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it has been adopted by almost every nation goodness of its fruit, and as being a curiones of Europe, and now fourishes abundantly variety. in America, where it has been introduced AMYRIS, a genus of the Octandria Moby the Europeans. Of this tree we have nogynia class and order; its characters are, only one distinct species; but there are a that the calyx is a perianthium, one-leafed, great many varieties, and hy producing four-toothed, acute, erect, small, and perthem from the seed or kernel, they may be manent; the corolla consists of four oblong, almost indefinitely increased. But though concave, and spreading petals; the stamina they are capable of being greatly augmented have awl-slaped, erect filaments; anthers in this manner, it is probable that but very oblong, erect, of the length of the corolla ; few possess t'e necessary qualities, as nursery- the pistillum has a germ, superior, ovate, men seldom cultivate more than twenty or style thickisli, of the length of the stamens, thirty sorts. As in the cultivation of this and stigma four-cornered; the pericarpium sort of tree much expense is constantly re- is a drupaceous and roundish berry; and tle quired in walls or other suitable buildings, seed is a round, shining nut. There are 13 none but such as produce fine fruit should species, of which we shall notice A. sylva. be attended to. This sort of trees will grow tica, with leaves ternate, crinate, and acute. to a considerable height as standards; but, This is an erect, leafy shrub, from two to in order to produce and ripen fruit, requires 15 feet high, according to the soil and situa. tue shelter of warm walls. 'l hey flower tion, abounding with a tarpentine of a strong early in the spring in common, the flowers disagreeable smell: it is found plentifully oppearing before the leaves, mostly on the about Cartagena, in woods near the sea, shoots of the preceding year, and either and flowers in August. A, maritima, small, singly or in pairs along their sides. They shrubby, sweet-wood, with leaves ternate, are formed each of five small petals, with crenulated and obtuse. This is a dwarf many stamina in the middle, and a small shrub, yielding a jnice like that of the forround germen, that becomes the peach. mer, but more agreeable, and smelling like The fruit is distinguished into two sorts, the rue: the berry is of the size of black peppeach and pavie, from the circumstances of per, black when ripe, inclosing a globular, the flesh or pulp quitting or adhering to the brittle nut, in which is a white kernel. stone, as in the former it easily separates, Swartz doubts whether the preceding be a while in the latter it adheres tirmly. There distinct species from this. It grows in very are various sorts of peaches that may be barren coppices, in a calcareous rocky soil, cultivated; but for small gardens Mr. For- both near the sea, and on the interior mounsyth recommends the following as the most tains of Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Cuba, and suitable: the early avant, small mignonne, flowers from June to September. A. gileathe Anne peach, royal George, royal Ken- densis, balsam of Gilead tree, with leaves sington, noblesse, early Newington, Galland, ternate, quite entire, and peduncles oneearly purple, chancellor, nivette, the Ca- flowered and lateral. This species is a tharine, the late Newington. Amygdalus shrub with purplish branches, having protunncipersica, or the nectarine tree. This berant buds loaded with balsamic rosin : the is now generally considered as a variety of flowers proceed from the same buds by the peach; but the two trees cannot by threes; the bracte minute, and slightly bifi any circumstances in their growth, wood, It has been doubted whether this be a disleaves, or flowers, be distinguished from tinct species in itself. A. ambrosiaca, with each other with any degree of certainty. leaves pinnate and petiolate, and panicles The fruits are, however, readily descrimi- crowded and axillary. This is a tree, with nated in all their different stages of growth, a trunk 30 feet high, branching at the top, that of the nectarine having a smooth, firm with branchlets leafy and flowery: leaves cuticle, or rind, while in the peach it is co- alternate, with two or three opposite, ovate vered with a soft, downy substance. Be- leafets on each side, ending in long points, sides, the pulp or flesh of the former is much smooth, entire, on short petioles, gibbous more firm than that of the latter. There at the base; fowers yellowish white, axilare many varieties of the nectarine that may lary, and corymbed; perianth very small be cultivated; but those that chiefly deserve and four-toothed; petals lanceolate, spreadattention are the Fairchild's, the violet, the ing at the tip; filaments filiform, half as clrouge, the Newington, the Roman, the long as the calyx, inserted into the tube; temple, and the vermash. The white nec germ superior, subglobose, style cylindrical; trrine may also be cultivated, both for the stigma capitated, depressed, and four-cor.
nered; fruit vate, oblique, four-celled, re Ana, among occult pliilosophers, a term sembling that of the laurel; the nucleus in- used to denote the human mind; from volved in a brittle covering, four-celled, whence some will have anusapta, a dæmon with four stones wrapped up in a viscid red invoked by sick persons, to be derived. pulp, having a balsamic smell and taste, ANABASIS, in botany, a genus of ti e hardening into a grey rosin, and used for
Pentandria Digynia class and order : essen. burning as a perfume. The whole tree
char.; calyx, three-leaved; cor. five petalis sweet-scented, and yields a very odo- led; berry one-seeded, surrounded by a riferous balsam from the wounded trunk or
calyx: there are four species. branches, which is used in the dysentery;
ANACARDIUM, in botany, acajou, a the dose is one dram in red wine ; it is also
genus of the Enneandria Monogynia class used in houses and churches for burning as
and order; its characters are, that it has a perfume. It grows in the woods of hermaphrodite flowers, and male flowers, Guiana, and by the sea-shore; flowering and either mixed with the hermaphrodites, or on fruiting in September. A. balsamifera,
a distinct tree. The calyx of the former is sweet amyris, white candle-wood, or rose
a perianthium, five-leaved, leaflets ovate, wood, with leaves two-paired. This grows
concave, coloured, erect, and deciduous; to a considerable size, and is one of the
the corolla has five petals, lanceolate, acute, most valuable trees in the island of Jamaica; three times as long as the calyx, upright at the wood is white, and of a curled grain bottom, reflex at the end; the stamina have when young, but grows of a dirty, clouded
ten filaments, united at the base and upash colour with age, bearing a five polish, right, nine of them capillary, shorter than and having a pleasant smell; it is heavy, the calyx; the pistillum has a germ, kidneyand much esteemed among cabinet-makers. shaped, obliquely emarginate in front, style All the parts of this tree are full of warm, subulate, bent in, the length of the corolla ; aromatic particles, and may be used in stigma small, roundish, depressed, and conbaths and fomentations; the berries are
cave: no pericarpinni ; receptacle fleshy, oblong, and have the taste of the balsam
very large and obovate; the seed a nut, kidcopaiba. An infusion of the leaves has ney-shaped, large at the top of the recep: a pleasant flavour, is highly cephalic, tacle, with a thick shell, cellular within, and strengthens the nerves, and is particularly abounding in oil. The calyx, corolla, and restorative to weak eyes. In Jamaica there stamina, of the male flowers, as in the her. are several species of amyris, the leaves and
inaphradites; the pistillum has either no bark of which yield a fine balsamic juice; germ, or one that is abortive. There is one and if the body were tapped at the proper species. viz. A. occidentale, cashewnut, season, a thick liquor would transude, re.
cassu or acajou. The cashew is an elegant sembling that of the Gilead balsam, to
tree, 12 or 16 feet higli, spreading much as which the taste of the bark and wood of the
it rises, and beginning to branch at the smaller branches bears a very exact rela
height of five feet, according to Browne; tion. Dr. Wright apprehends that this
but Long affirms that in good soils it spreads wood, by distillation, would yield a per to the size of a walnut tree, which it resemfume equal to the oleum rhodii.
bles in the shape and smell of the leaves : ANA, antong physicians, denotes an equal
the trunk seldom exceeds half a foot in quantity of the ingredients which immedi
diameter; the leaves are coriaceous, suboately precede it in prescriptions : it is writ.
vate, shining, entire, petioled, and scattered ten by abbreviation à or a a; thus, & thur, alternately; and terminating, containing myrth. alum. ā ā, Ij: that is, take frankin many small, sweet-smelling flowers, on an cense, myrrh, and alum, each a scruple. oblong receptacle, scarcely distinguishable
ANA, in matters of literature, a Latin ter from the peluncle; the corolla red,, with mination added to the titles of several books commonly 10 stamiens, one of which lias no in other languages.
anther, but it has frequently eight, or only They are collections of the conversation seven, all fertile; and there are sometimes and memorable sayings of men of wit and female flowers entirely destitute ot'stamens. learning; the Scaligeriana was the first book The fruit has an agreeable subacid flavour, that appeared with a title in una, and was in some degree restringent; in some cf a afterwards followed by the Perroniana, yellow, and in others ot' a red colour, wbich Thuana, Naudæana, Menagiana, and even difference may be probably owing to the by Arlequiniana, in ridicule of all books in soil or culture. The juice of the fruit, ferena, The Mepagiana are accounted the best, mented, affords a pleasant wine; and dise
tilled, yields a spirit exceeding arrack or of three feet and a half, usually spondees and rum, and serves to make punch, and also to iambics, and sometimes anapests; such is promote urine. The ripe fruit is soinetimes that of Horace, roasted and sliced, and thus used for giving
Lydia dic per omnes. an agreeable flavour to punch. The restringency of the juice has recommended it as a The word anacreontic is sometimes plaremedy in dropsical habits. From one end ced at the beginning of convivial songs, of the apple proceeds the nut, which is kid- glees, &c. denotes a gay hilarity of moveney-shaped, inclosed in two shells, the outer ment, and a free and easy style of perof an ash colour, and smooth, and the inner formance. covers the kernel. Between these shells is ANACYCLUS, in botany, a genus of lodged a thick, inflammable, and very caus plants of the Syngenesia Polygamia Supertic oil, which, incautiously applied to the flua. Essen. char. receptacle chaffy, seeds lips and mouth, inflames and excoriates crowned with an emarginate margin, those them. This oil has been successfully used at the ray membranaceous at the sides. for eating off ring-worms, cancerous ulcers. There are five species: of which the cretiand corns ; but it should be very cautiously cus and orientalis grow naturally in the applied. Some females have used it as a islands of the Archipelago. They are low cosmetic, in order to remove the freckles plants, whose branches trail on the ground. and tan occasioned by the scorching rays of The first sort bas fine cut leaves, like those the sun, but it proves so corrosive as to peel of chamomile; the flowers are small, white, off the skin, and cause the face to inflame and grow single with their heads declining; and swell; but after enduring the pain of these are like those of common may-weed. this operation for about a fortnight, thin The second has leaves like those of the oxnew skin, as it may be called, appears fair eye; the flowers are white, and like those like that of a new-born infant. This oil also of chamomile. tinges linen of a rusty iron colour, that can ANAGALLIS, in botany, a genus of hardly be got out; and when smeared on plants, belonging to the Pentandria Monowood it prevents decay, and might, there- gynia class of Linnæus ; the flower of which fore, serve for preserving house timber and is monopetalous, multifid, and orbicular ; ships' bottoms. The fresh kernel lias a the fruit is a globose capsule, containing delicious taste, and abounds with a sweet only one cell, and dividing horizontally into milky juice; it is an ingredient in puddings, two hemispheres ; the seeds are numerous &c. and is eaten raw, roasted, and pickled. and angular. There are six species. The negroes of Brazil, who are compelled ANAGRAM, in matters of literature, a by their inasters, the Portuguese, to eat this transposition of the letters of some name, nut, for want of other sustenance, obtain whereby a new word is formed, either to relief from this involuntary use of it in va the advantage or disadvantage of the person rious disorders of the stomach. When the or thing to which the name belongs ; thus, kernel is ground with cacao, it improves from Galenus is formed Angelus : from the chocolate; but if it be kept too long it Jaines, Simea; and so of others. becomes shrivelled, and loses its flavour and
Those who adhere strictly to the definibest qualities. The milky juice of the tree, tion of an anagram, take no other liberty obtained by tapping or incision, will stain than that of omitting or retaining the letter linen of a deep black, which cannot be h, at pleasure; whereas others make no washed out; but whether this has the same scruple to use e for a, v for w, s for 2, and c property with that of the eastern anacar for k: and vice versa. dium, has not yet been ascertained; for the ANAGYRIS, beun-trefoil, in botany, a inspissated juice of that tree is the best sort genus of plants with papilionaceous flowers, of lac which is used for staining black in the vexillum of which is shorter than any of China or Japan.
the other petals, and its fruit an oblong pod, ANACHRONISM, in matters of litera- containing kidney-like seeds : to this it is to ture, an error with respect to chronology, be added, that three leaves stand on every whereby an event is placed earlier than it petal. It belongs to the Diadelphia Decanreally happened, in which sense it stands dria class of Linnæus. opposite to parachronism.
According to Martyn, there are three ANACREONTIC verse, in ancient poe- species : viz. the fætida, cretica, and inotry, a kind of verse, so called from its being dorata. The first grows wild in the South much used by the poet Anacreon. It consists of France, in Spain, Italy, and Sicily; also
about Smyrna. It is a shrub that rises 8 or ANALOGY, among grammarians, is the 10 feet high, and produces its flowers in correspondence which a word or phrase April and May, which are of a bright yellow bears to the genius and received forms of a colour, growing on spikes, somewhat like language. those of the laburnum : the seeds are never ANALYSIS, in a general sense, is the perfected in this country. The second is a resolution of something compounded, into native of Canada, and some of the islands of its constituent parts. Hence, the Archipelago, and is very rare in Eng ANALYSIS, in chemistry, is the separation lish gardens. The third is an upright shrub, of any substance into its constituent parts, equal to a middle-sized tree: branches with a view of ascertaining their nature, hanging down, frequently scandent: a na relative proportion, and mode of union. An tive of the woods of Cochinchina.
instance of this kind is to be had in the deThese may be propagated by laying down
composition of water, by which it is found their tender branches in the spring, observ
that the constituent parts are hydrogen and ing to tongue them in the same manner as
oxygen, in the proportion of fifteen parts the layers of carnations.
of the former and eighty-five parts of the ANALCIME, in mineralogy, a species of latter. As every operation in chemistry is Zeolite, found crystallised in the cavaties of attended with a disunion of parts, the forbasalt. The primitive form of its crystals mation of new compounds is alınost an inis a cube. It is sometimes found crystallis variable consequence: hence the business ed in cubes, whose solid angles are want
of analysis, is intimately connected with the ing, and three small triangular faces in place whole of chemical science, and can be only of each ; sometimes in polyhedrons with thoroughly understood by one that is well twenty-four faces. Specific gravity 2. Co- versed in every branch of chemistry. On lour white, sometimes red. When rubbed
so an extensive a subject it is in vain to it acquires only a small degree of electricity, attempt laying down precise rules for the and with dificulty. Before the blow-pipe mode of operation generally. We may, it melts without frothing into a white trans- however, observe that a compound once parent glass.
formed, perpetually acquires the powers of ANALEMMA, in geometry, a projec an element, in being able to unite, undetion of the sphere on the plane the meri composed, with other bodies simple or comdian, orthographically made by straight pounded, in various proportions; and thus lines and ellipses, the eye being supposed at to produce new substances in which the an infinite distance; and in the east or west constituent parts often retain their original points of the horizon. See MAPS.
affinities, and in analysis again separate into ANALEMMA denotes likewise an instru their elementary substances. We may re. ment of brass or wood, upon which this fer to nitrate of ammonia, which is a salt kind of projection is drawn, with an hori- composed of nitric acid, ammonia, and zon and cursor fitted to it, wherein the water, each of which is itself a compound, solstitial colure, and all circles parallel to it, but in this particular combination it acts as will be concentric circles; all circles ob an elementary body: thus, nitric acid conlique to the eye will be ellipses; and all sists of azote and oxygen : ammonia, of azote circles whose planes pass through the eye, and hydrogen: and water, as we have seen, of will be right lines. The use of this instru oxygen and hydrogen: so that in truth there ment is to shew the common astronomical are only azote, hydrogen, and oxygen, that problems.
enter into the combination of nitrate of ANALOGY, in matters of literature, a ammonia; but in their simple state they certain relation and agreement between two cannot be made to form the salt: it is requior more things; which in other respects are
site that the acid, the alkali, and the water, entirely different; thus the foot of a moun should be first formed, in order to get the tain bears an analogy to the foot of an animal, neutral salt. although they are two very different things. The business of chenical analysis is to re
There is likewise an analogy between solve a body intoits constituent parts; but the beings that have some conformity or resem first question is to determine, in every inblance to one another; for example, be stance of analysis, whether the resolution tween animals and plants, and between should proceed to entire separation into real metals and vegetables ; but the analogy is elements, or only into those compounds which still stronger between two different species act as elements, as in the case referred to, of certain animals.
whether the nitrate of ammonia should be
resolved into azote, lıydrogen, and oxygen: required. That of the moderns, though not or whether it should not first be reduced so elegant, must, however, be allowed more into nitric acid, ammonia, and water. The ready and general. By this last, geometriformer mode is best calculated for research, cal demonstrations are wonderfully abridgthe latter for utility; but a mixture of the ed, a number of truths are frequently extwo methods is commonly adopted, where pressed by a single line, and whole sciences the proportion and nature of the compound may sometimes be learned in a few minutes, produced has already been fully ascertained which otherwise would be scarcely attained by previous experiment. The most rigid in many years. proof of the accuracy of analysis, is to be Analysis is divided, with regard to its obable to produce the same componnd by ject, into that of finites and infinites. Anauniting the identical parts which we have lysis of infinite quantities, that which is called given as its constituents. This can rarely specious arithmetic. Analysis of infinites, be performed in a manner perfectly satis- the same with fluxions. See Fluxions. factory, but it frequently happens that a sub Analysis, in minerology, includes the stance may be reproduced that resembles the examination of metallic ores, and of the one analysed, by employing similar constitu- other products of the mineral kingdom. Sce ents, if not the identical substances. This MINERALS, analysis of. proof even is almost totally wanting in the ANALYSIS of soils, the means of ascertain. analysis of organised hodies, whether veget- ing the nature, properties, and proportions able or animal, especially when reduced to of the different materials of wbich they are their ultimate elements, and generally when composed. The propei execution of this only separated into their immediate consti- business enables the farmer to form a just 'tuents. The agents made use of in analysis, estimate of the value of the different parts are heat, the electric and galvanic Nuids, of his lands, to make the application of ameif they are two Huids, and the application liorating substances with propriety, and to of re-agents or substances, which indicate understand the effects that may be pro. the parts of the body to be examined. duced by the combinations of different mat
ANALYSIS, among logicians, is a method ters. The apparatus necessary for this buof tracing things backward to their source, siness are scales and weights of different and ot' resolving knowledge into its original sizes; some porcelain, glass, or stone-ware principles. It is also called the method of vessels, unglazed; some muriatic and sulresolution, and stands opposed to the syn- phuric acid, alkali, galls, and pure distilled thetic method, or method of composition. water. The art of this method consists chiefly in ANAMORPHOSIS, in perspective and combiniog our perceptions, and classing painting, a monstrous projection, or reprethem together with address; and in con sentation of an image on a plane or curve triving a proper expression of our thoughts, surface, which, beheid at a proper distance, so as to represent their several divisions, shall appear regular and in proportion. classes, and relations. This is clearly seen To delineate an an amorphosis upon a in the manner of computing by figures in plane: 1. Draw the square A BCI), (Plate I. arithmetic, but more particularly in the Miscel. fig. 4.) of a bigness at pleasure, and symbols applied in resolving algebraical subdivide into a number of little squarcs. problems.
2. In this square, called the craticular proAnalysis, among mathematicians, the totype, let the image to be represented de. art of discovering the truth or falsehood of a formed, be drawn. 3. Then draw the line proposition, or its possibility and impossibi- ab (ibid. fig. 5.) equal to A B, and divide it lity. This is done by supposing the propo into the same number of equal parts as the sition, such as it is, true; and examining side of the prototype A B. 1. Erect the what follows from thence, until we arrive at perpendicular EV, in the middle of a b, so some evident truth, or some impossibility, much the longer as the deformity of the of which the first proposition is a necessary image is to be greater. 5. Draw VS perconsequence; and from thence establish pendicular to E V, so much the shorter as the truth or impossibility of that propo- you would have the image appear more de, sition.
formed. From each point of division draw The analysis of the ancient geometricians strait lines to V, and join the points a and consisted in the application of the proposi- S, by the right line as. 6. Through the tions of Euclid, Apollonins, &c. till they ar- points d efg draw right lines parallel to ab, rived, proceeding step by step, at the truth then will abcd be the space in which the