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mechanics is founded on the same principles APPOSITION, in grammar, the placing as the application of algebra to geometry. two or more substantives together, in the It consists principally in representing by same case, without any copulative conjuncequations the curves described by bodies in tion between them; as, ardebat Alexim de. motion, by determining the equation be licias domini. tween the spaces which the bodies describe APPRAISING, the valuing or setting a when actuated by any forces, and the times price on goods. This is usually done by a employed in describing them. As a familiar sworn appraiser, who, if he values the goods instance, we may refer to the article ACCE. too high, is obliged to take them at the price LÉRATION, where the perpendiculars of tri- appraised. angles represent the times, the bases the APPREHENSION, in logic, the first or velocities, and the areas the spaces described most simple act of the mind, whereby it by bodies in motion, a method first invented perceives, or is conscious of some idea : it by Galileo. As lines and figures may be is more usually called perception. treated of algebraically, it is evident in APPRENTICE, a young person bound what way the principles of geometry and by indenture to some tradesman, in order to algebra may be applied to mechanics, and be instructed in the mystery or trade. By indeed to every branch of mixt mathematics. the laws of England, a master may be in
APPLICATION of mechanics to geometry dicted for not providing for, or for turning consists in the use that is made of the centre away his apprentice: and upon complaint of gravity of figures for determining the con- from a master, that he neglects his duty, an tents of solid bodies described by those apprentice may be committed to Bridewell, figures.
or be bound over to the sessions. ApprenAPPLICATION of geometry and astronomy tices may be bound to husbandmen, or even to geography consists in determining the 'to gentlemen of fortune and clergymen,who, figure and magnitude of the earth; in de as well as tradesmen, are compellable to termining the positions of places by obser- take the children of the poor, under a pepalty vations of latitudes and longitudes; and in of 10l. And the church-wardens and overdetermining by geometrical operations the seers, with the consent of two justices, may positions of such places as are not far distant bind them till the age of 21 years. Justices from one another.
may compel certaiv persons under age to be APPLICATION of geometry and algelora to bound apprentices, and on refusal may comnatural philosophy was invented chiefly by mit them. Apprentices may be discharged Sir Isaac Newton, and upon this application on reasonable cause, either at their own reare founded all the mixed sciences of ma quest or that of their masters. If any,whose thematical and natural philosophy. Here preinium has been less than ten pounds, run a single observation or experiment will fre- away from their masters, they are compelquently produce a whole science, or branch lable to serve out the time of absence, or of science. Thus, when it is proved by ex give satisfaction for it, any period within periment that the rays ot light, in reflecting, seven years after the expiration of the origi. make the angle of incidence equal to the nal contract. Indentures are to be stamped, angle of reflection, we deduce the whole and are chargeable with several duties by science of catoptrics ; for this fact being es act of parliament. tablished, catoptrics becomes a science APPRENTICESHIP, denotes the serpurely geometrical
, since it is reduced to vitude of an apprentice, or the duration of the comparison of angles and lines given in his indenture. The competition in several position.
employments is restrained to a smaller APPOINTEE, in heraldry, the same as number, than would otherwise be disposed aguisée: thus we say, a cross appointée, to to enter into them, partly by the limitasignify that which has two angles at the end tion of the number of apprentices, which cut off, so as to terminate in points. attends the exclusive privilege of incorpo
APPORTIONMENT, in law, the divi. rated trades ; and partly by the long term sion of a rent into parts, in the same man of apprenticeship, which increases the exner as the land out of which it issues is pense of educatiun.
Seven years seem divided: for example, if a person leases formerly to have been, all over Europe, three acres of land for a certain rent, and the usual term established for the duration afterwards grants away one acre thereof to of apprenticeships in the greater number another: the rent shall be apportioned be- of incorporated trades. Such incorporatween them.
tions were anciently called universities,
which is the proper Latin name for any 5th of Elizabeth, obtain in all corporate incorporation whatever. The university, towns, by authority of bye-laws of the several of smiths, the university of tailors, &c. are corporations : but these prohibitions extend expressions commonly occurring in the old only to natives of Ireland ; for by a regulu. charters of ancient towns. When those tion made by the lord lieutenant and privyparticular incorporations, which are now council having in this instance, by 17 and peculiarly called universities, were first 18 Car. II. the force of a law, all foreigners established, the term of years during which and aliens, as well persons of other reli. it was necessary to study, in order to ob- gious persuasion as Protestants, who are tain the degree of Master of Arts, appears merchants, traders, artificers, &c. shall, evidently to have been copied from the upon coming to reside in a city, walled term of apprenticeship in common trades, of town, or corporation, and paying twenty which the incorporations were much more shillings, by way of fine to the chief magiancient. As to have wrought seven years strate and common-council, or other perunder a master properly qualified, was ne sons authorized to admit freemen, be adcessary to entitle any person to become a mitted to the freedom of that city, &c, and master, and to have himself apprentices, to the freedom of guilds of their respective in a common trade, so to have studied se trades, with the full enjoyment of all privi: ven years under a master properly quali- leges of buying, selling, working, &c.; and fied, was necessary to entitle him to be any magistrate refusing to admit foreigners come a master, teacher, or doctor (words so applying, shall be disfranchised. anciently synonymous) to study under him.
In Scotland, there is no general law which By the 5th of Elizabeth, commonly called regulates universally the duration of apthe statute of apprenticeship, it was enact- prenticeships. The term is different in difed, that no person should, for the future, ferent corporations; where it is long, a exercise any trade, craft, or mystery, at part of it may generally be redeemed by that time exercised in England, unless he paying a small fine. In most towns, too, a had previously served to it an apprentice- very small fine is sufficient to purchase the ship of seven years at least; and thus, what freedom of any corporation. The weavers before had been the bye-law of many par- of linen and hempen cloth, the priucipal ticular corporations, became in England manufactures of the country, as well as all the general and public law of all trades car other artificers subservient to them, wheelried on in market-towns. To country vil- makers, reel-makers, &c. may exercise their lages the term of seven years apprentice- trades in any towu corporate, without pay, ship doth not extend; but the limitation of ing any fine. In all towns corporate, all this statute to trades exercised before it was persons are free to sell butchers' meat upon passed, has given occasion to several distinc- any lawful day of the week. Three years tions, which, considered as rules of police, are, in Scotland, a common term of appren: appear as foolish as can well be imagined. ticeship, in some very nice trades; and, in A coachmaker, for instance, has no right to general, there is no country in Europe in make, or employ journeymen for making, which corporation laws are so little opprescoach-wheels : but he must buy them of a sive. In France the duration of apprenmaster wheel-wright, this latter trade bav- ticeships is different in different towns, and ing been exercised in England before the in different trades. In Paris, 5 years are the 5th of Elizabeth. But a wheel-wright, term required in a great number; and before though he has never served an apprentice- any person can be qualified to exercise the ship to a coachmaker, may, by himself or trade as a master, he must, in many
of them, journeyman, make coaches, because this
serve 5 years more as a journeyman. During trade, being of a later origin, is not within this latter time he is called the companion of the statute. Thus also the manufactures of his master, and the term itselfis called his comManchester, Birmingham, and Wolverhamp- panionship. The institution of long apprenton, are, many of them, upon this account, ticeships, says Dr. Smith, can give no security not within the statute, not having been ex that insufficient workmanship shall not freercised in England before the 5th of Eliza- quently be exposed to sale ; nor has it any beth.
tendency to form young people to industr The regulations of apprenticeship in Ire: Apprenticeships were altogether unknown Tand are upon a different footing, and some to the ancients : the Roman law is perfectly what less illiberal than in England. Prohi. silent with regard to them. There is no bitions similar to those of the statute of the Greek or Latin word which expresses the
idea we now annex to the word appren- reign of Queen Elizabeth, when the great tice.
number of manufacturers, who took refuge Long apprenticeships are altogether un- in England after the Duke of Alva's pronecessary. The arts, which are much su- secution, had brought trade and com. perior to common trades, such as those of merce with them, and enlarged our notions. making clocks and watches, contain no such The restraint introduced by this law was mystery as to require a long course of in- thought unfavourable; and the judges, by a struction. In the common mechanic trades, liberal interpretation, have extended the the lessons of a few days might certainly qualification for exercising the trade much be sufficient. The dexterity of hand, in- beyond the letter of it, and contined the deed, even in common trades, cannot be penalty and prohibition to cases precisely acquired without much practice and expe- within the express letter.” Burn's Justice, rience. But a young man would practise vol. i. Art. Apprentices. with much more diligence and attention, if 3d Modern Reports, p. 317, Judge Dolfrom the beginning, he wrought as a jour- ben, in delivering his opinion, said, that neyman, being paid in proportion to the “ No encouragenient was ever given to little work which he could execute, and prosecutions upon the statute 5 Eliz., and paying, in his turn, for the materials which that it would be for the common good if it he might sometimes spoil through aukward- were repealed; for no greater punishment ness and inexperience. His education would can be to the seller, than to expose to sale generally in this way be more effectual, and goods ill-wrought, for by such means he always less tedious and expensive. The will never sell more.” master, indeed, would be a loser; he would 2 Salk. 613. The Queen v. Maddox.-It lose all the wages of the apprentice, which was held by the court, “ that upon indict. he now saves for seven years together. In ments upon the statute of 3 Eliz, the followthe end, perhaps, the apprentice himself ing of a trade for seven years to be suffici. would be a loser : in a trade so easily learnt ent without any holding ; this being a hard he would have more competitors; and bis law.” And so held in Lord Raymond, 738. wages, when he came to be a complete Burn's Justice.-“ So detrimental was workman, would be much less than at pre- this statute thought, that by 15 Car. II. all sent. The same increase of competition persons spinning or making cloth of hemp or would reduce the profits of the masters, as tax, or nets for fishing, or storin or cordage, well as the wages of the workmen: the might exercise those trades without serving trades, the crafts, the mysteries would all apprenticeships. And so little did the legisbe losers; but the public would be a gain- lature, at subsequent periods, think that any er, the work of all artificers coming in this benefit was to be derived from the statute way much cheaper to market.
of 5 Eliz, or that manufactures were made We cannot conclude this article better better, or improved by this restraint ; and than by inserting an admirable paper on the the minds of men being more liberal, that subject of apprentice laws, drawn up, and trade should, as much as possible, be fung printed for privale circulation, by a gentle- open ; it is enacted, by 6 and 7 William III. man of high legal authority, and member of that any apprentice discovering two perparliament, entitled “A few Opinions of sons guilty of coining, so as they are consome great and good Men, and sound Law. victed, shall be deemed a freeman, and may yers, on the Apprentice Laws of Queen exercise his trade as if he had served out his Elizabeth, applicable to the Æra of 1806-7.” time.”
Lord Mansfield, in his arguments on the And, in order still stronger to shew how case, Rennard and Chase, brewers. 1 Bur. little the legislature esteemed the seven Rep. p. 2, says, “ It hath been well ob- years binding arveliorated manufactures, it is served that this act (viz. 5 Eliz, chap. 4.) enacted, by 3 George III. cap. 8, that “All is,
officers, marines, and soldiers, who have 1. A penal law.
been employed in his Majesty's service, 2. It is a restraint on natural right. and not deserted, may exercise such trades
3. It is contrary to the general right given as they are apt for, in any town or place.” by the common law of this kingdom.
So dangerous and fatal has been the evil 4. The policy upon which this act was of combinations and conspiracies among made, is from experience become doubtful. journeymen, that in particular instances, as Bad and unskilful workmen are rarely pro- in trades where many hands are required secuted. This act was made early in the and very little skill, as dyeing, and such like,
the legislature have made express laws to ploy any hands that are able to perform the give relief to masters. See 17 Geo. 111. work required, and especially in those cap. 33. ; which enables dyers, in Middle trades which are so easily learnt in a very sex, Essex, Surrey, and Kent, to employ short space of time, greatly enhances the journeymen who have not served appren- prices of all articles, and that a time when ticeships. And to such a pitch has this population is daily increasing, and the demischief in the West Riding of Yorkshire mand proportionably increasing. And this increased, by the conspiracies facilitated by statute is not only a restraining statute, but the act of 5 Eliz. that it goes to the total also an enabling statute, as it empowers annihilation of our staple manufactures, and the workmen to enter into combinations every other trade which hopes for success against their masters, and to dictate their not only by the home, but from foreign own terms, encouraging vice, idleness, and consumption. See the report from the drunkenness ; demands being made on the committee of the House of Commons, on masters for an increase of wages; those dethe woollen trade and manufacture of these mands supported by dangerous combinakingdoms, made in the last session of par- tions and conspiracies, and extorted by liament, 4th July 1806.
threats. And such increase, when obtainAfter stating the above, let us quote the ed, not applied for the wholesome purpose words of the immortal Lord Chief Justice of supporting themselves and their families, Coke on this point.--" That, at the com. but to that very destructive purpose, mon law, no man could be prołribited from ruinons to their families, and highly detriworking in any lawful' trade; for the law mental to the public at large, the enabling abhors idleness, the mother of all evil of the parties to spend more days of the Otium omnium vitiorum matemand espe week in idleness, drunkenness, vice, and cially in young men, who ought in their immorality. In many manufactures, so youth (which is their seed time) to learn much money is extorted by the journey. lawful sciences and trades, which are profi-, men, by means of these combinations, from table to the commonwealth, whereof they their employers, that the journeymen will might reap the benefit in their old age: for work but three days in the week; so that idle in youth, poor in age'."
600 are necessarily required to do the work And therefore the conmou law abhors that 300 might do. all monopolies, which prohibit any from Until these laws, restricting the binding working in any lawful trade. Aud that of apprentices, are repealed, all laws made appears in 2 Hen. V. 5 b. A dyer was for the prevention of combinations among bound not to use the dyer's craft for two workmen can be of no avail, and will reyears: and there Judge Hall held, “ that main a dead letter in the law books : as in the bond was against the common law; and this free country, (however that freedom by G-d if the plaintiff was here, he should may be limited as to the checking of masgo to prison till he paid a fine to the king." ters binding apprentices), no law on this And vide 7 Edw. III. 65 b.' "And, if he point can be so worded, that the art, wickwho takes upon himself to work is unskilful, edness, and ingenuity of men, will not con. his ignorance is a sufficient punishment to trive to defeat. A bad and absurd law is him, for imperitia est maxima mecanicorum made, viz. the "Apprentice Act,” which, pæna; et quilibet quærit in quâlibet arte peri. by the extension of trade, is found detritos :—which is, that want of skil is the mental to trade; and then, to do away the greatest punishment of mechanics ; for every mischiefs of that law, another absurd law is body will employ those that are the best made, viz. the law to prevent combination, skilled in their business. And, if any one -so that mischief is heaped upon mischief, takes upon himself to work, and spoils it, and absurdity upon absurdity. Trade an action on the case lies against him." should be as free as the air we breathe.
Having observed thus much, and stated This is an axiom, the truth of which every the opinions of two such great men as Lord day convinces us. Coke and Lord Mansfield, we can only add APPROACHES, in fortification, the one dixit of Lord Coke's, that, "acts of works thrown up by the besiegers, in order parliament which are made against the free. to get nearer a fortress, without being exdom of trade, merchandizing, handicrafts, posed to the enemy's cannon : such, in a and mysteries, never live long." 4th Inst. 31. more particular manner, are the trenches,
It is to be observed, that this very great which should be connected by parallels, or check upon trade, by not being able to em. lines of communication.
This is the most difficult part of a siege, There is a general method of investigating and where most lives are lost. The ground the value of such series, for which see Seis disputed inch by inch, and it is of the ut. RIES. most importance to make the approaches APPULSE, in astronomy, the approach with great cantion, and to secure them as of a planet towards a conjunction with the much as possible.
sm, or any of the fixed stars. The appulses The besieged frequently make counter- of the planets to the fixed stars have always approaches, to interrupt and defeat the ene- been of great use to astronomers in order to my's approaches,
fix the places of the former. The ancients APPROPRIATION, the annexing a be- wanting an easy method of comparing the nefice to the proper and perpetual use of a planets with the ecliptic, which is not religious house, bishopric, college, &c. visible, had scarce any other way of fixing Where the king is patron, he may make ap- their situations, but by observing their tract propriations himself; but in other cases, af- among the fixed stars, and remarking their ter obtaining bis licence in chancery, the appulses to some of those visible points. consent of the ordinary, patron, and incum. Dr. Halley has published a method of de. bent is requisite. Appropriations cannot termining the places of the planets, by obbe assigned over, but those to whom they serving their near appulses to the fixed are granted may make leases of the profits. stars. There are in England 2845 impropriations. APPURTENANCES, in common law,
APPROVER, in law, a person, who be- signify things corporeal and incorporeal, ing indicted of treason or felody, for which that appertain to another thing as principal; he is not in prison, confesses the indictment; as hamlets to a manor, and common of pas. and being sworn to reveal all the treasons ture and fishery. Things must agree in naand felonies he knows, enters before the co- ture and quality to be appurtenant, as a turroner his appeal against all his partners in bary, or a seat in a church, to a house. the crime. All persons may be approvers, APRICOT, in botany, a species of prunus, except peers of the realm, persons attainted with rosaceous flowers, and a delicious fleshy of treason or felony, or, out-lawed, infants, fruit, of a roundish figure. See PRUNUS. women, persons non compos, or in holy or APRON, in gunnery, the piece of lead ders.
which covers the touch hole of a cannon. APPROXIMATION, in arithmetic and The dimensions of aprons are as follow ; algebra, the coming nearer and nearer to a. viz. for 42, 32, and 24 pounders, 15 inches root, or other quantity sought, without ex. by 13; for 18, 12, and 9 pounders, 12 inpecting to be ever able to find it exactly. ches by 10; and for cannon of less calibre, There are several methods for doing this, to 10 inches by 8. They are tied by two be found in mathematical books, being no strings of white marlipe. thing but infinitely converging series, some APSIS, in astronomy, a term used indifapproaching quicker, others slower towards ferently for either of the two points of a the truth.
planet's orbit, where it is at the greatest or By such an approximation the value of a least distance from the sun or earth. Hence quantity may be found, though not to the the line connecting these points, is called utmost degree of exactness, yet sufficiently the line of the apsides. so for practice. Thus ✓ 2=1.41421356,
APTENODYTES, in ornithology pena &c. = the approximating series 1 + guin, a genus of the order Anseres. The tudot rota + Toéco +, &c. or supposing bill is straight, rather compressed, and
4 sharp along the edges; the upper mandible x=yt, equal to the series 1 xitates is obliquely sulcated, lengthwise; feet pal
mated, shackled; wings fin-shaped, and +ii+, &c.=1+4r1+r+47-3+ without quill-feathers ; feet fettered, four2 x 4 +, &c.
toed. This genus resembles the alca in Again, supposing a + b to be a non-qua- colour, food, stupidity, eggs, nest, position of drate mumber, and at 6 to be a non-cn
legs behind the equilibrium, and consequent bicone; theu will' a+b=a+ Aight, but swim dextronsly; nostrils linear,
erect posture. They are totally unfit for ab
hid in the groove of the bill, palate as well 3 u to
as the tongue beset with a few rows of =fa+ ✓ fat nearly. conic, retroflected, stiff papillæ ; wings co
vered with a strong broad membrane ; tail