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figure represents a Aute-player, which was modified the tune in a proper manner. The capable of performing various pieces of mu remaining lever was employed in the direcsic, by wind issuing from its mouth into a tion of the tongue, which it easily moves so German flute, the holes of which it opened as to shut or open the mouth of the flute. and shut with its fingers : it was about 51 The just succession of the several motions, feet high, placed upon a square pedestal 44 performed by the various parts of this ma. feet high, and 34 broad. The air entered chine, was regulated by the following simthe body by three separate pipes, into which ple contrivance. The extremity of the axis it was conveyed by nine pairs of bellows, of the cylinder terminated on the right side that expanded and contracted, in regular by an endless screw, consisting of twelve succession, by means of an axis of steel threads, each placed at the distance of a turned by clock-work. These bellows per- line and a half from the other. Above this formed their functions without any poise, screw was fixed a piece of copper, and in which might have discovered the manner by it a stecl pivot, which, falling in between which the air was conveyed to the ma the threads of the screw, obliged the cylinchine.
der to follow the threads, and, instead of The three tubes, which received the air turning directly round, it was continually from the bellows, passed into three small pushed to one side. Hence, if a lever was reservoirs in the trunk of the figure. Here moved, by a peg placed on the cylinder, in they united, and ascending towards the any one revolution, it could not be moved throat, formed the cavity of the mouth, by the same peg in the succeeding revoluwhich terminated in two small lips, adapted tion, because the peg would be moved a in some measure to perform their proper line and a half beyond it by the lateral mofunctions. Within this cavity was a small
tion of the cylinder. moveable tongue, which, by its motion at Thus, by an artificial disposition of these proper intervals, admitted the air, or inter- pegs in different parts of the cylinder, the cepted it in its passage to the flute. The statue was made, by the successive elevation fingers, lips, and tongue, derived their pro- of the proper levers, to exhibit all the difper movements from a steel cylinder, turn- ferent motions of a flute-player, to the ad. ed by clock-work. This was divided into miration of every one who saw it. Another fifteen equal parts, which, by means of pegg figure, constructed by the same artist, Vaupressing upon the ends of tifteen different canson, played on the Provençal shepherd's levers, caused the other extremities to as- pipe, held in its left hand, and with the cend. Seven of these levers directed the right beat upon a drum. fingers, having wires and chains fixed to
The performances of Vaucanson were their ascending extremities, which, being imitated, and even exceeded, by M. de attached to the fingers, made them to as Kempelin, of Presborg, in Hungary. The cend in proportion as the other extremity androides constructed by this gentleman in was pressed down by the motion of the cy
1769, was capable of playing chess. It was linder, and vice versa ; then the ascent or brought over to England in 1783, and remaindescent of one end of a lever produced a ed here for more than a year. It is thus desimilar ascent or descent in the correspond scribed : The figure is as large as life, in a ing fingers, by which one of the holes of the
Turkish dress, seated behind a table, with Ante was occasionally opened or stopped, as doors 34 feet long, 2 dcep, and 24 high. The it might bave been by a living performer. chair on which it sits is fixed to the table, Three of the levers served to regulate the which is made to run on four wheels. It ingress of the air, being so contrived as to
leans its right arm on the table, and in its open and shut, by means of valves, the three
left hand holds a pipe; with this hand it reservoirs above mentioned, so that inore or plays after the pipe is removed. A chessless strength might be given, and a higher board of 18 inches is fixed before it. The or lower note produced as occasion required. table, or rather chest, contains wheels, leThe lips were, by a similar mechanism, di.
vers, cylinders, and other pieces of mecharected by four levers, one of which opened nism, all of which are publicly displayed. them to give the air a freer passage, the The vestments of the figure was then lifted other contracted them, the third drew them over its head, and the body seen full of sibackward, and the fourth pushed them for milar wheels and levers. There is a little ward. The lips were projected upon that door in its thigh, which is likewise opened: part of the flute which receives the air, and, and with this, and the table also open, and by the different motions already mentioned, the figure uncovered, the whole is wheeled VOL. I.
about the room. The doors are then shut, move was announced by the discharge of a and the automaton is ready to play; and it click, and the buzzing noise of a fly was always takes the first move. At every mo heard until the move was conipleted. The tion the wheels are heard; the image moves fore-arm was first raised about two inches its head, and looks over every part of the by a vertical motion at the elbow: it was chess-board. When it checks the queen it then carried horizontally, until the hand was shakes its head twice, and thrice in giving immediately over the piece to be taken up, check to the king. It likewise shakes its at which time the fingers suddenly opened, head when a false move is made, replaces the hard dropped, seized the piece, rose the piece, and makes its own move, by again, made the move, and dropped the which means the adversary loses one. M. de piece on the square to which it had arrived. Kempelin exhibited his automaton at Pe. But in case the adversary's piece were to tersburg, Vienna, Paris, and London, be- be taken, it was first seized in the manner fore thousands, many of whom were mathe- here described, and carried clear off the maticians, and chess players, and yet the se
board and dropped, and the subsequent cret by which he governed the motion of move then made into the empty square. Afits arm was never discovered. He valued ter the game was played, the Baron Kemhimself upon the construction of a mecha- pelin gave the figure a knight, and it moved nism, by which the arm could perform ten
the piece in succession without any panse or twelve moves. It then needed to be by the proper course, till it had passed every wound up like a watch, after which it was square in the board, as was shewn by an ascapable of continuing the same number of sistant placing a counter on each square, as motions. This automaton could not play the knight quitted it. unless M. de Kempelin, or his assistant, was What can be deduced from so slight and near it, to direct its movements. A small transient a public view of this apparatus ?square box was frequently consulted by the very little. It seems as if the greatest skill exhibitor during the game, and in this con bad been exerted in producing the mechanisisted the secret, which the inventor de. cal effects, and that thie communication of clared he could communicate in a moment. the player (Anthon) with the apparatus, Any person who could beat M. de Kempe. may be a riddle of no great depth. The lin at chess, was sure of conquering the au sixteen pulls from the barrel may bear some tomaton,
relation to the eight rows of squares, twice Remark by the Editor.--When this piece taken for the two sides, the white and the of mechanism was exhibited in London, it black; and as the moves are all reducible played a great number of moves without re to tliose of the castle of the bishop, from quiring to be wound up, and it was worked which they differ in extent of shift only, (exby a M. Anthon, who walked about the cept that of the knight, which is an immeroom without any apparent communication, diate combination of both) we may guess during the performance. The chess-board that the pull might determine the line to be was part of the top of the square counter, played in, and the quadrant the distance or table, to which the figure was attached from the back row. But it is useless to ex. in a leaning posture. When the back of tend our conjectures, with such scanty the figure was opened, an upright iron axis was seen with two strong springs, which ap The same Baron Kempelin exhibited, in parently were intended to restore the qui- his private parlour, a small speaking instruescent position after any move: and when ment or organ, which he said was not then the doors of the counter were opened, two in a finished state. It was a kind of box, compartments were seen, formed by an up- which he brought out and placed upon a ta. right partition in the interior space. In ope ble. Speaking without notes froin the reof them was seen a brass barrel, resembling collection of four and twenty years now that of a barrel-organ, having sixteen verti- elapsed, I judge its dimensions were about cal bars or levers, so placed as if to be trip- two feet in length, one foot wide, and ped by the barrel ; and there was also some eight or nine incles deep. It was open; wheel-work : and in the other compartment, but we were prevented from seeing the inthere was little except a brass horizontal side by a cloth put over it. The Baron put arc, or quadrant, with a brass radius, most his hands umder the cloth, so that his right probably capable of being set to different arm was disposed longitudinally in the box, angalar situations. The hand of the figure and seemed to press a pair of bellows: the lay upon a cushion, and every approaching other brand was put in crosswise at the end,
near the place of the right hand, and seem are various kinds of anemometers: that of ed to be employed with keys, or some ap- which Wolfius gives the structure, is moved paratus, or perhaps both hands may have by sails like those of a windmill. He expebeen so employed. When he made the in- rienced, he says, the goodness of it, and afstrument speak, he raised his right elbow, firms that the inward structure may be preand gradually pressing it down, the sound served to measure even the force of running was heard. It was monotonous, as if from water, or that of men and horses when they a single pipe, about the pitch of D, above draw. In the memoirs of the academy of the middle C, concert pitch; and the words sciences is described a new anemometer, papa and mamma were uttered very dis- which expresses on paper, not only the setinctly, in a slow drawling manner; that veral winds that have blown during the is to say, there was a want of the usual in- space of the last 24 hours, but also the fexions of tone, and the sound fell off in strength and velocity of each. In the Phiintensity towards the end. After several losophical Transactions for the year 1766, other words had been spoken, a lady asked Mr. Brice has described a method of meain French, if it could not speak sentences, and suring the velocity of the wind, by means the Baron asked what it should say. She of that of the shadow of clouds passing over answered « Que je suis mechante," and the the surface of the earth. This, however, instrument said “ Vous etes mechante, mais in general exceeds that near the ground. vous etes aussi bonne."
M. d'Ons en Bray invented an anemometer, Kratzenstein has given some account of which of itself expresses on paper, not only the principles of an engine of this kind, in the several winds that have blown during a work extracted in the Journal de Physi- the space of 24 hours, and at what tour que; and Dr. Young has cursorily mention- each began and ended, but also the strength ed this subject in his lectures, with some and velocity of each. See Memoirs Acad. diagrams.
Scien. Anno 1734. ANDROMEDA, in astronomy, a small ANEMONE, in botany, a genus of the northern constellation, consisting of twenty- Polyandria Polygynia class and order. Its seven stars, visible to the naked eye; be- characters are that it has no calyx ; that the hind Pegasus, Cassiopeia, and Perseus. The corolla has petals in two or three rows, number of stars placed in this constellation three in a row, somewhat oblong; the staby Ptolemy is 27: by Tycho Brahe 23 : by mina have numerous filaments, capillary, Hevelius 47 ; and by Flamstead 66. The half the length of the corolla ; anthers, twin constellation has been thought to resemble and erect: the pistillum has numerous a woman almost naked, with her feet at a germs in a head, styles acuminate, and stiga distance from each other, and her arms ex mas obtuse; no pericarpium ; receptacle tended and ciraided.
globular or oblong ; seeds very many, acuANDROMEDA, in botany, a genus of the minate, retaining the style: there are about Decandria Monogynia class of plants; the 30 species. The garden anemones are nacalyx of which is a very small acnte colour- tives of the east, from whence their roots ed and permanent perianthium, cut into were originally brought; but culture has so five segments; the corolla consists of a sin- improved them, that they are become the gle petal, of an oval form, intlated and quin chief ornaments to our gardens in the spring. quefid; the fruit is a roundish capsule, con- To prepare the soil for these plants, take a taining five eells, in which are several round- quantity of fresh, light, sandy loam, or hazelish shining seeds. There are 25 species. earth, from a common or dry pasture, not
ANDROPOGON, in botany, a genus of dug above ten inches deep; mix this with a the Polygamia Monoecia class of plants, the third part of its quantity of rotten cow-dung, calyx of which is a bivalve oblong, obtuse and lay it up in a heap; turn this over at glume; the corolla is also a bivalve glume, least once a month, for eight or ten months, smaller and thinner than the cup; there is and every time pick out the stones and no pericarpium ; the seed, which is single, break the clods. After this mixture has oblong, covered and armed with the arista been twelve months made, it will be fit for of the flower, is included in the glumes of use. The beds of this earth must be prethe calyx and corolla. There are 32 spe. pared in September, and should be made cies.
six or eight inches deep, in a wet soil ; but ANEMOMETER, among mechanical in a dry one, three inches will be sufficient; philosophers, an instrument contrived for lay this compost at least 24 feet thick, with measuring the strength of the wind. There about four or tive inches of rotten neal's
dung, or the rotten dung of an old melon or their green leaves decay, there must be a cucumber bed at the bottom; in a wet soil quarter of an inch more earth sifted over let the beds be rounded, so that the water them, and the like again at Michaelmas; may run off; but in a dry soil let them be and the bed must be kept clear from weeds, nearer to a level: three weeks after the and the following spring they will flower. compost has been laid in, stir it about six The single or poppy anemones will flower inches deep with a spade, and then with a most part of the winter and spring, when stick draw lines each way of the bed, at six the seasons are favourable, and in a warm inches distance, so that the whole may be in situation; and they require little culture, squares; then make a hole three inches deep for it will be sufficient to take up the roots in the centre of each square, and plant a every other year, and when they are taken root in each ; and when all are planted, rake up they should be planted again very early the earth of the whole bed smooth, so as to in the autumn, or else they will not flower cover the roots two inches thick. The till the spring. There are some fine blue season of planting these roots for forward colours among these single anemones, Powers is the latter end of September; which, with the scarlets and reds, form a and for those of a middle season is October: beautiful mixture of colours ; and as these this is best done at a time when there are begin to flower in January or February, gentle rains. Some roots should also be when the weather is cold they will continue saved to be planted after Christmas, for fear for a long time in beauty, provided that the of accidents to the former, from very hard frost is not too severe. The seeds of these weather. These usually flower three weeks are ripe by the middle or end of May, and after those planted in autumn. They are must be gathered daily as they ripen, bepropagated two ways, either by dividing cause they will soon be blown away by the the roots or by sowing. The roots are to winds. The roots of wood anemone may be divided as soon as they are taken up out be taken up when the leaves decay, and of the ground; they will succeed if broken transplanted into wildernesses, where they into as many parts as there are eyes or buds will thrive, and in the spring have a good in them; but they flower most strongly, if effect in covering the ground with their not parted too small. The way by sowing leaves and flowers. The blue anemone is this: choose first some good kinds of single flowers at the same time with the foregoing, anemones, called by the gardeners poppy and intermixed with it, makes a fine variety. anemones; plant these early, and they will Double flowers of both these sorts have produce ripe seeds three weeks after the been obtained from seeds. This, and most flower first blows. This must be carefully of the other wild anemones, may be propagathered, and in August it should be sowed gated by offsets from the root, which they in pots or tubs, or a well prepared bed of put out plentifully ; and they will grow in light earth, rubbing it between the hands most soils and situations. Virginian anewith a little dry sand, to prevent several of mone and some others, produce plenty of the seeds from clinging together, and spread- seeds, and may be readily increased also ing them as even as possible all over the that way. bed; after this a light hair brush should be ANEMOSCOPE, a machine invented to drawn many times over the surface of the tell the changes of the wind. It should conbed, to pull asunder any lumps of seed that sist of an idex moving about a circular plate, may yet have fallen together; observing not like the dial of a clock, on which the 32 to brush off the seed, and as much as possi- points of the compass are drawn, instead of ble not to brush it into lumps. When this hours. The index, pointing to the divisions is done, some light earth, about a quarter of in the dial, is turned by an horizontal axis, an inch deep, should be sifted over the bed. having an handle-head at its outward extreIf the weather be hot, the bed must be at mity. This handle-head is moved by a cogtimes covered with mats laid hollow, and wheel on a perpendicular axis, on the top of gently watered. In about ten weeks after which is fixed a vane tlrat moves with the sowing the plants will appear, if the season course of the wind, and gives motion to the has been favourable, and they are to be whole machine. The contrivance is simple, carefully defended from the hard frosts by the number of cogs in the wheel, and rounds proper covering, and from the heat of the in the trundle-head must be equal, because sun afterwards, by a moveable reed fence. it is necessary, that when the vane moves As the spring advances, if the weather be entirely round, the index of the dial should dry, they must be gently watered, and when also make a complete revolution. A differ
ent anemoscope is described in the Phil
. from the sides of the roots, and thus they Trans, vol. xlii. part ii, and one is describ may be continued for three or four years ; ed in Martin's Phil. Brit, vol. ij.
but if they had been permitted to seed, ANETHUM, in botany, dill, a genus of their roots would perish soon after.the Pentandria Digynia class and order. The stalks of garden angelica were forEssen. char. fruit ovate, somewhat compres. merly blanched, and eaten as celery. The sed, striate: petals involute, entire. There young shoots are in great esteem among are three species. The common dill differs the Laplanders. In Norway, bread is somefrom fennel, in having an annual root, a times made of the roots. The gardeners smaller and lower stem; the leaves more near London, who have ditches of water in glaucous, and of a less pleasant smell; the their gardens, propagate great quantities of seeds broader and fatter. This plant grows this plant, which they sell to the confecwild among the corn in Spain and Portugal, tioners, who make a sweet-meat with the and also near the coast in Italy, and near tender stalks cut in May. Bohemia and Constantinople: it is an annual, and has been Spain are supposed to produce the best : cultivated here more than 200 years. The the College of London, formerly directed seeds are directed for use by the London the roots brought from Spain only to be and Edinburgh Pharmacopeias. Common kept in the shops. Linnæus, however, fennel, another species of anethum, is much assures us, that the plant proves most vigoused for culinary purposes, and likewise in rous on its native northern mountains, and medicine.
gives a decided preference to the root dug ANEURISM, or ANEURYSM, in surgery, here, either early in the spring, or late in a throbbing tumour, distended with blood, the autumn. The roots of angelica are one and formed by a dilatation or rupture of an of the principal aromatics of European artery.
growth, though not much regarded in the ANGEL, in commerce, the name of an present practice. They have a fragrant ancient gold coin in England, of which agreeable smell, -and a bitterish pungent some are still to be seen in the cabinets of taste ; on being chewed they are first sweetthe curious. It had its name from the ish, afterwards acrid, and leave a glowing figure of an angel represented upon it. It heat in the mouth and fauces, which contiwas 23 carats fine, and weighed four pen nue for some time. The stalk, leaves, and ny-weights. Its valne differed in different seeds, appear to possess the same qualities, reigns.
though in an inferior degree. Dr. Lewis ANGELICA, in botany, a genus of the says, that on wounding the fresli root early Pentandria Digynia class of plants, the ge. in the spring, it yields, from the inner part neral ambel of which is roundish and multi- of the bark, an unctuous, yellowish, odorous ple; the partial umbel, while in flower, is juice, which, gently exsiccated, retains its perfectly globose; the general involucrum fragrance, and proves an elegant, aromatic, is composed of either three or five leaves ; gummy, resin. Rectified spirit extracts the the partial involucrum is small, and com whole of the virtues of the root'; water but posed of eight leaves ; the proper perian- very little ; and, in distillation with the latthium is small, and quinquedentate ; the ter, a small portion of very pungent essengeneral corolla is uniform; the single flow- tial oil may be obtained. The Laplanders ers consist each of five deciduous, lanceo- extol the utility of angelica, not only as food lated, and slightly crooked petals ; the fruit but as medicine. For coughs, hoarseness, is naked, roundish, angular, and separable and other disorders of the breast, they eat into two parts: the seeds are two, of an the stalks, roasted in hot ashes ; they also oval figure, plain on one side, and convex boil the tender flowers in dairy milk, till it or striated on the other.
attains the consistence of an extract; and All the sorts may be increased by seeds. they use this to promote perspiration in caThe common angelica delights in a moist tarrhal fevers, and to strengthen the stomach soil, in which the seeds should be sown in diarrhæa, &c. According to the explasoon after they are ripe ; and when the nations of Sir John Pringle, the herb is anplants are about six inches high, they should tiseptic, but the efficacy of the leaves is soon be transplanted at a large distance, about lost by drying them. The seeds also, which three feet asunder, on the sides of ditches come nearest to the roots, can scarce be or pools of water. In the second year they kept till the spring after they are gathered, will flower, and their stems may be cut without the loss of their vegetative power, down in May, and heads will be put out as well as a diminution of their medicinal