable extent; but bear a convenient part thereof, is divided into deing hardly any sensible proportion to their grees and minutes, with a moveable index, diameters, and having satellites or rivgs : which turns upon the centre, and turns two and comets are very small celestial bodies, sights: at the zenith is a ring to hang it by in moving in directions wholly undetermined, time of observation, when you need only and in very eccentric or apparently parabo- turn the index to the sun, that the rays may lic orbits, situated in every variety of posi- pass freely through both sights, and the tion, and having very extensive atino- edge of the index cuts the altitude upon the spheres. Dr. Herschell having compared divided limb. This instrument, though not the newly discovered stars by the criteria much in use now, if well made, and of great introduced in the above definitions, main- weighit, that it may hang the steadier, is as tains, that they differ in so many respects good as most instruments that are used at from both planets and comets, as to war sea for taking altitudes, especially between rant his not referring them to either of these the tropics, when the sun comes near the two classes.
zenith, and in calm weather. ASTHMA, in medicine, a painful, diffi
ASTROLOGY, a conjectural and truly cult, and laborious respiration. See Medi. absurd science, which teaches to judge of
the effects and influences of the stars, and ASTRÆA, in astronomy, the same with
to foretel future events by the situation and Virgo. See Virgo.
different aspects of the heavenly bodies. It ASTRAGAL, in architecture, a little and judiciary ; the former being the predic
may be divided into two branches, natural round moulding, in form of a ring, serving tion of natural effects, as the changes of as an ornament at the tops and bottoms of weather, winds, storms, hurricanes, thuncolumns. See ARCHITECTURE,
der, floods, earthquakes, &c. and the latter, ASTRAGAL, in gunnery, a round mould- that which pretends to foretel moral events, ing encompassing a cannon, about half a
or such as have a dependance on the free. foot from its mouth.
dom of the will. ASTRAGALUS, milk-vetch, in botany, ASTRONIUM, in botany, a genus of the a genus of the Diadelphia Decandria class Dioecia Pentandria class and order of of plants, with a papilionaceous flower, and plants. The essential character is, male, bilocular-podded fruit, containing kidney- calyx five-leaved; corol five-petalled. Felike seeds. There are upwards of 60 spe- male, calyx five-leaved; corol five-petalled; cies; all of which may be raised from seeds. styles three, and one seed. There is but They are in general hardy, and require no one species, the A. graveolens, an upriglit
tree, from 12 to 30 feet in height, abound for every information that the subject ade ing every where in a slightly glutinous tere mits of, we refer to the learned and very binthine juice. After the fruits in the fe, elaborate history of ancient and modern male, and the flowers in the male plant have astronomy, by M. Bailly, a man of the fallen off, new branches are put forth. The highest reputation in the scientific world, flowers are small and red, the calyxes are and who was basely and cruelly murdered expanded into stars, nearly an inch in dia- in the zenith of his celebrity, by the bloodmeter. It is native in the woods about Car- thirsty Robespierre, whose savage ambithagena in New Spain.
tion was to etface from the earth every ASTRONOMY is the science which thing great, virtuous, and excellent. treats of the motions, periods, eclipses, M. Bailly endeavours to trace the origin magnitudes, &c. of the heavenly bodies, of of astronomy among the Chaldeans, Egypthe laws by which these are regulated, and tians, Persians, Indians, and Chinese, to a of the causes on which they depend. It is very early period. From the researches unquestionably the most sublime of all the which he has made on this subject, he is sciences. No subject has been longer or led to conclude that the knowledge commore successfully studied. Although it mon to the whole of those nations has been may be interesting to take a brief sketch derived from the same original source ; of the history of this science, yet there can namely, a most ancient and highly cultibe no comparison drawn between the wide vated people of Asia, of whose memory observations of the earlier observers, and every trace is now extinct; but who have the precision and general views of modern been the parent instractors of all around astronomers. To ascertain the real motions them. The situation of this ancient people of the heavenly bodies was a difficult task, he conjectures to have been in Siberia about and required the united observations of the 50th degree of north latitude. Among many ages. To ascertain the laws and various other coincidences, he observes, that causes of these motions, demanded the exer- many of the European and Asiatic nations tions of powers almost beyond the reach attribute their origin to that quarter, where of the human faculties. This has however the civil and religious rites, common to been accomplished, and it has been demon- each, were probably tirst formed. strated that the most minute movements of Without going farther back, we may obthe heavenly bodies de nd upon the same serve, that the Egyptians were early cultigeneral law with the rest, and to be the vators of this science, and that among the consequence of it. Astronomy has there. Greeks, Thales, who travelled into Egypt, fore been highly regarded, as exhibiting and who was the founder of the Ionian one of the most remarkable instances of the sect, appears to have been the first who extent and powers of the reasoning facul- taught his countrymen the globular figure ties. It has moreover conferred upon man of the earth, the obliquity of the ecliptic, kind the greatest benefits, in many res and the causes of solar and lunar eclipses; pects, as will be shewn in the course of the which latter phænomena he is also said to present work, and may be properly con have been able to predict. Thales had for sidered as the teacher and guide of the art his successors Anaximander, Anaximenes, of navigation.
and Anaxagoras, to the first of whom is The early history of astronomy admits attributed the invention of the gnomon, of no regular elucidation. It is probable and geograpbical charts; but for which he that some knowledge of the kind must have was probably indebted to the Egyptians. been nearly coeval with the human race, He is also said to have maintained that the as well from motives of curiosity, as from sun was a mass of fire as large as the earth, the connection whicia it has with the com which, though far below the truth with remon concerns of life. Traces of it have spect to size, was an opinion, for those early accordingly been found among various na times, that does its author much credit, tions remote from each other, which shew though to him, as in the case of Galileo, the that the most remarkable phenomena must
truths he hard discovered were the cause of have been observed, and a knowledge of persecution. Both himself and his chilthem disseminated at a very remote period. dren were proscribed by the Athenians, for But in what age or country the science first his attempting to subject the works of the priginated, or by whom it was in those gods to immutable laws; and his life would early times methodized and improved, is have paid the sacrifice of his temerity, but not now known. Such, however, as wish for the care of Pericles, his friend and dis
eiple, who got his sentence of death changed celestial motions; and though inferior to into exile. Next after the Ionian school, that of Pythagoras, and even false in theory, was that of Pythagoras, who was born at it afforded the means, by the numerous obSamos, about the year 586 before the servations which it furnishied, of detecting Christian æra, and who, in the celebrity he its own fallacy, and of enabling astronomers acquired, far exceeded his predecessors. in later times to discover the true system Like Thales, he visited Egypt, and after- of nature. It was from their observations wards the Brachmans of India, from whom of the principal zodiacal stars, that Hipparhe is supposed to have obtained many of chus was led to discover the precession of the astronomical truths which he brought the equinoxes; and Ptolemy also founded with him into Italy, to which country he upon them his theory of the inotions of the was obliged to retire on account of the des- planets. Next after these was Aristarchus potism which then prevailed at Athens. of Samos, who made the most delicate Here he first taught the true system of the elements of the science the objects of his world, which, many centuries after, was research. Among other things of this kind, revived by Copernicus; but hid his doc he attempted to determine the magnitude trines from the vulgar, in imitation of the and distance of the sun; and though, as Egyptian priests, who had been his instruc may be supposed, the results he obtained tors. It was even thought, in this school, were considerably wide of the truth, the that the planets were inhabited bodies, like methods he employed to resolve these difthe earth; and that the stars, which are ficult problems do great honour to his gedisseminated through infinite space, are · nius. The celebrity of his successor Erasuns, and the centres of other planetary tosthenes, arises chiefly froin his attempt to systems. They also considered the comets measure the earth, and his observations on as permanent bodies, moving round the the obliquity of the ecliptic. Having resun; and not as perishing meteors, formed marked at Syene, a well which was enlighin the atmosphere, as they were thought to tened to its bottom by the sun, on the day be in after times. From this time to the of the summer solstice, he observed the foundation of the school of Alexandria, meridian height of the sun on the same day the history of astronomy among the Greeks at Alexandria ; and found that the celestial offers nothing remarkable, except some at arc contained between the two places was tempts of Eudoxus to explain the celestial the 50th part of the whole circumference ; phænomena ; and the celebrated cycle of and as their distance was estimated at 500 19 years, which had been imagined by stadia, he fixed the length of a great circle Meton, in order to conciliate the solar and of the earth at 250,000 ; but as the length lunar motions. This is the most accurate of the stadium employed by this astronomer period, for a short interval of time, that is not known, we cannot appreciate the excould have been devised for embracing an actness of his measurement. Among others exact number of revolutions of these two who cultivated and improved this science, luminaries; and is so simple and useful, we may also mention the celebrated Archithat when Meton proposed it to the Greeks, medes, who constructed a kind of planeassembled at the Olympic games, as the tarium, or orrery, for representing the prinbasis of their calendar, it was received with cipal phænomena of heavenly bodies. But great approbation, and unanimously adopted of all the astronomers of antiquiiy, Hipparby all their colonies. In the school of chus of Bithynia is the one, who, by the Alexandria, we see for the first time, a number and precision of his observations, combined system of observations, made as well as by the important result which with instruments proper for measuring an he derived from them, is the most entitled gles, and calculated trigonometrically. As to our esteem. He flourished at Alexan. tronomy accordingly took a new form, dria about the year 162 before the Chriswhich succeeding ages have only brought tian æra; and began his astronomical lato greater perfection. The position of the bours by attempting to determine, with stars began at this time to be determined ; more exactness than had hitherto been they traced the course of the planets with done, the length of the tropical year, which great care; and the inequalities of the he fixed at 365 days, 5 hours, and 55 misolar and lunar motions became better nutes, being nearly 44 minutes 100 great. known. It was, in short, in this celebrated Like most of his predecessors, he founded school, that a new system of astronomy his system upon an uniform circular motion arose, which embraced the whole of the of the sun ; but instead of placing the earth