« PreviousContinue »
not exceeding twelve months for the se to all bodies that possess the following procond; at the expiration of which, he shall perties : they change vegetable blue colours, depart within a time to be limited : and if as that of an infusion of violets, to green : such alien be found therein after such time they have an acrid and peculiar taste : they so limited, he or she shall be transported for serve as intermedia between oils and walife.
ter: they are capable of combining with ALIMENTARY duct, a name by which acids, and of destroying their acidity: they some call the intestines, on account of the corrode woollen cloth, and, if the solution food's passing through them. See ANA- be sufficiently strong, reduce it to jelly :
and they are soluble in water. The alkalies ALIMONY, alimonia, in law, denotes at present known are three ; viz, ammonia, the inaintenance sued for by a wife, in case potash, and soda: the two last are called of a separation from her husband, wherein fixed alkalies, because they require a red she is neither chargeable with elopement heat to volatilize them; the other is denonor adultery.
minated volatile alkali, because it readily ALIQUANT parts, in arithmetic, those assumes a gaseous form, and is dissipated which will not divide or measure the whole by a very moderate degree of heat. Banumber exactly. Thus, 7 is an aliquant part rytes, strontian, lime, and magnesia, lave of 16, for twice 7 wants 2 of 16, and three been denominated alkalies by Fourcroy; times 7 exceeds 16 by 5.
but as they possess the striking character of ALIQUOT part, is such part of a num earths in their fixity, this innovation does ber as will divide and measure it exactly, not seem entitled to general adoption. without any remainder. For instance, 2 Since writing the above, some discoveis an aliquot part of 4, 3 of 9, and 4 of 16. ries of great importance, on the subject of
To find all the aliquot parts of a number, alkalies, have been made known to the phidivide it by its least divisor, and the quo- losophical world by Mr. Davy, Professor of tient by its least divisor, until you get a quo- Chemistry at the Royal Institution. We tient not farther divisible, and you will have shall in this place give a sketch of the two - all the prime divisors or aliquot parts of that papers which he has just laid before the number. Thus, 60, divided by 2, gives the Royal Society, referring to some subsequotient 30, which divided by 2 gives 15, quent articles for further particulars. In a and 15 divided by 3, gives the indivisible former discourse read before this learned quotient 5. Hence the prime aliquot parts body, dr. Davy, in speaking of the agenare 1, 2, 2, 3, 5; and by multiplying any cies of electricity, suggested the probabi. two or three of these together, you will find lity that other bodies pot then enumerated The compound aliquot parts, viz. 4, 6, 10, might be decomposed by the electric fluid. 12, 15, 20, 30.
In the course of the last summer, this celeAliquot parts must not be confounded brated pliilosopher was employed in making with commensurable ones; for though the a number of experiments with this particuformer be all commensurable, yet these are lar view, and by means of very powerful not always aliquot parts: thus 4 is commen- galvanic troughs, consisting of a hundred surable with 6, but is not an aliquot part of it. pair of plates, six inches square, and one
ALISMA, great water pluntain, in bota- hundred and fifty pair four inches square, ry, a genus of the Hexandria Polyginia he has succeeded in decomposing potash class of plants, the calyx of which is a peri- and soda. A more brilliant discovery has anthium composed of three oval, hollow, not been made since those which have impermanent leaves; the corolla consists of mortalized the names of Priestley and Cathree, large, roundish, plane, and very pa- vendish. This was effected by placing tent petals ; the fruit consists of capsules, moistened potash, or soda, on a plate of arranged together in a roundish or trigonal platina, and exposing it to the galvanic cirform: the seeds are single and small. There cle. Oxygen was disengaged, and the alkaare nine species.
lies reduced to their primitive base, which ALKAHEST, or Accouest, among che- is found to be a peculiar and highly-inflammists, denotes an universal menstruum capa- mable matter, and which assumes the form ble of resolving all bodies into their ens pri. and appearance of small globules of mermum, or first matter ; and that without suf- cury. These globules are, however, lighter fering any change, or diminution of force than water, and when potash is used, they by so doing. See Alchemy.
are in the proportion of 6 to 10. At the ALKALI, in chemistry, a word applied freezing point they are hard and brittle ;
and when broken, and examined by a mi- was assisted by Messrs. Pepys and Allen, croscope, they present a number of facettes ascertained that oxygen is also an essential with the appearance of crystallization: at ingredient in ammonia ; of which 100 grains 400 Fahrenheit they are soft, and can appeared to yield 20 of oxygen. Mr. Davy scarcely be discriminated but by their gra- has also found that oxygen is one of the vity from globules of mercury; at 60° they constituent principles of the muriatic and are fuid, and at the small heat of 100° vo- fluoric acids, and likewise of the earths baJatile. When exposed to the atmosphere, rytes and strontites. See CHEMISTRY, they rapidly imbibe oxygen, and reassume Potash, and SODA. the alkaline character. In distilled naptha ALLAMANDA, in botany, a genus of they may be preserved four or five days, but the Pentandria Monogynia class and order: if exposed to the atmosphere, they almost corolla twisted ; capsule lens-form, erect, instantly become incrusted with a coat of echinate, one-celled, two-valved, manyalkali : the incrustation may be removed, seeded. One species, viz. cathartica, a and the reduced globule will remain, either climbing plant, found in Guiana. The inin naptha, or otherwise separated from all fusion of its leaves is used in the cholie. contact with oxygen. See BITUMEN. ALLANTOIS, or ALLANTOIDES, in com
One part of the base of alkali and two parative anatomy, a vesicle investing the of mercury, estimated by bulk, form an fætus of several animals, as cows, sheep, amalgam, which when applied in the cir goats, &c. and filled with an urinous liquor cle of a galvanic battery, producing an in- conveyed thither from the urachus. tense heat, to iron, silver, gold, or platina, ALLEGIANCE, is the lawful duty from immediately dissolved them, and converted the subject to the sovereign ; and is either them into oxides, in which process alkali natural, as every subject born ought to was regenerated. Glass, as well as all other pay; acquired, where a man is naturalized; metallic bodies, was also dissolved by the local, which a man ought to pay who comes application of this substance : the base of under the dominion of the king. the alkali seizing the oxygen of the manga ALLEGORY, in matters of literature, nese and of the minium, potash was rege a mode or species of writing, wherein someDerated. One of these globules placed on thing else is signified than the words in their a piece of ice dissolved it, and burnt with a literal meaning express. An allegory may bright flame, giving out an intense heat. be considered as a series or chain of metaPotash was found in the product of the phors, continued through a whole discourse. dissolved ice. Nearly the same effects fol. For example, when the prophets represent lowed, when a globule was thrown into wa the Jews under the allegory of a vine ter : in both cases a great quantity of hy- planted, cultivated and watered by the drogen was rapidly liberated. When laid hand of God, which instead of producing on a piece of moistened turmeric paper, good fruit, brings forth verjuice and sour the globule seemed instantly to acquire an grapes. intense heat; but so rapid was its move ALLEGRO, in music, an Italian word ment in quest of the moisture, that no part denoting that the part is to be played in a of the paper was burnt, only an intense sprightly, brisk, lively, and gay manner. deep red stain marked the course it fol- Allegros move swifter in triple than in comlowed, and showed a reproduction of al mon time. Sometimes in conjunction with kali. The specific gravity of the base of another word, placed at the beginning of soda is as seven to ten of water: it is fixed compositions, it is intended to rouze and in a temperature of about 150°, and fuid stimulate the more violent passions, at 180o Mr. Davy next tried its effects on ALLEMANDE, in music, a slow air or the phosphates, phosphurets, and many melody in common time of four crotchets other salts of the first and second degree of in a bar. A species of composition, supoxydizement, all of which it decomposed, posed from its name to be of German oriseizing their oxygen, and reassuming its gin. It is found in Handel's harpsichord alkaline qualities. From many experiments lessons, and other works of about that date; it appears, that 100 parts of pot-ash con but as a sonata movement it is now obsotain 15 of oxygen and 85 of an inflamma- lete. The dance known by this name is ble base, and that the same quantity of still used in Germany and Switzerland, and soda contains 20 of oxygen and 80 base. is written in common time of two crotchets This ingenious chemist, after a great num- in bar. ber of complex experiments, in which he ALLEN (THOMAS) a celebrated mathe
matician of the 16th century. He was born rule of mixture, which teaches to compound at Uttoxeter in Staffordshire, in 1542; was several species of ingredients or commodiadmitted a scholar of Trinity College, Ox- ties together, according to any intent or ford, in 1561; where he took his degree of design proposed; and is either medial or master of arts in 1567. In 1570 he quitted alternate. bis college and fellowship, and retired to ALLIGATION medial shews the rate or Gloucester Hall, where he studied very price of any mixtures, when the several closely, and became famous for his know- quantities of the mixture, and their rates, ledge in antiquities, philosophy, and mathe are known. matics. He received an invitation from Rule : multiply each quantity given, by Henry, Earl of Northumberland, a great the price; and then, by direct proportion, friend and patron of the mathematicians, say, as the sum of the quantities given, to and he spent some time at the Earl's house; the sum of the products, so is any part of where he became acquainted with those ce the mixture, to the value of that part. lebrated mathematicians, Thomas Harriot, Example : a goldsmith melts 3 ounces of John Dee, Walter Warner, and Nathaniel gold, at 41. 6s. 8d. per ounce, with 12 Torporley. Robert, Earl of Leicester, too, ounces at 4l. per ounce, and 8 ounces at had a great esteem for Allen, and would 41. 58. per ounce : when they are all melted have conferred a bishopric upon him; but together, one ounce will be found to be his love for solitude and retirement made worth 4l. 28. įd. Thus, him decline the offer. His great skill in the
L. s. d.
1. mathematics gave occasion to the ignorant 3 at 4 6 8
multiplied togeand vulgar to look upon him as a magician
4 0 0
ther produce or conjurer. Allen was very curious and
4 5 0
54 indefatigable in collecting scattered manuscripts relating to history, antiquity, astro
Sum 95 nomy, philosophy, and mathematics: which
oz. I. s. d. collections have been quoted by several Then as 23 : 95 ::1:4 2 715 Ans. learned authors, and mentioned as in the ALLIGATION alternate teaches to mix Bibliotheca Alleniana. He published in goods, of different prices, in such proporLatin the second and third books of Pto- tion, that the mixture may be sold for any lemy, “ Concerning the Judgment of the price proposed. Stars, or, as it is usually called, of the qua Rule : set down the names of the things dripartite construction, with an exposition. to be mixed, together with their prices ; He wrote also notes on many of Lilly's then, finding the difference between each of books, and some on John Bale's work, these, and the proposed price of the mix" De Scriptoribus Mag. Britanniæ.” He ture, place these differences in an alternate died at Gloucester Hall in 1632, being 90 order, and they will shew the proportion of years of age.
the ingredients. Mr. Burton, the author of his funeral ALLIONIA, in botany, so called in hooration, calls him “the very soul and sun of nour of Charles Allioni, professor of botany all the mathematicians of his age.” And at Turin, a genus of the Tetrandria MonoSelden mentions him as a person of the most gynia class and order, of the natural order extensive learning and consummate judg. of Aggregatæ ; the calyx is a perianthium ment, the brightest ornament of the univer
common to three flowers; and the periansity of Oxford. Also Camden says he was thium proper is obsolete superior ; the co. skilled in most of the best arts and sciences. rollæ proper, one-petalled, funnel-shaped, A. Wood has also transcribed part of his and erect: the stamina have setaceons filacharacter from a manuscript in the library ments; anthers roundish; the pistillum has of Trinity College, in these words : “ He
a germ inferior, oblong, style setaceous, studied polite literature with great applica- longer than the stamens, stigma multifid and tion; he was strictly tenacious of academic linear, no pericarpium ; seeds solitary, the discipline, always highly esteemed both by receptacle naked. There are three species. foreigners and those of the university, and ALLIOTH, a star in the tail of the Greater by all of the highest stations of the church Bear, much used for finding the latitude at of England, and the university of Oxford. He was a sagacious observer, an agreeable ALLITERATION, in rhetoric, is a ficompanion,” &c.
gure or decoration in language, chiefly used ALLIGATION, in arithmetic, is the in poetry, and consisting in the repetition
of the same letter or letters at certain in- characters. &c. of which are the same as tervals, whence the name is derived. those of garlic, the species are these: 1. Ce
ALLIUM, garlic, in botany, a genus of pa, or conmmon onion ; the best garden vathe Hexandria Monogynia class and order; rieties of which are the Strasburgh or comthe calyx is a common sheath, and many mon round onion, the oval or long-keeping flowered, the corolla consists of six oblong common onion, the Spanish large flat onion, petals: the stamina have six filaments, gene the Spanish silken-skinned onion, the Sparally of the length of the corolla, the anthers nish red-skinned onion, and the Portugal are oblong and upright; the pistillum has a great ronndish oval onion. 2. Fistulosum, a germ, superior, short, bluntly three-corner or the ciboule or Welsh onion. 3. Schænoed: the pericarpium is a capsule, short, broad, prasum, cives or chives. 4. Ascalonicum, three-celled and three-valved; the seeds are eschalot or schallot. 5. Canadense, or Cainany and round. There are 53 species dis- nada-tree onion. All the first species and tributed into several divisions. The com- varieties have large bulbous roots, and the mon garlic has a large round white bulbous plants are biennial, or being sown in the root, of an irregular form, with numerous spring, arrive at perfection in the root the fibres at the bottom, composed of many same year, and next year shoot up into smaller bulbs denominated cloves, which are stalk, flower, and ripen seed, when the included in a common membranous cover stalks quickly die, and the individuals are ing, each of which being planted, grows, annihilated. But the second and third speand in one season attains the size and struc- cies never form any bulbs at bottom; they ture of the parent bulb ; the leaves are cau are, however, hardy and perennial, and may line, or form a kind of stalk, which seldom be continued many years. And the fourth spindles, except when the same roots re and fifth species are bulbous-rooted perenmain in the ground two or three years, when nials, multiplying greatly by off-sets, as is they run up and bear a flower and small evident from their culture. bulbs at the top. It deserves to be cult Ciboule or Welsh onion. This is a peren. vated in the garden for the sake of its root, nial plant, which never forms any bulb'at which is in great estimation for culinary and bottom; therefore deserves to be cultivated other domestic purposes. Indeed, the roots, only to be drawn as young green onions for as well as all the other parts of the plant, salads, &c. in spring; but on account of its have a very acrid taste, with an highly-of strong taste it is greatly inferior to those of fensive smell, which has rendered its culti- the common onion. From the plants being vation in gardens less desirable.
It is a
so extremely hardy as to survive the severest hardy plant, capable of growing in most winter, in which, though their blades be cut sorts of soils and situations, and readily pro- off, the roots remain sound, and shoot forth pagated either by roots or seeds.
with great vigour early in spring, furnishing Rocambole has very small compound seasonable supplies till May, when they gebulbs, which grow in clusters; the stalk ge- nerally run to seed. From this singular harnerally spindling two or three feet high, with diness they may be cultivated more or less many bulbs at its summit, which, as well as as a winter standing crop, with advantage, the 100t bulbs, are useful for the same par- for spring use. poses as garlic, though much inferior. The Cives or chives. This is the smallest of latter, or the flowery kinds, have the flower- all the onion kind, rising but a few inches stems rising immediately from the root, high; but its roots are perennial, and ingrowing erect and attaining different heights, crease considerably into clusters, from which from twelve to thirty inches ; in some the large tufts of slender awl-shaped leaves isleaves are radical, in others cauline, or ele- sue, which are the principal part used, the vated with the stalk, some are broad like roots never forming any bulb, at least not those of a tulip, others long and narrow like bigger than small peas. This is a hardy a daffodil, and some taper and rush-like; plant, wlrich merits a place in every garden. but in all the sorts the stems are terminated Its clusters of leaves rise early in spring, and by a sort of sheath, from which is protruded are useful both in salads and for culinary an aggregate of many small flowers, forming purposes, in default of onions. The mea kind of umbel. The Aowers singly are thod of gathering it is to cut the leaves off composed each of six petals, which, though near the ground, by which a fresh supply is separately small, from many being collected soon produced from the bottom; or occainto large heads, are very conspicrous. Of sionally the plants in clusters may be slipthe second division, or the onion kind, the ped quite to the root in separate little
plants, resembling young onions, and used inches, dividing upwards into many large, as substitutes for them. It is easily in- long, thick leaves, arranging themselves in creased by dividing the roots in spring, and somewhat a fan-shape. planting eight or ten of them together in ALLODIAL., an epithet given to an inholes, at six inches distance; in this way, by heritance held without any acknowledgautumn, they will multiply into bunches of ment to a lord or superior, in opposition to a large size.
feudal. Escalot or shallot. This is a species of ALLODIUM, or ALLEUD, denotes lands onion which is bulbous-rooted, and which which are the absolute property of their increases greatly by off-sets, the largest of owner, without being obliged to pay any which are the proper parts of the plant for service or acknowledgment whatever to a use. The bulbs are oblong, irregular, and superior lord; in which sense they stand seldom grow large; as they generally in- opposed to feudal lands, which pay a fee to crease into clusters, they do not swell like some superior. roots that grow singly. From the roots are ALLOPHYLUS, in botany, a genus of produced many long, narrow, infirm leaves the Octandria Monogynia class of plants, in the spring, and which wither in July or the calyx of which is a perianthium comAugust, whien the roots are full grown; they posed of four leaves of an orbicular figure, are then taken up, made dry and housed, and two opposite ones smaller than the when they keep in good perfection till the others; the corolla consists of four petals following spring.
less than the cup, of an orbicular figure, and Canada or tree-onion. This deserves to equal one to another, with large ungues of be cultivated, both as a curiosity in pro- the same length with the smaller leaves of ducing the onion at the top of the stalk, the cup. There are three species : A. zeyand for the use of the onions, especially for lanicus is a tree having the appearance of pickling, in which they are excellent and
persea, and a native of Ceylon. A cominia superior in flavour to the common onion. rises 30 feet in height, with a stem as thick It is perennial, and propagated by planting as a man's thigh, with numerous flowers, to the bulbs in spring or autumn. Either the which succeed berries the size of a pin's root bulbs, or those produced on the top of head, with shell and kernel : grows plentithe stalk, being planted in a bed or beds of fully in Jamaica. A. ternatus is a native of any good earth, in rows a foot asunder, six Cochin China. inches distance in each row, and two or ALLOY, or ALLAY, a proportion of a three inches deep, they shoot up leaves and baser metal mixed with a finer one. Thus, stalks in the spring and summer, and pro- all gold coin has an alloy of silver and copduce the bulbs for use in July or August; per, as silver coin las of copper alone; the and the root-bulbs remaining, furnish a pro- proportion in the former case, for standard duction of top-bulbs, annually in that sea gold, being two carrats of alloy in a pound son; the root-bulb increasing by off-sets, troy of gold; and in the latter 18 pennymay be taken up occasionally at the time weights of alloy for a pound troy of silver. the stem decays in autumn; or once in two According as gold or silver has more or or three years, in order to separate the off. less alloy than that mentioned above, it is sets, and replant them when necessary. said to be coarser or finer than the standard.
The leek is the third division of the ge. However, it ought to be remarked, that the nus, the general characters of which are the coin of different nations varies greatly in same as those before described, and the this respect ; some using a larger, and others species and varieties are the porrum, or a less proportion of alloy, the original intencommon leek, which may be said to be an tion of which was to give the coin a due deannual-biennial plaut, for although the roots
gree of hardness. often survive after perfecting seeds, yet the Alloy, in a chemical sense, may be plants always attain perfection the same defined a combination of two or more me. year they are sown, and the year afterwards tals into one homogeneous mass, not separarun up to stalk, and become unfit for use. ble from each other by mere heat. The The seed-stalk of this plant does not belly most valuable and useful of these are brass, like that of the onion. The best of the va type-metal, tutenag, bronze, speculum-merieties of this plant for general culture is the tal, for which see the different articles. If broad-leaved or London leek, which attains two metals being fused together produce a a large growth, the neck acquiring a thick mass, whose specific gravity is either greater substance, in length from six to nine or ten or less than the mean specific gravity of its