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up their more shrill and clamorous cries. five large, smooth, pale olive-coloured eggs ; It is on account of this property that they these she deposits and conceals in a nest, are esteemed by many persons as the most or bed, made of a great quantity of the soft, vigilant of all sentinels, when placed in par- warm, elastic down, plucked from her own ticular situations.

breast, and sometimes from that of her mate. Anas Erythropus, or barnacle. The bar. The ground-work or foundation of the nest nacle weighs about five pounds, and mea- is formed of bent-grass, sea-weeds, or such sures more than two feet in length, and like coarse materials, and it is placed in as nearly four and a half in breadth. The sheltered a spot as the bleak and solitary bill, from the tip to the corners of the place can afford. In Greenland, Iceland, mouth, is scarcely an inch and a half long, Spitzbergen, Lapland, and some parts of black and crossed with a pale reddish streak the coasts of Norway, the eiders flock toon each side: a narrow black line passes gether, in particular breeding places, in from the bill to the eyes, the irides of such numbers, and their nests are so close which are brown : the head is small, and as together, that a person in walking along far as the crown, together with the cheeks can hardly avoid treading upon them. The and throat, white: the rest of the head and natives of these cold climates eagerly watch neck, to the breast and shoulders, is black. the time when the first hatchings of the The upper part of the plumage is prettily eggs are laid : of these they rob the nest, marbled or barred with blue-grey, black, and also of the more important article, the and white: the feathers of the back are down with which it is lined, which they black, edged with white, and those of the carefully gather and carry off. These birds wing-coverts and scapulars blue-grey, bor- will afterwards strip themselves of their redered with black vear their margins, and maining down, and lay a second hatching, edged with white: the quills black, 'edged of which also they are sometimes robbed : a little way from the tips with blue-grey: but, it is said, that when this cruel treatthe under parts and tail.coverts white: the ment is too often repeated, they leave the thighs are marked with dusky lines or spots, place, and return to it no more. The quanand are black near the knees : the tail is tity of this valuable commodity, which is black, and five inches and a half long: the thus annually collected in various parts is legs and feet dusky, very thick and short, uncertain. Buffon mentions one particular and have a stumpy appearance. In severe year, in which the Icelandic company sold winters, these birds are not uncommon in as much as amounted to upwards of eight this kingdom, particularly in the northern hundred and fifty pounds sterling. This, and western parts, where, however, they however, must be only a small portion of remain only a short time, but depart early the produce, which is all sold by the hardy in the spring to their northern wilds, to natives, to stuff the couches of the pampered breed and spend the summer.

citizens of more polished nations. The great Anas molissima, or eider duck. This body of these birds constantly resides in the wild, but valuable species, is of a size be- remote northern, frozen climates, the rigours tween the goose and the domestic duck, of which their thick clothing well enables and appears to be one of the graduated links them to bear. They are said to keep togeof the chain which connects the two kinds. ther in flocks in the open parts of the sea, The full-grown old males generally measure fishing and diving very deep in quest of about two feet two inches in length, and shell-fish and other food, with which the two feet eighteen in breadth, and weighbottom is covered; and when they have safrom six to above seven pounds. The fe- tisfied themselves, they retire to the shore, male is nearly of the same shape, though whither they at all times repair for shelter, less than the male, weighing only between on the approach of a storm. Other less nufive and six pounds; but her plumage is merous flocks of the eiders branch out, coquite different, the ground colour being of lonize, and breed further southward in both a reddish brown, prettily crossed with Europe and America: they are found on waved black lines ; and in some specimens the promontories and numerous isles of the the neck, breast, and belly are tinged with coast of Norway, and on those of the norash : the wings are crossed with two bars thern, and the Hebrides or western isles of of white: quills dark : the neck is marked Scotland, and also on the Fern isles, on the with longitudinal dusky streaks, and the Northumberland coast, which latter is the belly is deep brown, spotted obscurely with only place where they are known to breed black. The eider duck lays from three to in England, and may be said to be their

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utmost southern limit in this quarter, al- botany, a genus of the Tetradynamii Silithough a few solitary instances of single culosa class of plants, the calyx of which is birds being shot further southward along a deciduous perianthium, consisting of four the coast have sometimes lappened. oval, oblong, concave, erect, and deciduous

Anas Marila, scaup duck. This species leaves : its flower consists of tour roundish measures, when stretched out, nearly twenty petals, disposed in the form of a cross; and inches in length, and thirty-two in breadth. its fruit is a short bilocular poil, containing The bill is broad and flat, more than two in each cell a single roundish seed. There inches long, from the corners of the mouth are two species; one is found growing nato the tip, and of a fine pale blue or lead turally on the coast of the Red-sea, in Pacolour, with the nail black : irides bright lestine, and near Cairo, in sandy places. deep yellow: the head and upper half of The stalks are ligneous, though the plant is the neck are black, glossed with green; the annual. It is preserved in botanic gardens lower part of the latter, and the breast, are for the variety, and in some curious gardens of a sleek plain black : the throat, rump, for the oddness of the plant, which if taken upper and under coverts of the tail, and up before it is withered, and kept entire in part of the thighs are of the same colour, a dry room, may be long preserved, and af: but dull, and more inclining to brown. The ter being many years in this situation, if the tail, when spread out, is fan-shaped, and root is placed in a glass of water a few hours, consists of fourteen short, brown feathers. the buds of the flowers will swell, open, and The legs are short, toes long, and, as well appear as if newly taken out of the ground. as the outer or lateral webs of the inner The second species, called the A. syriaca, is toes, are of a dirty pale blue colour; all the a native of Austria, Steria, Carniola, Syria, joints and the rest of the webs are dusky. and Sumatra. These plants, being annual, These birds are said to vary greatly in their can be propagated only by seeds, which plumage, as well as size; but those which rarely ripen in England. have come under the author's observation ANATOMY is the art of examining ani. were all nearly alike. The scaup duck, like mal bodies by dissection. It teaches the others of the same genus, quits the rigours structure and functions of these bodies, and of the dreary north in the winter months, shews nearly on what life and health depend. and in that season only is met with, in small When these are well understood, a great numbers, on various parts of the British step is made towards the knowledge and shores.

cure of diseases. Anas Ciangula, the golden-eye. The It is derived from the Greek verb ayaweight of this species varies from twenty. Tiyw, I cut up : yet we do not comprehend six ounces to two pounds. The length is under it the mere cutting of dead bodies ; nineteen inches, and the breadth thirty-one. but every operation by which we endeavour These birds do not congregate in large to discover the structure and use of any part flocks, nor are they nnmerous on the Bri. of the body. tish shores, or on the lakes in the interior. As every animal body is the subject of They are late in taking their departure anatomy, we divide it into the humun and northward in the spring. In their flight comparative. The first of these, which is they make the air whistle with the vi- contined to the human body, forms the subgorous quick strokes of their wings; they ject of the present article; the last, which are excellent divers, and seldom set foot on is extended to the whole animal creation, the shore, upon which, it is said, they walk will be considered under the head of Comwith great apparent difficulty, and, except PARATIVE ANATOMY. The offices or funcin the breeding season, only repair to it for tions of the various parts of the body are the the purpose of taking their repose. The at- objects of the science of Physiology: to tempts which were made by M. Baillon to which article the reader is referred for those domesticate these birds, he informs the subjects. Count de Buffon, quite failed of success. The limits, to which we are confined by See Plate III. Aves, fig. 1 to 5.

the nature of the present work, will prevent ANASARCA, in inedicine, a species of us from entering much into the details of dropsy, wherein the skin appears puffed the structure and composition of the human up and swelled, and yields to the impres- body. We shall present the reader with a sion of the fingers, like dough. See Medi. general sketch of the subject, as being more CINE.

suited to the space which this article is alANASTATICA, the rose of Jericho, in lowed to occupy. After a cursory view of

the origin and progress of anatomical science, nity to man, in outward form, motions, we shall give a general description of the senses, and ways of life; the generation of component parts of the human body, and the species, and the effect of death upon the their functions; and proceed in the last bodly, being observed to be so nearly the place to the more particular enumeration same in both, the conclusion was not only und description of the various organs. obvions, but unavoidable, that their bodies

were formed nearly upon the same model. HISTORY OF ANATOMY.

The opportunities of examining the boThe want of records leaves us in the dark, dies of brutes were so easily procured; inwith regard to the origin of this art; yet it deed so necessarily occurred in the common is reasonable to conclude, that, like most business of life, that the huntsman in makother arts, it had no precise beginning. The ing use of his prey, the priest in sacrificing, nature of the thing would not admit of its the augur in divination, and above all, the lying for a time altogether concealed, and of butcher, or those who might out of enriosity being suddenly brought to light, either by attend his operations, would have been daily chance, or genius, or industry.

adding to the little stock of anatomical All the studies and arts which are neces knowledge. Accordingly we find, in fact, sary in human life, are so interesting and ob that the South-sea islanders, who have been vious, that man in every situation has always left to their own observation and reasoning, by instinct and common sense turned his without the assistance of letters, have yet thoughts to them, and made some progress

a considerable share of rude or wild aniain the cultivation of them. To talk seriously tomical and physiological knowledge. When of the invention of agriculture, architecture, Omai was in Dr. Hunter's museum, alastronomy, navigation, mechanics, physic, though he could not explain himself intellisurgery, or anatomy, by some particular gibly, it appeare, plainly that he knew the man, or in one particular country, or at a principal parts of the body, and something time subsequent to some prior wra, would likewise of their uses, and manifested a be to discover great ignorance of human na great curiosity, or desire of baving the functure. We might just as well suppose, that tions of the internal parts of the body ex. till a certain period of time, man was with plained to him; particularly the relative ont instinctive appetites, and without obser- functions of the two sexes, which, with bim, vation and reflection, and that in a happy seemed to be the most interesting object of hour he found out the art of supporting lite the human mind. The poems of Homer by taking Tood. All such arts, in a less or likewise shew us that many facts were pomore cultivated state, were from the begin- pularly known in his time, he probably ning, and ever will be found in all parts of possessed the general information on the subthe inhabited world.

ject. The following passages display a knowThe tirst men who lived, must soon have ledge of some of the internal parts of the acquired some notions of the structure of body : their own bodies, particularly of the exter.

“ Antilochus, as Thoon turn'd him round, nal parts, and of some even of the internal,

Transpierc'd his back with a dishonest such as bones, joints, and sinews; which are

wound. exposed to the examination of the senses in

The hollow vein, that to the neck cxtire living body.

tends, This rude knowledge was indeed gra

Along the chine, his eager jav'lin rends." dually improved by the accidents to which

Iliad, b. 13. the body is exposed, by the necessities of life, and by the various customs, ceremonies, is said to have broken the acetabulum, and

The stone, which Diomed threw at Æneas, and superstitions of different nations. Thus, the observance of bodies killed by violence,

to have torn both the ligaments which con. attention to wounded meil, and to many

nect the thigh in its situation. These partidiseases, the various ways of putting crimi.

culars are not mentioned in Mr. Pope's nals to death, the funeral ceremonies, and a

translation, we therefore cite the original: variety of such things, must have shewn

Τω βαλεν Αινειαο κατ' '

ισχίον, , sha men, every day, more and more of them

fenpos selves; especially as curiosity and self-love Ισχιο ενςρεφιται κοτυλην δε τε μιν καwould urge them powerfully to observation

λεεσι: and reflection.

Θλασσε δε όι κοτυλης, προς δ' άμφω ρηξε The brute creation having such an affi

II. 5. I. 305,

TE

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From the sources which have been just unclean for seven days. « Whosoever, enumerated was derived the anatomical (says the Jewish lawgiver) toucheth the knowledge of early times. This knowledge body of any man that is dead, and purifieth was general or popular. Anatomy, properly not himself, defileth the tabernacle of the so called, viz. the knowledge of the struc- Lord; and that soul shall be cut off from ture of the body, obtained by dissections Israel." expressly instituted for that purpose, is of In tracing it backwards in its infancy, much more recent origin.

we cannot go farther into antiquity than Civilization and improvements of every the times of the Grecian philosophers. As kind would naturally begin in fertile coun an art in the state of some cultivation, it tries and healthful climates, where there may be said to have been brought forth and would be leisure for reflection, and an ap- bred up among them, as a branch of natural petite for amusement. It seems now to be knowledge. We discover in the writings of clearly made out, that writing, and many Plato, that he had paid attention to the other useful and ornamental inventions and organisation and functions of the human arts were cultivated in the eastern parts of body. Asia, long before the earliest times that are Hippocrates, who lived about four hun. treated of by the Greek or other European dred years before Christ, and was reckoned writers; and that the arts and learning of the eighteenth in descent from Æsculapius, those eastern people were, in subsequent was the first who separated the professions times, gradually communicated to adjacent of philosophy and physic, and devoted himcountries, especially by the medium of traf- self exclusively to the latter pursuit. He is fic. The customs, superstitions, and cli- generally supposed to be the first who wrote mates of eastern countries appear however upon anatomy. After the restoration of to have been as unfavourable to practical Greek learning, in the fifteenth century, it anatomy, as they were inviting to the study was so fashionable, for two hundred years of astronomy, geometry, poetry, and all the together, to extol the knowledge of the ausofter arts of peace. In those warm cli- cients in anatomy, as in other things, that mates, animal bodies run so quickly into anatomists seem to have made it a point of nauseous putrefaction, that the early inha- emulation, who should be most lavish in bitants must have avoided such offensive their praise; some from a diffidence in employments as anatomical inquiries, like themselves ; others through the love of detheir posterity at this day. And, in fact, tracting from the merit of contemporaries; it does not appear, by the writings of the many from having laboriously studied anGrecians, Jews, or Phoenicians, that anato- cient learning, and having become enthumy was particularly cultivated by any of siasts in Greek literature; but more, perthose nations.

baps, because it was the fashionable turn of The progress of anatomy in the early ages the times, and was held up as the mark of of the world was more particularly prevent. good education and fine taste. If, however, ed by a very generally prevalent opinion, we read the works of Hippocrates with imthat the touch of a dead body communi- partiality, and apply his accounts of the cated a moral pollution. When we consi- parts, to what we now know of the human der the extent and inveteracy of this pre. body, we must allow his descriptions to be judice, we shall cease to wonder at the im- imperfect, incorrect, sometimes extrava. perfect state of anatomical knowledge in gant, and often unintelligible, that of the the periods now under review. The prac. bones only excepted. tice of embalming the bodies of the dead From Hippocrates to Galen, who flou. did not at all reconcile the Egyptians to dis- rished towards the end of the second censections. The person who made the inci- tury, in the decline of the Roman empire, sion, through which the viscera were re that is, in the space of six liundred years, moved, immediately ran away, followed by anatomy was greatly improved; the phiiothe imprecations and even violence of the sophers still considering it as a most curious by-standers, who considered him to have and interesting branch of natural knowviolated the body of a friend. The cere. ledge, and the physicians, as a principal monial law of the Jews was very rigorous foundation of their art. Both of them, in in this respect. To touch several animals, that interval of time, contributed daily to which they accounted unclean, subjected the common stock, by more accurate and the person to the necessity of purifications, extended observations, and by the lights of &c. To touch a dead body made a person improving plulosophy. VOL. I.

M

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Aristotle, a disciple of Plato, and precep- by collecting books from all parts, at an tor of Alexander the Great, is no less en immense expense, laid the foundation of titled to immortality for his immense labours the magnificent Alexandrian library. This in natural history and comparative anatomy, king and his predecessor seem to bave than as the founder of the Peripatetic phi- overcome the religious scruples which forlosophy, which for two thousand years held bade the touch of the dead body, and gave undisputed sway over the whole learned up to the physicians the bodies of those who world. He had formed the most enlarged had forfeited their lives to the law. Nay, design which perhaps was ever conceived if the testimony of several anthors may be by any man; no less than that of a gene- believed, Herophilies, and Erasistratus disral and detailed history of all nature, a sected several unfortunate criminals alive. plan by far too vast for the short life of an There is, however, something in this pracindividual. The love of science, which tice so repugnant to every feeling of humadistinguished Alexander no less than his ' nity, that we ought probably to consider it ambition and thirst for glory, led him to en- only as an exaggerated report of the novel courage and assist the plans of Aristotle in practice of dissecting the human subject. a manner worthy of so great a prince, of so The writings of these anatomists have not exalted a genius, and of such magnificent descended to us: our knowledge of their designs. The sum of money which he was

progress in anatomy is derived only from a thereby enabled to devote to his works on few extracts and notices which occur in the natural history would be almost incredible, works of Galen; but these prove them to did we not consider the traits of greatness have made great advances in the knowledge which mark every action of Alexander, and of the structure of the human body. were not the circumstance stated by writers The Romans, in prosecuting their schemes of unexceptionable authority. Athenæus, of universal conquest and dominion, soon Pliny, and Ælian concur in representing it became acquainted with the Greeks, and at between one and two hundred thousand the intercourse of the two nations was conpounds.

stantly increasing. Thus the arts, the phiShortly after the foundation of Alexan- losophy, and the manners of the Greeks dria, a celebrated school was established were introduced into Italy. Military glory there, to which the Greeks and other fo- and patriotism, which had formerly been seigners resorted for instruction, and where the ruling passions of the Roman people, physic and every branch of natural know

now gave way in some degree to the soft ledge were taught in the greatest perfection. arts of peace. The leading men of the RoHerophilus and Erasistratus, two anato man republic sought the company and conmists of this school, are particularly cele- versation of the learned Greeks; thus literabrated in the history of anatomy. They ture and philosophy were transported from seem to be the first who dissected the human the Greeks to the Romans, and gave rise to body. At least in the time of Aristotle, the taste and elegance of the Augustan age. who preceded these anatomists by a very In this way did conquered Greece triumph short interval, brutes only had been anato. over the unpolished roughness of her conmised. It might have beeu expected that querors. the practice of embalming would afford

Græcia cupta ferum rictorem cepit, et artes favourable opportunities of anatomical in

Intulit agresti Latio. vestigation, but the rude manner in which the body was prepared, and the dread of Although Rome produced orators, poets, pollution, prevented all instructive exami- philosophers, and historians, which may be nation. The progress of the science re brought into competition with those of the quired that anatomists should have subjects, Greeks, to the eternal disgrace of their emon which careful and deliberate dissection pire it must be allowed, that their history is might be prosecuted without fear of inter- hardly embellished with the name of a single ruption. This benefit was obtained through Roman who was great in science or art, in the taste which the princes of that time painting or sculpture, in physic, or in any displayed for the arts and sciences. The branch of natural knowledge. We cannot Ptolemies inherited, with their share of the therefore introduce one Roman into the empire of Alexander, the love of science, history of anatomy. Pliny and Celsus were which shone so conspicuously in that mo mere compilers from the Greeks. We may narch. Ptolemy Philadelphus invited to account for this apparent neglect of anatomy kis capital the greatest inen of the age; and, among the Romans, as well indeed as for its

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