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EXAMPLES.-What is the difference in Shiewing the value of an annuity of 11. on

value between an annuity of 501. during the the joint continuance of two lives, accord

life of a person aged 35, and an annuity of ing to the probabilities of life at Northamp- 601. during two lives of 30 and 35, to cease

when either of the two lives shall fail? ton. Interest at 5 per cent

The value in Table III. against the age of

35 is 12,502, which multiplied by 50 gives Ages. Value. | Ages. Value. Ages. Value

625.11. the value in Table V. against the

ages of 30 and 35 is 9.954, which multiplied 5-5 11,934 20-25 10,989 40-45 8,643 by 60 gives 597.241. the value of the for5-10 12,315, 20-30 10,707 40–50 8,177 5–15|11,954 20-35 10,363 40–557,651

mer annuity therefore exceeds the latter 5-20 11,563 | 20-40/ 9,937 40-607,015 by 271. 178. 2d. 5–25 11,281 | 20-45 9,448 40-65 6,240 What annuity, during his life, ought a per5-30 10,959 || 20-50 8,861, 40-70 5,298 son aged 45 to receive in lien of an annuity 5-35 10,572 || 21-55 8,216 40-75 4,272 of 201. certain for the term of 18 years? 5-40 10,102, 20-60 7,463 40-80 3,236

The value of an annuity certain for 18 5–45 9,571 || 20-65 6,576 45-45 8,312 5-50 8,941 20-70 5,532 43-507,891 tiplied by 20 gives 233 79171. this sum

years, is by Table II. 11.689587, which mal5-55 8,256 20-75 4,424 45–557,411 5-607,466 | 20-80 3,325 45-60 6,822

divided by 11.105, the value of an annuity 5-65 6,546 25-25 10,764 45-65 6,094 during a life of 45, by Table III. gives the 5-70 5,472 25-30 10,499 45-70 5,195 answer of 211. 18. 5-75 4,362 25-35 10,175 | 45-75 4,206 What amuity, during his life, ought a per5-80 3,238 | 25-40 9,771 | 45-803,197 son aged 40 to receive for 5001,? 30-10 12,665 25-45 9,304 || 50-507,522

The value of an annuity during a life of * 10-15 12,50225-50 8,739 50-55 7,098

40 years of age, is by Table III. 11.837, and 10-2011,906 25–55 8,116 50-60 6,568 10-25 11,627 25-607,383 50-65 5,897

5001. divided by this sum gives 421. 48. 9d. 10-30 11,30+| 25-65 6,515 || 50-70 5,054 per annum; but if the value of the life is 10-3510,916 25-70 5,489 50-75 4,112 taken, as in Table IV. (or 13.466), the sum 10-40 10,442 25-75 4,396 | 50-80 3,140

to be received will be 371. 28. 7d. 10-45| 9,900 || 25-80 3,308 | 55-55 6,735 For the values of annuities which are 10-50 9,260 | 30-50 10,255 | 55-60 6,272

not to commence till after a certain period, 10-55 8,560 30-35 9,954 | 55-65 5,671

or after a given life or lives, see REVER10-60 7,750, 30-40 9,576 55-70 4,893 10-65 6,803 30-45 9,135 | 15–75 4,006

Annuities are frequently granted by 10-70 5,700 | 30-50 8,596 | 55-80 3,076 10-75 4,522 30-55 7,999 60-60|5,888 parishes, trusts, and public societies, for the 10-80 3,595 30-60 7,292 60-65 5,372 purpose of raising money for the erection 15-15 11,960, 30-65 6,447 | 60-70 4,680 or repair of churches, chapels, workhouses, 15-20 11,585 30-70 5,442 60-75 3,866 bridges, or other expensive buildings; it 15-25 11,324' 30-75 4,305 60-802,992 being often found practicable to obtain 15-30 11,021 30-80 3,29065-65 4,960 money in this way, when it could not be 15-35 10,655 35-35 9,680 6.5-70 4,378 procured at the ordinary rate of interest; it 15-40 10,205 35-40 9,331 65-75 3,665

has likewise the recommendation of gradu15-43 9,690 35-45 8,921 | 65-80 2,873 ally extinguishing the debt, which might 15-50 9,076 35-50 8,415 70-70 3,930 15-53 8,403 35-55 7,849 70-75 3,347

otherwise often remain a permanent bur15-607,622 35-60 7,174 | 70-80 2,675

then. Life annuities are also frequently 15-65 6,705 35-65 6,360 75-75 2,917 granted, for money borrowed by persons 15-70 5,631 35-70 5,382 | 75-80 2,381 possessiug life estates, and who, therefore, 15-75 4,495 35-75 4,327 | 80-80 2,018 can not give the lender a permanent secu15-80 | 3,372 55-80 3,268 85-85 1,256 rity. As such anuuities depend on the life 20-20 11,232 | 40–40 9,016 | 90-90 0,909

of the grantor, few persons are disposed to

purchase them, unless they can be obtained To find the value of any annuity during on such terms, as after allowing for the exthe continuance of a life of any given age, pense of assuring the grantor's life, leaves an or during the joint continuance of two lives, income somewhat greater than the common it is only necessary to multiply the value in rate of interest. It also frequently happens the table, against the given age, by the an that the annuities are not very punctually nuity; or to tind the annuity equivalent to paid, which with other risks attending them, any certain sum, divide the sum by the value causes annuities of this description always to in the table against the given age.

sell considerably under their real value;


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and in some instances the necessities of the the Royal Exchange Assurance grant life borrowers have led them to make grants of annuities, will be sufficient. this kind, on the most exorbitant terms. To throw, however, some check upon improvi


Age. dent transactions of this kind, which are 15.. 51. 18s. Od. 50........ 71.168. Od. usually carried on with great privacy, the 20......6

0 0 55....... 8 6 statute 17 Geo. III. c. 26, usually called the 25......6

60....... 9 4 0 Annuity Act, has directed that upon the 30...... 6

65.......10 4 sale of any life annuity of more than the 35...... 6 10

70........11 8 0 value of 101. (unless on a sufficient pledge 40...... 6 16

75.......12 18 0 of lands in fee simple, or stock in the public

80.......14 8 10 funds) the true consideration, which shall be in money only, and the names of the Several other societies, as the Globe In· parties, shall be set forth and described in surance, the Albion, the Rock, and the the security itself, in words at length; and

Eagle Insurance Companies, have lately a memorial of the date, the names of the granted life annuities, but it is presumed parties, and of all the witnesses, and of the they vary their grants according to circumconsideration money, shall within twenty stances, as they none issue a printed table

of their rates. days after its execution be enrolled in the Court of Chancery, else the security shall

ANOMALIES, in music, are those false be pull and void. All contracts for the pur

scales or intervals, which exist necessarily chase of annuities from persons under 21

in all keyed instruments, from their incapayears of age, are utterly void and incapable city of a true and perfect temperament. of confirmation, after the party becomes of ANOMALISTICAL year, in astronoage. Procuring or soliciting a minor to my, the time that the earth takes to pass grant any life armuity, or to promise or en through her orbit : it is also called the pegage to ratify it when he becomes of age, is riodical year. The space of time belonging an indictable misdemeanor, and punishable to this year is greater than the tropical by fine and imprisonment; as is likewise the year, on account of the precession of the taking more than ten shillings per cent, for equinoxes. procuring money to be advanced for any ANOMALOUS verbs, in grammar, life annuity. This act docs not extend to such as are not conjugated conformably to annuities granted by any body corporate,

the paradigm of their conjugation: they are or under any authority or trust created by found in all languages ; in Latin the verb act of parliament.

Tego is the paradigm of the third conjugaNotwithstanding these regulations, per tion, and runs thus, lego, legis, legit ; by the sons having occasion to raise money by the same rule it should be fero, feris, ferit, but grant of lite annuities, were obliged to sub we say fero, fers, fert; fero then is an anomit to the most disadvantageous terms, as it

malous verb. In English the irregularity seldom happened that individual purchasers relates often to the preter tense, and paswould give for such annuities more than sive participle ; for example, give, were it 8 years purchase, on lives about 30 years of formed according to rule, would make gived age; or 7 years purchase on lives above 40 ; in the preter tense, and passive participle; while on the other hand persons desirous of whereas, in the former, it makes gave, and investing money in an annuity on their own in the latter given. life, were generally unger the necessity of ANOMALY, in grammar, that quality accepting private security, or of waiting till in words which renders them anomalous. an opportunity offered of obtaining the See the preceding article, security of some local toll or rates. To ANOMALY, in astronomy, an irregularity remedy these inconveniences an act was in the motion of the planets, whereby they passed in 1793, authorising the Royal Ex deviate from the aphelion or apogee ; which change Assurance Company to grant and inequality is either mean, eccentric, or copurchase annuities on lives, either immedi. equate and true. ate or in reversion; the rates according to ANOMIA, in natural history, a genus which transactions of this kind are regulat- of worms of the order Testacea. Animal an ed necessarily vary in proportion to the emarginate ciliate strap-shaped body, witin current rate of interest at which money bristles affixed to the upper-valve; two can be improved, a short specimen there- arms, linear, longer than the body, confore of the present (1808) rates at which nivent, projecting, alternate on the valve,

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and ciliate each side, the fringe affixed to are admirably adapted to aid them in each valve ; shell bivalve, inequivalve; one swimming; and the greater quantity of oil of the valyes flattish, the other gibbous at secreted by the glands near the tail, and the base with a produced beak, generally rubbed by means of their bills over all the curved over the hinge; one of the valves feathers of their body, enables them to often perforated near the base ; hinge with live on the water, without ever being wet. a linear prominent cicatrix and a lateral They live mostly on fish, and some of them tooth placed within, but in the flat valve have been occasionally tamed to the catchon the very margin ; two bony rays for the ing of fish for the use of their masters. In base of the animal. There are nearly fifty some of the lakes of China, where the waspecies enumerated by Gmelin, found in ter-fowl abound, the natives have the folditierent parts of the world. A. ephip- lowing ingenious mode of catching them : pilun has a shell, roundish, pellucid, with For several days before they attempt to wrinkled plaits ; the fat valve perforated. take them, many empty gourd-shells are set It inhabits European and American seas, afloat on the water, to habituate the birds and is frequently found sticking to the com to their appearance; and when they are mon oyster. About two inches long, 2 observed to take no notice of these shells, broad; the outside rugged and filmy, the but to swim among them, a man, with one inside smooth and pearly: varies in co of the same kind upon his head, goes into lour, but generally with a silvery hue. the lake, and wades or swims among the

ANONA, in botany, a genus of plants, birds with nothing but his head above the belonging to the Polyandria Polygynia water. He now begins his sport, and takclass of Linnæus. The perianthium is com- ing the birds by their legs, draws them unposed of three cordated, hollowed, and

der water, breaks their necks, and fasacuminated leaves; the corolla consists of tens them to his girdle, one after another, six cordated sessile petals, three alternately

till he is sufficiently loaded, and then reinterior and smaller; the stamina are scarce

'turns to the shore. visible, but the antheræ are numerous ; the

ANSWER, in law: On an indictment for fruit is a large berry, of an oval figure; co

perjury, in an answer in Chancery, it is vered with a squamose punctuated bark ;

a suficient proof of identity, if the name the seeds are numerous, hard, of an oblong subscribed be proved to be the band-writ

ing of the defendant ; and that the same figure, and are placed circularly.

was subscribed by the master, on being ANSERES, in natural history, the third

sworn before him. order of birds according to the Linnæan

ANT. See FORMICA. system : they are distinguished by a smooth

ANTECEDENCE, in astronomy, an ap: bill, covered with a soft skin and broader parent motion of a planet towards the west, at the point; feet formed for swimming ; toes palmate, connected by a membrane; from Taurus towards Aries, &c.

or contrary to the order of the signs, viz. shanks short and compressed; body fat and

ANTECEDENT, in grammar, the word downy; fesh mostly tough ; their food is

to which a relative refers : thus, ' God fish, frogs, aquatic plants, worms, &c. They make their nest generally on the ground; tecedent to the relative whom.

whom we adore, the word God is the anthe mother takes but little care in providing for the young. They are frequently 'first one of any ratio : thus, if the ratio

ANTECEDENT term, in mathematics, the polygamous. They are divided into those genera having bills with, and those withont

be a : b, a is the antecedent term, teeth : of the former are the

ANTEDATE, among lawyers, a spuri

ous or false date, prior to the true date of a
Anas, Phaëton, and bond, bill, or the like,
Mergus, Plotus.

ANTELOPE, in natural history, of the
Of the latter are the

Mammalia class of animals, of the order
Alea, Pelecanus,

Glires. The generic character is, horns hol

low, seated on a bony core, growing upAptenodytes, Procellaria,

wards, annulated or wreathing, permanent. Colymbus, Prynchops, Diomedea, and

Front teeth in the lower jaw, eight, and no

canine teeth. Antelopes constitute a very

numerous race: they were formerly, even This order comprehends all kinds of wa- by Linnæus, ranged under the genus Capra, ter-fowl. The webbed feet of these birds but now have obtained a rank for them.

selves : their habits and manners are thus the eastern regions, is Aine el Czazel, ‘You described. They inhabit, two or three spe- have the eyes of an antelope'. Some cies excepted, the hottest parts of the species of antelopes form herds of two or globe ; or, at least, those parts of the tem- three thousands, while others keep in troops perate zone that lie so near the tropics as of five or six. They generally reside in to form a doubtful climate. None, there- hilly countries, though some inhabit plains : fore, except the Saiga and the Chamois, are they often brouse like the goat, and feed on to be met with in Europe ; and notwith- the tender shoots of trees, which gives their standing the warmth of South America is flesh an excellent flavour. This is to be suited to their nature, not a single species understood of those which are taken in the has yet been discovered in any part of the chase; for those which are fattened in new world. Their proper climates seem, houses are far less delicious. The flesh of therefore, to be those of Asia and Africa, some species is said to taste of musk, wlrich where the species are very numerous. “As perhaps depends on the qualities of the there appears a general agreement in the plants they feed upon.”. This preface (says nature of the species that form this great Mr. Pennant) was thought necessary, to genus, it will prevent needless repetition to point ont the difference in nature between observe, that the antelopes are animals ge- this and the goat kind, with which most sysnerally of a most elegant and active make; tematic writers have classed the antelopes: of a restless and timid disposition; extremely but the antelope forms an intermediate gewatchful, of great vivacity, remarkably nus, a link between the goat and the deer; swift and agile, and most of their boundings agreeing with the former in the texture of so light and elastic, as to strike the spectator the horns, which have a core in them, and with astonishment. What is very singular are never cast; and with the latter in eleis, that they will stop in the midst of their gance of form and swiftness. course, gaze for a moment at their pursuers, The Common Antelope.-The Antelope, and then resume their flight. As the chase properly so called, abounds in Barbary, and of these animals is a favourite amusement in all the northern parts of Africa. It is with the eastern nations, from that may be somewhat less than the fallow-deer: its collected proofs of the rapid speed of the horns are about sixteen inches long, surantelope tribe. The greyhound, the fleet- rounded with prominent rings almost to the est of dogs, is usually unequal in the course, top, where they are twelve inches distant and the sportsman is obliged to call in the from point to point. The horns of the anaid of the falcon, trained for the purpose, telope are remarkable for a beautiful douto seize on the animal, and impede its mo ble Dexion, which gives them the appearance tions, in order to give the dogs an opportu- of the lyre of the ancients. The colour of nity of overtaking it. In India and Persia the hair on the back is brown, mixed with a species of leopard is made use of in the red; the belly and inside of the thighis white; chase : this is an animal that takes its prey and the tail short. not by swiftness of foot, but by the great The Striped Antelope,—is a beautiful, ness of its springs, by motions similar to tall gazelle, inhabiting the Cape of Good those of the antelope ; but, should the leo. Hope; has long, slender shanks: its horns pard fail in its first essay, the game escapes. are smooth, twisted spirally, with a promiThe feetness of the antelope was pro- nent edge or rib following the wreaths; they verbial in the country it inhabited, even in are three feet nine inches long, of a palethe earliest times: the speed of Asahel brown colour, close at the base, and at the (2 Sam. ii. 18.) is beautifully compared to poots round and sharp. The colour of that of the Tzebi, and the Gadites were this animal is a rusty brown ; along the said to be as swift as the antelopes upon the ridge of the back there is a white stripe mountains. The sacred writers took their mixed with brown ; from this are eight or similies from such objects as were before nine white stripes pointing downwards; the the eyes of the people to whom they ad- forehead and the fore part of the nose are dressed themselves. There is another in- brown; a white stripe rans from the corner stance drawn from the same subject: the of each eye, and meets just above the nose; disciple raised to life at Joppa was supposed upon each cheek-bone there are two small to have been called Tabitha, i. e. Dorcas, or wbite spots; the inner edges of the ears are the antelope, from the beauty of her eyes; covered with white hair, and the upper part and to this day one of the highest complic of the neck is adorned with a brown mane, ments that can be paid to female beauty in an inch long; beneath the neck, from the

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