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monstrous projection is to be delineated: wolf-fish, a genus of fishes of the order this space is called the craticular ectype. Apodes : head rounded, blunt; fore-teetha Lastly, in every areola, or small trapezium, in each jaw conic, large, divergent, six or of the space abcd, draw what appears de more; grinders in the lower jaw and palate lineated in the correspondent areola of the rounded; gill-membrane seven-rayed; body square ABCD; and thus you will obtain a roundish, caudal-tin distinct. There are deformed image, which will appear in just three species. A. lupus, or ravenous wolf. proportion to an eye distant from it the fis!ı, inhabits the northern seas; grows to length of FV, and raised above its height 15 feet long; it is a most fierce and ravenVS.
ous fill, and will fasten on any thing An image may be deformed mechanically, within its reach. It feeds on shell-tish, if you plare it, having little holes made which it griols to pieces with its teeth, and here and there in it with a needle, against swallons shells and all: moves slowly with a candle, and observe where the rays go something of a serpentine motion; the grind. ing through these boles, fall on a plane or ers are often found fossile, and are called curve surface ; for they will give the cor toad-stones : the flesh is good, but not often responding points of the image to be de eaten, The fossile teeth were formerly formed.
much esteemed for imaginary virtues, and The practical methods of drawing these were set in gold and worn as rings. Notimages is described in the Leipsic Act for withstanding the ferocity of this fish, which the year 1712, where we have an account is as dreadful to the small inhabitants of the of two machines, one for images viewed water, as the wolf is to those on land, it is with a cylindrical, and the other with a co sometimes attacked and destroyed by an nical mirror. The person who has this in- enemy of far inferior size and strength, viz. strument may take any point at pleasure, the cyclopterus, or lump-fish, which fastening and while he goes over the outlines of it itself on its neck, adheres immoveably, torwith one pen, another traces the anarmor- menting it in such a manner as to cause its phosis.
death. The wolf-fish frequents the deep In the cloister of the Minims at Paris, part of the sea, and in the spring apthere are two anamorphoses traced upon proaches the coast, in order to deposit its two of the sides of the cloister, one repre. spawn among marine plants : the ova are senting a Magdalen, and the other St. John about the size of peas; and the young are writing his gospel. They are so managed, of a greenish cast, like that of sea-wrack, that when viewed directly they appear like among which they reside for some time afa kind of landscape, but from a particular ter their birth. See Plate I. Pisces, fig. 3. point of sight they appear very distinctly, A. minor is found in the Greenland seas; like human figures.
and the A. pantherinus inhabits the North ANANAS. See BROMELIA.
ern and Frozen Ocean. ANAPÆST, in ancient poetry, a foot ANARRHINUM, in botany, a genus of consisting of two short syllables and one the Didynamia Angiosperma class and orlong : such is the word scopülõs. It is just der : calyx five-leaved ; coral withi a nectathe reverse of the dactyl.
riferous prominence at its base pointing ANAPHORA, in rhetoric, a verbal fi- downwards; the upper-lip flat, without guire, whereby one or more words are re. palate, and the orifice pervious ; capsule peated in the beginning of several sentences, two-celled, many-valyed. There are five This is a lively and elegant figure, and serves species. . very much to engage the attention ; for by ANAS, in natural history, a genus of the frequent return of the same word, the birds of the order Anseres. The bill in this mind of the hearer is held in an agreeable genus is strong, broad, tat or depressed, suspense till the whole is finished. Such is and commonly furnished at the end with an that in the Psalms : “ The voice of the Lord additional piece termed a nail, the edges of is powerful : the voice of the Lord is full of the mandibles marked with sharp teeth ; majesty: the voice of the Lord shaketh in nostrils small, oval : tongue broad, edges the wilderness.” Another from Cicero's near the base fringed; toes four, three befine oration against Catiline :
“ You do no
fore and one behind, the middle one the thing, you attempt nothing, you think no- longest. According to Latham, there are thing, but what I not only hear, but also 98 species, besides varieties; but Gmelin see and plainly perceive."
gives about 120 species. ANARCHICHAS, in natural history, From the swan downward to the teal, they
are all a clean-plumaged beautiful race of rican states. They do not, however, rebirds, and some of them exquisitely so. Those main longer than till the approach of the which have been reclaimed from a state of spring, when they again retire northward nature, and live dependant on man, are to the arctic regions to breed. A few, inextremely useful to him : under his protec- deed drop short, and perform that office by tion they breed in great abundance, and, the way, for they are known to breed in without requiring much of his time and care, some of the Hebrides, the Orkney, Shetlead their young to the pool, almost as soon land, and other solitary isles ; but these are as hatched, where they instantly, with in- hardly worth notice: the great bodies of stinctive perception, begin to search for them are met with in the large rivers and their food, which at first consists chiefly of lakes near Hudson's Bay, and those of weeds, worms, and insects ; those they sift, Kamtschatka, Lapland, and Iceland. They as it were, from the mud, and for that pur. are said to return to the latter place in pose their bills are admirably adapted. flocks of about a hundred at a time in the When they are farther advanced in life, they spring, and also to pour in upon that island pick up the sodden scattered grain of the from the north, in nearly the same manner. farm-yard, which, but for their assiduous on their way southward, in the autumn, searchings, would be lost. To them also The young which are bred there remain are allotted the larger quantities of corn throughout the first year; and in August, which are shaken by the winds from the when they are in moult, and unable to fly, over-ripened ears in the fields. On this the natives taking advantage of this, kill clean and simple food they soon become fat, them with clubs, shoot, and hunt them down and their flesh is accounted delicious and with dogs, by which they are easily caught. nourishing. In a wild state, birds of vari. The flesh is highly esteemed by them as a ous kinds preserve their original plumage ; delicious food, as are also the eggs, which but when tamed, they soon begin to vary, are gathered in the spring. The Icelanders, and shew the effects of domestication : this Kamtscatdales, and other natives of the is the case with the tame goose and the northern world, dress their skins with the duck, which differ as much from the wild of 'down on, sew them together, and make their respective kinds, as they do from each them into garments of various kinds : the other. We shall notice the following, as northern American Indians do the same, among the most interesting of the species. and sometimes weave the down as barbers
Anas Cygnus Ferus, the wild swan, mea weave the cauls for wigs, and then manusures five feet in length, and above seven facture it iuto ornamental dresses for the in breadth, and weighs from thirteen to six women of rank, while the larger feathers teen pounds. The bill is three inches long, are formed into caps and plumes to decoof a yellowish white; from the base to the rate the heads of their chiefs and warriors. middle, and thence to the tip, black; the They also gather the feathers and down in bare space from the bill over the eye and large quantities, and barter or sell them to eye-lids is yellow: the whole plumage in the inhabitants of more civilized nations. adult birds is of a pure white, and, next to Much has been said of the singing of the the skin, they are cloathed with a thick swan, in ancient times, and many beautifine down : the legs are black. This spe- ful and poetical descriptions have been cies geverally keeps together in small flocks, given of its dying song. No fiction of or families, except in the pairing season, natural history, no fable of antiquity, was and at the setting in of winter. At the lat. ever more celebrated, often repeated, or ter period they assemble in immense multi- better received: it occupied the soft and tudes, particularly on the large rivers and lively imagination of the Greeks ; poets, lakes of the thinly-inhabited northern parts orators, and even philosophers, adopted it as of Europe, Asia, and America : but when a truth too pleasing to be doubted. The the extremity of the weather threatens to dull insipid truth, however, is very differbecome insupportable, in order to shun the ent from such amiable and affecting fables, gathering storm they shape their course high for the voice of the swan, singly, is shrill, in air, in divided and diminished numbers, piercing, and harsh, not unlike the sound of in search of milder climates. In such sea a clarionet when blown by a novice in musons they are most commonly seen in va- sic. It is, nevertheless, asserted by those who rious parts of the British isles, and in other have heard the united and varied voices of more southern countries of Europe. The a numerous assemblage of them, that they same is observed of them in the North Ame- produce a more harmonious effect, particu
Larly when softened by the murmur of the near them, for they will fly upon any stranwaters. At the setting in of frosty wea ger, whom they often beat to the ground ther, the wild swans are said to associate by repeated blows; and they have been in prodigious multitudes, and, thus united, known by a stroke of the wing to break a to use every effort to prevent the water man's leg. But, however powerful they from freezing : this they accomplish by the are with their wings, yet a slight blow on continual stir kept up amongst them ; and
the head will kill them. The swan, for by constantly dashing it with their extended ages past, has been protected on the river wings, they are enabled to remain as long Thames as royal property; and it contias it suits their convenience, in some fa nues at this day to be accounted felony to vourite part of a lake or river which abounds steal their eggs. By this means their inwith their food. The swan is very pro crease is secured, and they prove a delightperly entitled the peaceful monarch of the ful ornament to that noble river.” Latham lake : conscious of his superior strength, he says, “ In the reign of Edward IV. the fears no enemy, nor sutters any bird, how- estimation they were held in was such, that ever powerful, to molest him ; neither does no one who possessed a freehold of less he prey opon any one. His vigorous wing than the clear yearly value of five marks, is as a shield against the attacks even of was permitted even to keep any." In those the eagle, and the blows from it are said times, hardly a piece of water was left unto be so powerful as to stun or kill the occupied by these birds, as well on account fiercest of his foes. The wolf or the fox of the gratification they gave to the eye of may surprise him in the dark, but their ef- their lordly owners, as that which they also forts are vain in the day. His food consists afforded when they graced the sumptuous of the grasses and weeds, and the seeds board at the splendid feasts of that period : and roots of plants which grow on the mar- but the fashion of those days is passed away, gins of the water, and of the myriads of and swans are not nearly so common now as insects which skim over, or float on its sur- they were formerly, being by most people acface; also occasionally of the slimy inhabi- counted a coarse kind of food, and consetants within its bosom. The female makes quently held in little estimation; but the cygher nest of the withered leaves and stalks nets (so the young swans are called) are still of reeds and rushes, and lays commonly six fattened for the table, and are sold very or seven thick-shelled white eggs : she is high, commonly for a guinea each, and said to sit upon them six weeks before they sometimes for more: hence it may be preare hatched. Both male and female are sumed, they are better food than
genevery attentive to their young, and will suf- rally imagined. This species is said to be fer no enemy to approach them.
found in great numbers in Russia and SiAnas Cygnus Mansuetus, or mute swan. beria, as well as further southward, in a The plumage of this species is of the same wild state. They are, without an owner, snowy whiteness as that of the wild swan, common on the river Trent, and on the and the bird is covered next the body with salt-water inlet of the sea near Abbotsbury, the same kind of fine close down; but it in Dorsetshire: they are also met on other greatly exceeds the wild swan in size, rivers and lakes in different parts of the weighing about twenty-five pounds, and British isles. The female makes her nest, measuring more in the length of the body concealed anong the rough herbage, near and extent of the wings. This also differs the water's edge: she lays from six to eight in being furnished with a projecting, cal- large white eggs, and sits on them about six lous, black tubercle, or knob, on the base weeks (some say eight weeks) before they of the upper mandible, and in the colour are hatched. The young do not acquire of the bill, which in this is red, with black their full plumage till the second year. It edges and tip; the naked skin between the is found by experience that the swan will bill and the eyes is also of the latter co not thrive if kept out of the water : conlour: in the wild swan this bare space is fined in a court yard, he makes an aukward yellow. The swan, although possessed of figure, and soon becomes dirty, tawdry, the power to rule, yet molests none of the dull, and spiritless. other water-birds, and is singularly social Anas Canadensis, or Canada goose, is anand attentive to those of his own family, other useful species, which has been re. which he protects from every insult. While claimed from a state of nature, and domesthey are employed with the cares of the ticated and multiplied in many parts of young brood, it is not safe to approach Europe, particularly in France and Ger.
many; and it is not very uncommon in seasor, when the frosts visually begin, are England. It is as familiar, breeds as freely, preserved in their feathers, and left to be and is in every respect as valuable as the frozen, for the fresh provisions of the wincommon goose : it is also accounted a great ter stock. The feathers constitute an article ornament on ponds near gentlemen's seats. of commerce, and are sent into England.” Mr. Pennant, in his Arctic Zoology, gives Anas Anser, or tame goose. To describe the following interesting account of the the varied plumage and the economy of mode of taking the Canada goose in Hud- this well-known and valuable domestic fowl, son's Bay : “ The Englislı of Hudson's may seem to many a needless task ; but to Bay depend greatly on geese, of these and others, unacquainted with rural affairs, it other kinds, for their support; and, in fa- may be interesting. Their predominant covourable years, kill three or four thousand, lours are white and grey, with shades of which they salt and barrel. Their arrival ash, blue, and brown : some of them are is impatiently attended; it is the harbinger yellowisli
, others dusky, and many are of the spring, and the month named by the found to differ very little in appearance Indians the Goose Moon. They appear from the wild kind last described-the ori, usually at our settlements in numbers, about ginal stock whence, in early times, they St. George's Day, 0. S., and fly northward
were all derived.
The only permanent to nestle in security. They prefer islands mark, which all the grey ones still retain, to the continent, as further from the haunts like those of the wild kind, is the white of men. Thus, Marble Island was found, ring which surrounds the root of the tail, in August, to swarm with swans, geese, and They are generally furnished with a small ducks; the old ones moulting, and the tutt on the head, and the most usual colour young at that time incapable of flying.” of the males (gander or stig) is pure white : “ The English send out their servants, as the bills and teet in both males and females well as Indians, to shoot these birds on their are of an orange-red. By studied attention passage. It is in vain to pursue them; they in the breeding, two sorts of these geese therefore form a row of huts made of have been obtained : the less are by many boughs, at musquet-shot distance from each esteemed as being more delicate eating ; tlie other, and place them in a line across the larger are by others preferred on account of vast marshes of the country. Each hovel, the bountiful appearance they make upon or, as they are called, stand, is occupied the festive board. The average weight of by only a single person. These attend the latter kind is between nine and fifteen the flight of the birds, and, on their ap- pounds; but instances are not wanting, proach, mimic their cackle so well, that where they have been fed to upwards of the geese will answer, and wheel and come
twenty pounds: this is, however, to sacri, nearer the stand, The sportsman keeps fice the flavour of the food to the size and motionless, and on his knees, with his gun appearance of the bird, for they become cocked, the whole time, and never fires till disgustingly fat and surfeiting, and the me. he has seen the eyes of the geesc. He thods used to cram them up are unnatural fires as they are going froin him, then picks and cruel, It is not, however, altogether up another gun that lies by him, and dis on account of their use as food that they charges that, The geese which he has are valuable ; their feathers, their down, killed he sets up on sticks, as if alive, to and their quills have long been considered decoy others; he also makes artificial birus as articles of more importance, and from for the same purpose. In a good day (for which their owners reap more advantages. In they fly in very wcertain and unequal num this respect the poor creatures have not bers) a single Indian will kill two hundred. been spared : urged by avarice, their inhuNotwithstanding every species of goose has man masters appear to have ascertained thic a different call, yet the Indians are admi exact quantity of plumage of which they rable in their imitation of every one.”— can bear to be robbed, without being des “ The vernal flight of the geese lasts from prived of life. Mr. Pennant, in describing the middle of April until the middle of the methods used in Lincolnshire, in breedMay. Their first appearance coincides ing, rearing, and plucking geese, says, with the thawing of the swamps, when they “they are plucked five times in the year ; are very lean. The autumnal, or the sea first at Lady-day for the feathers and quills : son of their return with their yomg, is from this business is renewed for the feathers the middle of August to the middle of Oc- only, four times more between that and Mitober, Those which are taken in this latter chaelmas;" he adds, that he saw the ope
ration performed even upon goslings of six are penned up for this purpose, by which weeks old, from which the feathers of the they attain to greater bulk; and it is hardly tails were plucked; and that numbers of necessary to observe, that they are then the geese die when the season afterwards poured in weekly upon the tables of the proves cold. But this unfeeling greedy bu- luxurious citizens of every town in the king. siness is not peculiar to one country, for dom. But these distant and divided supmuch the same is practised in others. The plies seem trifling when compared with the care and attention bestowed upon the brood multitudes which, in the season, are driven geese, while they are engaged in the busi- in all directions into the metropolis: the ness of incubation, in the month of April, former appear only like the scanty waterings is nearly the same every where: wicker- of the petty streamlet; the latter like the pens are provided for them, placed in rows, copious overflowing torrent of a large river. and tier above tier, not uncommonly under To the country market towns they are carthe same roof as their owner. Some place ried in bags and panniers; to the great cenwater and corn near the nests ; others drive tre of trade they are sent in droves of many them to the water twice a day, and replace thousands. To a stranger it is a most cueach female npon her own nest as soon as rious spectacle to view these hissing, cackshe returns. This business requires the at- ling, gabbling, but peaceful armies, with tendance of the gozzard (goose-herd) a grave deportment, waddling along, (like month at least, in which time the young are other armies) to certain destruction. The brought forth : as soon afterwards as the drivers are each provided with a long stick, brood are able to waddle along, they are,
at one end of which a red rag is tied as a together with their dams, driven to the con- laslı, and a hook is fixed at the other: with tiguous longhs and fens or marshes, on the former, of which the geese seem much whose grassy margined pools they feed and afraid, they are excited forward; and with thrive, withont requiring any further at the latter, such as attempt to stray, are tendance until the autumn. To these marsli- caught by the neck and kept in order; or es, which otherwise would be unoccupied, if lame, they are put into a hospital-cart, (except by wild birds) and be only useless, which usually follows each large drove. In watery wastes, we are principally indebted this manner they perform their journies from for so great a supply of the goose; for in distant parts, and are said to get forward almost every country, where lakes and at the rate of eight or ten miles in a day, marshes abound, the neighbouring inhabis from three in the morning till nine at tants keep as many as suit their convenience; night: those which become fatigued are fed and in this way immense numbers annually with oats, and the rest with barley. The attain to full growth and perfection; but in tame goose lays from seven to twelve eggs, no part of the world are such numbers and sometimes more : these the careful reared, as in the fens of Lincolnshire, where housewife divides equally among her brood it is said to be no uncommon thing for a sin geese, when they begin to sil. Those of gle person to keep a thousand old geese, hier geese which lay a second time in the each of which, on an average, will bring course of the summer, are seldom, if ever, up seven young ones. So far those only are permitted to have a second hatching ; but noticed which may properly be called the the eggs are used for household purposes. larger focks, by which particular watery In some countries the domestic geese require districts are peopled ; and, although their much less care and attendance than those of aggregate numbers are great, yet they form this country. The goose bas for many ages only a part of the large family : those of the been celebrated on account of its vigilance. farm-yard, taken separately, appear as The story of the saving of Rome by the alarm small specks on a great map; but when they they gave, when the Gauls were attempting are gathered together, and added to those the Capitol, is well known, and was probakept by almost every cottager throughout bly the first time of their watchfulness being the kingdom, the immense whole will ap- recorded, and, on that account, they were pear multiplied in a ratio almost incalcula. afterwards held in the highest estimation by ble. A great part of those which are left the Roman people. It is certain, that noto provide for themselves during the sum thing can stir in the night, nor the least or sner, in the solitary distant waters, as well most distant noise be made, but the geese as those which enliven the village green, are roused, and immediately begin to hold are put into the stubble fields after harvest, their cackling converse ; and on the nearer w fatted upon the scattered graio ; and some approach of apprehended danger, they set