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soils' on which they grow, more fertile, by law, a pecuniary punishment imposed upon
producing a contined or stagnant state of offenders at the mercy of the court. Amer-
the air. The improvement of landsby cements differ from fines, the latter being
what are called ameliorating crops, proba- certain punishments growing expressly from
bly depends upon the culture which the some statute, whereas the former are im-
ground receives while they are growing, posed arbitrarily in proportion to the fault.
and the returns which they make to it in Besides, fines are assessed by the court,
the way of manure, after they are con but amercements by the country,
sumed by animals.

A court of record only can fine, all others
AMEN, in the scripture language, a so can only amerce.
lemn formula, or conclusion to all prayer, Sheriffs are amerciable for the faults of
signifying so be it.

their officers, and clerks of the peace may The term amen is Hebrew, being derived be amerced in the King's-bench for gross from the verb aman, i. e. to be true, faith faults in indictments removed to that court. ful, &c. so that, strictly speaking, it signifies A town is subject to amercement for the truth ; and, used adverbially, as is 'fre- escape of a murderer in the day-time, and quently done in the gospels, truly or verily. if the town is walled, it is subject to amerSometimes it is repeated twice together, cement whether the escape happens by day and then it stands for the superlative, as or night. amen, amen, dico vobis.

The statute of Magna Charta ordains, that The word, in music, forms the usual con a freeman is not to be amerced for a small clusion of anthems, lymns, and other sa fault, but in proportion to the offence, ly cred compositions; and has so long been his peers and equals. one of the principal themes of choral har. AMERIMNUM, or AMERIMNON, in bomony, as to have given birth to a distinct tany, a genus of the Diadelphia Decandria appellation for music adapted to its express class and order, of the natural order of Papision: as when, using the word adjectively, lionaceæ or Leguminosæ; the characters of we say, such an oratorio or anthem con which are, that the calyx is a one-leafed cludes with an Amen chorus.

perianthium ; tube bell shaped, five-toothed, AMEND, or AMENDE, in the French cus. the teeth sbarp; the corolla papillionaceous, toms, a pecuniary punishment imposed by standard with an oblong claw, roundish, a judge for any crime, false prosecution, or heart-shaped, expanding and convex, wings groundless appeal.

lanceolate, shorter than the standard, and AMENDE honorable, an infamous kind of keel short; the stamina have 10 filainents punishment inflicted in France upon trai conjoined, anthers roundish; the pistillum tors, parricides, or sacrilegious persons, in has a gum pedicelled, oblong, compressed, the following manner: the offeuder being leafy, varicose, with lateral veins, within delivered into the hands of the hangman, woody, not gaping; cells disposed longitu. his shirt is stripped off, and a rope put about diually within ; the seeds solitary, kidney. his neck, and a taper in his hand ; then he shaped, thicker at the base, appendicted at is led into court, where he must beg pare the top. There are two species, viz 1. A. don of God, the King, the Court, and his Brownei: this shrub rises commonly to the Country. Sometimes the punishment ends height of ten feet, and supports itself on here, but sometimes it is only a prelude to other shrubs. It is a native of Carthagena, death, or banishment to the gallies.

Jamaica, and Domingo. 2. A. ebenus, Amende honorable is a term also used for Jamaica ebony, which is common in Ja. making recantation in open court, or in pre- maica and several other parts of the West sence of the person injured.

Indies, where the wood is cut, and sent into AMENDMENT, in law, the correction England under the name of ebony, though of an error committed in a process, which the true ebony is a native of the eastern njay be amended after judgment, unless the country, and of a different genus. This error lies iu giving judgment, for in that wood is of a fine greenish brown colour, case it is not amendable, but the party must admits of polishing well, so that it is much bring a writ of error.

valued by the instrument makers, and A bill way be amended on the file at any it is of a very hard durable nature. Dr. time before the plea is pleaded; but not af- Browne says, that the trunk seldom exceeds terwards, without motion and leave of the three or four inches in diameter; that the court,

slender branches, being very tough and flex, AMERCEMENT, or AMERCIAMENT, in ible, are used for riding switches, and kept

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at all the wharfs about Kingston to scourge pistillum is a quadrifid germ, style size of the refractory slaves,

the stamens, stigmas two and acute; no AMETHYST, in mineralogy, is one of pericarpium, but the calyx becomes more the Quartz family; it occurs massive and bell-shaped and spreading; the seeds are in rolled pieces, but most frequently crys- four, shorter than the calyx; obtuse, and tallized. The crystals are six-sidled pyra- angular within. There is one species, viz. mids: colour violet blue, passing on the A. cærulia, monntain upright A, which is a one hand to plum blue, brown, brownish native of the mountains in Siberia; from black; on the other to pearl and ash grey, whence the seeds were sent to the Imperial greyish white, greenish white, olive green, garden at Petersburgh, and in 1759 to and in some rare cases pistachio green. In Chelsea garden, where the plants annually massive varieties several colours appear to. produce seeds. It is annual, and hath an gether in stripes : in this state they are com upright stalk, which rises about a foot bigh, posed of thick prismatic distinct concre and towards the top puts out two or three tions, often shooting into crysta's at their small lateral branches; these are garnished extremities. Specific gravity 2.75. It is with small trifid leaves, sawed ou their found in veins, and in the hollow cavities of edges, and of a very dark green colour; at agates. It is composed of

the extremity of the branches the flowers Seleca..... .97.50

are produced in small umbels; these are of Alumina .....

0.25

a fine blue colour, as are also the upper Oxyd or iron......... 0.50

part of the branches, and the leaves imme.

diately under the umbel; so that though Trace of mangenese

the flowers are small, yet froin their colour 98.25

with that of the upper part of the stalks, It is found abundantly in different parts the plants make a pretty appearance during of Saxony: also in the Hartz, in the Uralian their continuance in flower. mountains, and in the East Indies. The

AMIA, in natural history, a genus of most beautiful varieties are found at Catha- tishes of the order Abdominales. Generic rinaburg in Russia. It is cut into rings, character: head boney, naked, rough, with seals, and boxes, but it is not very highly

visible sutures. Teeth both in jaws and valued. The green is the chrysolite of some palate, close sel, sharp, numerous. Cirri anthors: the oriental amcthyst is the sap

or beards two, near the nostrils. Gill-mem. phire: it is sometimes covered with capil- brane twelve-rayed: body scaly. There lary crystals of iron mica, and when viewed is a single species, a small fiesh water fish in certain positions appears red; this va inhabiting some parts of Carolina. riety is named the hair amethyst.

AMIABLE, or amicuble numbers, such as AMETHYST, in heraldry, a term for the are mutually equal to the sum of one anopurple colour in the coat of a nobleman, in ther's aliquot parts, as the numbers 284 and use with those who blazon "by precious 220. stones instead of metals and colours. This

Van Schouten was the first who gave this in a gentleman's escutcheon is called pur

name to such numbers, of which there are pure, and in those of sovereign princes mer

but very few at least to be set down and cory.

manageable by us. For 284 and 220 are AMETHYSTEA, amethyst, so called the two least. Tue aliquot parts of 220 are from the amethystine colours of the flowers, 1, 2, 4, 5, 10, 11, 20, 22, 44, 55, 110, and in botany, a genus of the Diandria Mono- the sum of these is equal 284. The aligynia class, the characters are, that the ca quot parts of 284 are 1, 2, 4, 71, 142, and lyx is a perianthium one-leafed, tube bell- the sum of these is 220. The second pair shaped, angalar, semiqninquetid, subequal, of amicable numbers are 17296 and 18416. acuminate, and permanent; the corolla is The third pair are 9363584 and 9437056. one-petalled, ringent, little longer than the AMIANTHUS. See Asbestos. calyx; border five-parted and subequal;

AMICUS curiæ, in law, if a judge be upper lip erect, roundish, concave, two doubtful or mistaken, in a matter of law, parted, gaping ; lower three-parted; the sides a bystander may inform the court as amicus rounded, erect, shorter ; the middle quite curiæ, entire, concave, the length of the upper-lip; AMMANNIA, named by Houstoun in the stamina have filaments, filiform, approx. honour of J. Amman, in botany, a genus of imating, under the upper lip and longer the Tetrandria Monogynia class and order. than it; anthers simple and roundish; the Its characters are, that the calyx is a pe

riantbinm bell-shaped, oblong, erect, with was known by the name of volatile alkali; eight streaks and folds, quadrangular, eight. it was also called hartshorn, because it was toothed, teeth alternate, bent in, and per. often obtained by distilling the horn of the manent; corolla none, or four-petalled, pe- hart; spirit of urine, becanse it may be obtals vertically ovate, spreading, inserted tained by the same process from urine; and into the calyx; the stamina have filaments, spirit of sal ammoniac, because it may be (four or eight) bristly, the length of the obtained from that salt. Dr. Black first calyx into which they are inserted, anthers pointed out the difference between ammotwin; the pistillum is germ subovate, nia and carbonate of ammonia, or ammonia large and superior, style simple, very short, combined with carbonic acid; and Dr. and stigma headed; the pericarpium is á Priestley discovered the method of obtainroundish, four-celled capsule (bury) cover-ing it in a state of purity, by the process ed with the ca'yx; the seeds are numerous already described. Ammonia in the state and small.

of gas it transparent and colourless like air ; AMMI, bishop's weed, in botany, a dis. its taste is acrid and caustic like that of the tinct genus of umbelliferous plants, belong. fixed alkalies, but not nearly so strong, nor ing to the Pentandria Digynia class of Lin- does it like them corrode those animal bonæus ; the flower of which is rosaceous, and dies to which it is applied: its smell is recomposed of heart-like petals ; and its fiuit markably pungent, though not unpleasant is a small ronndish and striated capsule, when sufficiently diluted. Its use as a sticontaining two striated seeds, convex on mulant to prevent fainting is well known. one side, and plane on the other. There Animals cannot breathe it without death. are four species.

When a lighted candle is let down into this AMMODYTES, in natural history, the gas, it goes out three or four times succesluunce, a genus of fishes, of the order Apo. sively; but at each time the name is consides: head compressed, narrower than the derably enlarged by the addition of another body: upper-lip doubled: lower jaw nar flame of a pale yellow colour, and at last row, pointed: teeth small and sharp. Gill this fame descends from the top of the membrane seven rayed: body long, round

vessel to the bottom. Its specific gravity, ish, with very small scales: tail distinct. A. according to the experiments of Kirwan, tobianus, or sand launce, so named from its is 0.60, that of air being 1.00; while Mr. shape. It inhabits the northern seas; and Davy, whose gas was probably purer, found is from 9 to 12 inches long. It buries itself it 0.55. At the temperature of 60°, a hunon the recess of the tides a foot deep in the dred cubic inches of this gas weigh, accordsand, and in tine weather rolls itself up and ing to Kirwan, 18.16 grains, according to lifts its nose just above the sand; it is the Davy, 17.068. Hence it is to common air, prey of other rapacious fish; the ftesh is nearly as 3 to 5. When exposed to a cold tolerably good, but it is used in most cases of - 45° it is condensed into a liquid, which as baits. The launce lives on worms, water- again assumes the gaseous form when the insects, and small fishes, and even occasion. temperature is raised. When passed through ally on those of its own species. The mac a red hot tube of porcelain or glass, it is karel is very partial to this fish as its own totally decomposed and converted into liyfood. The launce spawns in May, deposit, drogen and azotic gas. It combines very ing its eggs in the mud, near the edges of rapidly with water. When a bit of ice is the coast.

brought into contact with this gas, it melts AMMONIA, in chemistry. Volatile al and absorbs the ammonia, while at the kali, in its purest form, snbsists in a state of same time its temperature is diminished, gas, and was thought, till the late experi. Cold water absorbs this gas almost instan. ments of Mr. Davy, to be composed of azote 'taneously, and at the same time heat is and hydrogen. It may be obtained in evolved, and the specific gravity of the the following manner: put into a retort water is diminished. Water is capable of a mixture of three parts of quick-lime and absorbing and condensing more than a third one part of sal ammoniac in powder. Plunge of its weight of ammoniacal gas. It is in the beak of the retort below the mouth of this state that ammonia is usually employed a glass jar filled with mercury, and stand by chemists. The term ammonia almost ing inverted in a bason of mercury. Apply always means this liquid solution of ammothe heat of a lamp to the retort: a gas

nia in water. When heated to the tempecomes over, which displaces the mercury rature of about 130°, the ammonia sepa and fills the jar. This gas is ammonia. it rates under the form of gas. When exposed

to the temperature of — 46° it crystallizes; the Rev, Mr. Kirby: in their manners and and when suddenly cooled down to — 68°, it economy, they resemble each other; and it assumes the appearance of a thick jelly, and is probable that many more of the spheges has scarcely any smell. It follows from the might, with propriety, be removed into this experiments of Mr. Davy, that a saturated genus. There are four species : A. vulga. solution of ammonia is composed of ris, inhabits Europe in sandy, sunny bauks, 74.69 water.

where it digs a hole with its fore-feet and 25.37 ammonia.

buries the carcase of the larva of a moth or

half dead spider, in the body of which it has 100.00

deposited its eggs, and then covers up the Charcoal absorbs ammoniacal gas, but does orifice. not alter its properties while cold. But AMMUNITION, a general term for all when the gas is made to pass through red warlike provisions, but more especially pow, hot charcoal, part of the charcoal combines der, ball, &c. with it, and forms a substance known by Ammunition, arms, utensils of war, gun the name of prussic acid. Ammonia is not powder, imported without licence from his acted on by azote; but it combines rapidly Majesty, are, by the laws of England, for with muriatic acid; the two gases concret. feited and triple the value. ing into the solid salt called muriate of an And again, such liceuce obtained, except monia. Ammonia does not combine with for furnishing his Majesty's public stores, is the metals; but it changes some of them to be void, and the offender to incur a præinto oxydes, and then dissolves them. Li- munire, and be disabled to hold any office quid ammonia is capable of dissolving the from the crown. oxydes of silver, copper, iron, tin, nickel, AMNESTY, in matters of policy, an zinc, bismuth, and cobalt. When digested act by which two parties at variance, prompon the oxydes of merenry, lead, or man. mise to pardon and bury in oblivion all that ganese, it is decomposed, water is formed is past. by the union of the hydrogen of the ammo Amnesty is either general and unlinited, nia with the oxygen of the oxides, and azo. or particular and restrained, though most tic gas is omitted. If a considerable heat commonly universal, withont condition or be applied, nitric acid is formed at the same exceptions; such as that which passed in time with water. Several other oxydes are Germany at the peace of Osnaburg in the also partly deoxidized when ammonia is year 1648. poured into their solutions in acids. See Amnesty, in a more limited sense, deALKALI, CHEMISTRY, &c.

notes a pardon granted by a Prince to his AMMONIAC, in chemistry, a gum resin rebellious subjects, nsually with some exbrought from the East Indies. It is sup- ceptions : such was that granted by Charles posed to be a species of the Ferula. It is II. at his restoration, in small pieces agglutinated together, and AMNIOS, in anatomy, a thin pellucid has a yellowish white colour. Its smell is membrane, which surrounds the fætus. like that of the galbanum, but more plea The foetus in the uterus is enveloped in a rant. Its taste is a nauceous sweet mixed peculiar membranous covering, to which with bitter. It does not melt. Water dis- anatomists have given the name of amnios, solves a portion of it; the solution is milky, Within this there is a liquid, distingnished but gradually lets fall a resinous portion. by the name of the liquor of the amnios One-half is soluble in alcohol. Its specific which surrounds the fætus on every part. gravity is 1.2. Neither alcohol nor water This liquid, as might have been expected, distilled off it, brings over any thing. is very difforent in different animals; at

AMMONITRUM. See GLASS. least the liquor ampii in women and in cows,

AMMOPHILA, in natural history, the which alone have bitherto been analysed, sand-wasp, a genus of insects of the order have not the smallest resemblance to each Hymenoptera : gen. char. snout conic, in- other. The liquor of the amnios of women flected, concealing a bifid retractile tubu- is a fluid of a slightly milky colour, a weak lar tongue : jaws forcipated, three toothed pleasant odour, and a saltish taste. The at the tip: antennæ filiform in each sex, white colour is owing to a curdy matter suswith about 14 articulations: eyes oval: pended in it, for it may be obtained quite wings plain : sting pungent, concealed in transparent by filtration. Its specific gra. the abdomen. This genus is separated vity is 1.005. It gives a green colour to from that of the sphex, on the authority of the tincture of violets, and yet it reddens

very decidedly the tincture of turnsole. segment of the corolla, spreading almost These two properties won!d indicate at once erect, entire, or three-lobed; the stamina the presence of an acid and of an alkali. It have no filament, except the upper lip of froths considerably when agitated. On the the nectary, smaller than the lower, and opapplication of heat it becomes opaque, and posite to it, accuminate or three-lobed at has then a great resemblance to milk diluted the tip; along the middle or at the end of with a large quantity of water. At the which grows longitudinally a large oblong same time it exhales the odour of boiled anther, germinate, or divided by a longituwhite of egg. Acids render it more trans- dinal furrow into two, which are one-valverd ; parent. Alkalies precipitate an animal the pistillum has an inferior, oblong gerin, matter in small Aakes. Alcohol likewise style filiform, drawn through the suture of produces a flaky precipitate, whiclı, when the anther, stigma turbinate, obtuse and cicollected and dried, becomes transparent liate; the pericarpinm a fleshy capsule, and very like glue. The infusion of nut ovate, three-cornered, three-celled, and galls produces a very copious brown co three-valved; the seeds are several, covered loured precipitate. Nitrate of silver occa- with a sort of berried arn. Gmelin, in his sious a white precipitate, which is insoluble edition of Linnæus, enumerates twenty spe. in nitric acid, and consequently is muriate cies. A. zinziber, narrow-leaved ginger, cul. of silver. The liquor of the amnios of the tivated by Miller, and flowering in Septemcow has a viscidity similar to mucilage of ber, is a vative of the East Indies, and other gum arabic, a brownisi red colour, an acid countries of Asia, and is much used there and bitter taste, and a peculiar odonr, not and in the West Indies. The dried roots unlike that of some vegetable extracts. Its furnish a considerable article of commerce specific gravity is 1.028. It reddens the from our West India islands; they are of sincture of turnsole, and therefore contains great use in the kitchen and in medicine, an acid. Muriate of barytes causes a very and when preserved green as a sweet-meat, abundant precipitate, which renders it pro- are preferable to every other sort. A. zerumbable that it contains sulphuric acid. Al bet, cultivated at Hampton-court, in 1690, cohol separates from it a great quantity of and flowering with us from September to a reddish coloured matter. The animal November, when the stalks perish like those matter possesses the following properties : of the true ginger ; a native of the East In. It has a reddislı brown colour and a pecu- dies, Cochinchina, &c. and also in Otaheite, liar taste; it is very soluble in water, but and the other Society Isles. This is used exinsoluble in alcohol, which has the property ternally in the East, in cataplasms and fo. of separating it from water. When exposed mentations ; but not internally, as spice or to a strong heat, it swells, exhales first the medicine ; though Garcias says, that it makes odour of burning gum, then of empyreuma. a better preserve with sugar than the other. tic oil and of ammonia, and at last the pe. As to the propagation and culture of these culiar odour of prussic acid becomes very plants, it may be observed that they are conspicuous. It differs from gelatine in the tender, and require a warm stove to previscidity which it communicates to water, serve them in this country. They are easily in not forming a jelly when concentrated, propagated by parting their roots, which and in not being precipitated by tannin. It should be done in the spring, before they must be therefore ranked among the very put out new shoots. In parting the roots, undefined and inaccurate class of animal mu- they must not be divided into small pieces, cilages. When burnt it leaves a large por- especially if they are designed to have tion of coal, which is readily incinerated, and flowers; nor shond they be planted in very leaves a little white ashes, composed of phos- large pots. They thrive best in a light rich. phate of magnesia, and a small proportion earth, such as that of the kitchen garden ; of pliosphate of lime.

and with this the pots should be filled within AMOMUM, in botany, a genus of the two inches of the top, and the roots should Monandria Monogynia class and order, the be placed in the middle of the pots, with characters of which are, that the calyx is a their crowns upwards, and the pots should perianthium. one-leafed, cylindraceous, and then be filled with the same rarth; they inequally tritid; the corolla is monopeta. should be plunged into a hot-bed of tanlous and funnel-shaped, tube cylindraceous, ner's bark, and sparingly watered, till their border three-parted, parts oblong and stalks appear above ground, when they spreading; the nectary two-leaved or two. will admit of more moisture, especially in lipped, lower lip inserted under the upper' the summer months; but in autunın, the

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